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RoboticsandComputerIntegratedManufactCityenterprises.developmentofinjectionmouldscanberealizedbydevelopinganInternetbasedmoulddesignsystemasoneofthemodulesofacollaborativeproductdevelopmentsystem.ThispaperpresentsaprototypeInternetbasedintelligentdesignsystemforinjectionmoulds.Duetoitsabilitytoproducecomplexshapeplasticpartswithgooddimensionalaccuracyandveryshortcycletimes,andInternettechnology,CAD/CAE/CAMintegrationtechnology,concurrentengineering,artificialintelligence,mostcases,qualityofmouldisresponsiblefortheeconomicsoftheentireprocess.Injectionmoulddesignmeters.Unfortunately,itispresentlyimpossibletocoverthegrowingdemandforsuchexperienceddesigners.Therefore,intelligentCADtoolsthatcanassistintheARTICLEINPRESSvarioustasksofthemoulddesignprocessareveryimportanttotheproductivityofthemouldmakingindustry.07365845/seefrontmatterr2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.rcim.2006.05.003C3Correspondingauthor.Fax85227888423.Emailaddressmeckmokcityu.edu.hkC.K.Mok.injectionmouldinghasbecomethemostimportantprocessformanufacturingplasticpartsintheplasticindustrytoday.However,thecurrentplasticsindustryisundergreatpressure,duetotheglobalizationofthemarket,theshortlifecycleofproductdevelopment,increasingproductdiversity,highdemandofproductquality.Tomeetsuchrequirements,itisveryimportantforthistradetoadoptvariousadvancedtechnologieswhichincludeinformationinvolvesextensiveempiricalknowledgeheuristicknowledgeaboutthestructureandfunctionsofthecomponentsofthemould.Nowadays,moulddesignfaceswithincreasingdeadlinepressuresandthedesignitselfispredominantlybaseduponexperienceofthemoulddesigner.Moulddesignersarerequiredtopossessthoroughandbroadexperience,becausedetaileddecisionsrequiretheknowledgeoftheinteractionamongvariousparasolutiontogetherwithartificialintelligencetechniquesisemployedtodevelopsuchanetworkedinteractiveCADsystem.Inthissystem,thecomputationalmodule,theknowledgebasemoduleandthegraphicmoduleforgeneratingmouldfeaturesareintegratedwithinaninteractiveCADbasedframework.Theknowledgebaseofthesystemwouldbeaccessedbymoulddesignersthroughinteractiveprogramssothattheirownintelligenceandexperiencecouldalsobeincorporatedwiththetotalmoulddesign.Theapproachadoptedbothspeedsupthedesignprocessandfacilitatesdesignstandardizationwhichinturnincreasesthespeedofmouldmanufacture.ApracticalcasestudyispresentedtoillustratetheoperationsoftheInternetbasedmoulddesignsystem.r2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsInternetKnowledgebasedexpertsystemsInjectionmoulddesignCollaboration1.IntroductionPlastic,whichisoneofthemostversatileinthemodernage,iswidelyusedinmanyproductsthroughouttheworld.andsoon,toeffectivelyaidthedevelopmentofinjectionmouldedproduct.Ininjectionmoulding,thedesignofamouldisofcriticalimportanceforproductqualityandefficientprocessing.InThearchitectureofthesystemconsistsofaninteractiveKBmoulddesignsystemembeddedinanInternetenvironment.AJavaenabledAnInternetbasedintelligentdesignC.K.Moka,C3,K.S.ChinaDepartmentofManufacturingEngineeringandEngineeringManagement,bSchoolofMechanicalEngineering,ShandongReceived18October2005receivedinrevisedAbstractTherapidgrowthofInternetandinformationtechnologiesinrecentproductdevelopmentsamongdifferentgeographicallydistributeduring2420081–15systemforinjectionmouldsa,HongboLana,bUniversityofHongKong,TatCheeAvenue,Kowloon,HongKongUniversity,Jinan250061,Chinaform24April2006accepted5May2006yearsprovidesasolutiontosupportandfacilitatecollaborativeAneffectiveandfeasibletooltoaidthecollaborativewww.elsevier.com/locate/rcimARTICLEINPRESSThegrowingtrendinglobalmanufacturingistoalargeextentsupportedbyInternet,informationtechnologiesandglobalmarketing.Nowadays,itiscommontoseethatdesign,manufacturingandfinalassemblyofaproductaremadeincompanieslocatedindifferentpartsoftheworld.Thevariouspartiesconcernedwouldneedtosharetheirexpertiseandexperiencesduringtheproductdevelopmentprocess.ThecurrentprogressofInternetandinformationtechnologiescanprovideasolutiontosupportandfacilitatecollaborativeproductdevelopmentsamongdifferentgeographicallydistributedenterprises.DevelopinganInternetbasedintelligentmoulddesignsystemasoneofthemoduleofacollaborativeproductdevelopmentsystemcanprovideaneffectiveandfeasibletooltoaidthecollaborativedevelopmentofinjectionmouldsinthesmallandmediumsizedenterprisestosatisfythestringentrequirementsofnowadayscompetitiveglobalmarket.ThispaperpresentsanInternetbasedintelligentmoulddesignsystemusingInternettechnologyandknowledgebasedapproach.Thesystemcanshortenthedesigncycleofinjectionmouldandcaneffectivelyaidthedesignanddevelopmentworksofinjectionmouldsinthesmallandmediumsizedenterprisestomeettheincreasingpressureofthecurrentcompetitiveworldmarket.Therestofthepaperisorganizedasfollows.Section2givesabriefintroductionofinjectionmoulddesign.Section3introducesearlierresearchworksonmoulddesignandrelatedfields.ThearchitectureoftheInternetbasedmoulddesignsystemispresentedinsection4.Theknowledgebasedpartofthemoulddesignsystemisdescribedinsection5.Section6discussesthedevelopmentofthesystem.Apracticaldesigncaseisdemonstratedinsection7.Conclusionismadeinsection8.2.InjectionmoulddesignThebasicfeaturesofaninjectionmouldconsistofcavitynumberandlayout,feedsystem,coolingsystem,ejectionsystemandmouldconstruction.Fig.1showsthegeneralprocedureofmoulddesign1.Itcanbeseenthathowinterrelatedtheconditionsareandwhichboundaryandsecondaryconditionshavetobemetbythemainfunctions.Amoulddesignprojectnormallystartswitheconomicconsiderations,namelythequestionofhowmanypartscanandshouldbeproducedinonemouldinoneshotinordertomeetthedeliverydateandotherrequirements.Thisisfollowedbyconsiderationofthearrangementsofthecavitiesinthemouldframe,whichmightdirectlyincludethoughtsontheeaseofejectionandsubsequently,theconnectionbetweenmouldingsandrunnersandpartqualitynumber,positionandshapeofgates.Thefeedsystemaccommodatesthemoltenplasticmaterialcomingfromtheinjectionnozzleofthemouldingmachineanddistributesitintoeachcavity.ToremovetheheatfromtheC.K.Moketal./RoboticsandComputerIn2moulding,itisnecessarytoprovidethemouldwithacoolingsystem.Afterthemouldinghassolidifiedandcooleddown,ithastoberemovedfromthemouldbytheejectionsystem.Mouldisnormallyconstructedbystackingseveralmetalplatestoformarigidbody.Ithastohousevariousmouldcomponentsincorrectpositionsfortheproperfunctioningofthemould.Mouldconstructionnormallyinvolvestheselectionofmouldbasesandstandardmouldparts.Forcomplicatedplasticparts,someothermechanismssuchasslides,unscrewingdevice,etc.,mightalsobeinvolvedinthewholemouldstructure.3.RelatedresearchAnumberofresearchactivitieshavebeencarriedoutonmoulddesignanditsrelatedfieldovertheyearsusingcomputeraidedtechniques.Theseresearchactivitiesrangefromstudyingspecificareasofmoulddesigntoinvestigatingmoulddesignasawholeintegratedsystem.Theycanbroadlybeclassifiedintothreeareasthefunctionalandinitialmoulddesignsthealgorithmstoautomatemouldgenerationandsystemdevelopmentofmoulddesign.HuiandTan2presentedaheuristicsearchapproachbasedonsweepoperationstodevelopautomatedmoulddesignsystemsfordeterminingpartingdirection,partingline,sidecore,etc.Huangetal.3usedsolidmodellingtechniquestobuildmouldplatesandlibraryofstandardmouldcomponents.ChenandLiu4havedevelopedacostmodel,whichdepictstherelationshipsbetweencostfactorsandproductdevelopmentactivitiesaswellastheirrelationshipswithproductgeometry,forcosteffectivenessdesignforinjectionmoulding.Fuetal.5proposedanefficientmethodologywhichsystematicallypresentstheundercutfeaturedefinition,classification,undercutfeatureparameters,andtherecognitioncriteriaofalltypesofundercutfeaturesforundercutfeaturerecognitioninaninjectionmoulddesignsystem.Chenetal.6presentedamethodfordeterminationofpartingdirectionbasedondexelmodelandfuzzydecisionmaking.LiJC7presentedaneuralnetworkapproachformodellingandoptimizationofinjectionmouldgateparameters.LiCL8usedafeaturebasedapproachtodesignthecoolingsystemofinjectionmoulds.ChungandLee9proposedaframeworkofcollaborativedesignenvironmentforinjectionmouldinginwhichgeographicallydistributed,multidisciplinarydesignerscancollaboratewithoneanother.Maetal.10describedthedevelopmentofastandardcomponentlibraryforplasticinjectionmoulddesignusinganobjectorientedapproach.LowandLee11introducedamethodologyofprovidingtheinitialdesignin3Dsolidmodelinsteadof2Ddrawingsusingthestandardizationmethod.Ashaabetal.12describedasupportingplasticengineeringdevelopmentsystemtofacilitatethesharingofinjectionmouldinginformationandknowledgebetweeninterestedpartiesviatheInternetforthecollaborativedesignofinjectionmould.Lietal.13usedgraphbasedtechniqueanddevelopedaheuristicsearchalgorithmtotegratedManufacturing2420081–15automatethelayoutdesignofplasticinjectionmouldcoolingsystem.ARTICLEINPRESSC.K.Moketal./RoboticsandComputerInResearchershavestartedtoadoptaknowledgebasedapproachtosolvetheinjectionmouldingandmoulddesignproblemsinrecentyears.DTMOULD114isaKBSforofinjectionmouldscostestimation.EIMPPLAN115incorporatedmouldabilityconsiderationsintopartdesignsandaddressedtheconceptualdesigndevelopmentofinjectionmouldedparts.CADFEED16wasdevelopedforinjectionmoulddesign.Theyare,however,limitedtospecificdesignareasorsimpleparts,andarenotmatureandpracticalenoughtocovergeneralmoulddesign.Fig.1.ThegeneralproceduretegratedManufacturing2420081–153BozdanaandEyercioglu17developedanexpertsystemforthedeterminationofinjectionmouldingparametersofthermoplasticmaterials.Chanetal.18presentedthebasicstructureofaCADknowledgebasedassistedinjectionmoulddesignsystemwhichcoversboththemoulddesignprocessandmouldknowledgemanagement.Fromtheabovereviewitcanbeseenthatmostofthepreviousworkconsideronlycertainaspectsofthetotaldesignandsomeofthemaretootheoreticaltobeappliedforpracticalmoulddesignwhichinvolvesasubstantialofmoulddesign1.practicalknowledgecomponentaboutfunctionsandstructureofamould,humanheuristicknowledgeandempiricaltypeofknowledge.TheKBsystemhasdemonstratedgreatpotentialtoassistthedesignertointeractwithaCADsystemforconceptualizeddesignaswellasthefinalengineeringdesignofamouldbyusingengineeringrulesofthumbwithextensiveanalyticalmeans.Inaddition,thereisstillrelativelyfewresearchworksonInternetbasedintelligentsystemforinjectionmoulddesign.4.ArchitectureoftheInternetbasedmoulddesignsystem4.1.OverviewAtthepresenttime,mostCADsystemsprovideonlythegeometricmodellingfunctionswhichfacilitatethedraftingoperationsofmoulddesign,anddonotprovidemoulddesignerswithnecessaryknowledgetodevelopgoodmoulddesigns.Conventionalcomputeraidedengineeringpackagesareusuallygoodatdataprocessingforinformationintensiveproblemsoratnumbermanipulationforformulationintensiveproblems.Theformercomprehendsthecomputeraideddraftingandgraphics,anddatareductionandtransformationwhilethelatterinvolvesformulationintensiveknowledge.Therefore,conventionalcomputeraideddesigntechnologyisunsuitableforprocessingheuristicandempiricaltypeofknowledgewhichiscriticalinthemoulddesignproblems.Ingeneral,themajoradvantageoftheKBsystemformoulddesignoverconventionalcomputeraideddesignsystemsistheexplicitrepresentationandmanipulationofabodyofknowledge,representingthehumanexpertise.AnInternetbasedmoulddesignsystemusingInternettechnologyandknowledgebasedapproachcanprovideaneffectiveandfeasibletooltoaidthecollaborativedevelopmentofinjectionmouldsinthesmallandmediumsizedenterprisestosatisfythestringentrequirementsofnowadayscompetitiveglobalmarket.Moreover,thereisaconsistentneedtocheckandupdatetheinformationtoensurethatthedataisaccurateandupdatedasmouldmanufacturersandstandardcomponentssupplierscontinuallyimproveandupgradetheirequipmentsandprocesses.Bytakingfulladvantageofthefastevolvingcomputernetworkandinformationtechnologies,anInternetbasedmoulddesignsystemcouldhavetheabilitytocontinuallyupdateandupgradethelargeamountofinformationrelatedtoinjectionmoulddesigninapromptandconvenientmanner.ARTICLEINPRESSFeeddesignSystemC.K.Moketal./RoboticsandComputerIntegratedManufacturing2420081–154numericalormathematicalmodellingandanalysis.However,indesignproblem,especiallyinmoulddesignwhichinvolvesasubstantialpracticalknowledgecomponentaboutfunctionsandstructureofamould,humanheuristicknowledgeandempiricaltypeofknowledgeareneededinadditiontotheinformationintensiveandInternetUserLayerNetworkLayerBusinessLogicLayerDataKnowledgeLayerCavityLayoutDesignMaterialBaseMouldCaseBaseCustomerAdministratorEjectionDesignMouldConstructionKnowledgeEngineerDataBaseFig.2.ArchitectureoftheInternet4.2.SystemarchitectureBasedonthepracticalmoulddesignproceduresandtheissuestobeconsideredinthisstage,thearchitectureofanInternetbasedintelligentinjectionmoulddesignsystemisproposedasshowninFig.2.ItconsistsofaStandardComponentBaseKnowledgeBaseMouldBaseLibraryCoolingDesignSuppliersExpertMouldBaseSelectionComponentSelectionbasedmoulddesignsystem.
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