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11CONCENTRATIONSOFHEAVYMETALAREATTHEIRLOWESTINTHEFIRSTCOLLECTORCHAMBERANDHIGHESTINTHELASTCHAMBERTHECONCENTRATIONOFCADMIUMINFLYASHUSEDASFERTILISERCANBEREDUCEDBYASMUCHAS70BYAPPLYINGELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATIONFRACTIONATIONTHEREMOVALOFOTHERHEAVYMETALSISNOTASEffiCIENTASTHATOFCADMIUMTHERESULTSSHOWTHATELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATIONISANADEQUATEMETHODINTHEASINCREASINGAMOUNTSOFBIOFUELSAREUSEDWOODANDPEATASHCANBESPREADONTOFORESTLANDSORARABLELANDASFERTILABLYLOWER,BEINGABOUT6IN1997MATERIALSINCREASETHEASHCONTAINEDCDCONCENTRATIONS,ANDTHENSCREENOUTTHECADMIUMCONTAININGMATERIALSENTSINASH,ONTHESOLUBILITYOFNUTRIENTSINTHEASHANDTHESOIL,ANDONSOILPROPERTIES,EGACIDITYANDNUTRIENTCONCENTRATIONSORAVAETAL,2004;SILFVERBERG,1996TABLE2SHOWSTHEHEAVYMETALCONCENTRATIONSOFFOURASHTYPESMANYSUBSTANCESCONTAINEDINASHAREINEXTREMELYPOORLYSOLUBLEFORMSASTHEHEAVYMETALSEGCADMIUM,CORRESPONDINGAUTHOREMAILADDRESSESHANNEORAVAMIKKELIAMKFIOHANNE,TIMONORDMANOULUFINTIMO,HANNUKUOPANPORTTIMIKKELIAMKFIKHANNUMINERALSENGINEERING192006ISERORASSOILIMPROVEMENTMATERIAL,ANDWITHTHEPURPOSEOFADDINGCALCIUMTOTHESOILTHEUSEOFASHHASBEENCONSTRAINEDBYFACTORSSUCHASITSDUSTCONTENTANDHEAVYMETALCONCENTRATIONS;THELATTERHAVINGINMANYCASESEXCEEDEDTHEMAXIMUMPERMITTEDLEVELSIMPOSEDINFINLANDONSOILIMPROVEMENTSUBSTANCESTABLE1IN2001,THEUTILISATIONRATEOFCOALASH84WASCONSIDERABLYHIGHERTHANTHATOFPEATANDMIXEDFUELASH43WOODFLYASHUTILISATIONRATESHAVEBEENCONSIDERSMALLAMOUNTSOFFLYASHAREUSEDASAFERTILISERBOTHINAGRICULTUREANDINFORESTRYGENERALLY,VARIOUSASHTYPESAREMORESUITABLEASASOILIMPROVEMENTMATERIALTHANFERTILISERSINAGRICULTUREBECAUSETHEAMOUNTSOFSOLUBLEPLANTNUTRIENTSINASHAREFAIRLYLOWPEATASHISUSEDMAINLYASAPHOSPHATEFERTILISERANDWOODASHINLIMINGOFMINERALSOILSANDASABASICANDSUPPORTFERTILISERINTHEGROWINGOFCEREALCROPSTHELIMINGANDFERTILISEREffECTSOFASHINTHESOILDEPENDONTHECONCENTRATIONSOFCALCIUMANDNUTRIFRACTIONATINGOFFLYASHTOBEUSEDASAFERTILISERORSOILAMENDMENTC2112006ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSELECTROSTATICSEPARATION;SIZING;CLASSIFICATION;FLUEDUSTS;RECYCLING1INTRODUCTIONHEATINGENERGYPLANTSANDPOWERPLANTSINFINLANDGENERATEAPPROX400,000TONNESOFASHOFBIOFUELORIGINPERYEARTHEAMOUNTSOFSUCHASHWILLINCREASEINTHEFUTURETHEEXTRACTIONOFHEAVYMETALSFROMFLYASHCOULDENABLEITSMOREEffiCIENTUTILISATIONCURRENTLY,ITAPPEARSTHATMANIPULATINGTHEPOWERPLANTFUELQUALITYISTHEONLYMETHODAVAILABLEFORTHISPURPOSETHISMEANSTHATWEMUSTKNOWTHECOMBUSTIBLEFUEL’SEXACTCONSISTENCY,ANDWHICHINCREASETHEUTILISATIONOFFLYASHORAVAHANNEA,,NORDMANTIMOAYTIRESEARCHCENTRE,MIKKELIPOLYTECHNIC,BUNIVERSITYOFOULU,POBOX4300,RECEIVED28APRIL2006;AVAILABLEONLINEABSTRACTTHEBASICIDEAINTHISSTUDYISTOLOOKINTOTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFREDUCINGTROSTATICPRECIPITATIONTHEUTILISATIONOFFLYASHASFERTILISERISHAMPEREDVARIABLEFLYASHFRACTIONATIONEXPERIMENTSWEREDONEUSINGELECTROSTATIC08926875/SEEFRONTMATTERC2112006ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JMINENG200607002WITHELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATIONB,KUOPANPORTTIHANNUAPOBOX181,FI50101MIKKELI,FINLANDFI90014OULUNYLIOPISTO,FINLANDACCEPTED7JULY2006SEPTEMBER2006THEHEAVYMETALCONCENTRATIONSOFFLYASHBYMEANSOFELECBYITSHIGHCONCENTRATIONSOFHEAVYMETALS,WHICHAREHIGHLYPRECIPITATORSATFOURPOWERPLANTSBASEDONTHERESULTS,THETHISARTICLEISALSOAVAILABLEONLINEATWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/MINENG1596–1602LEAD,NICKELINASHAREINVERYPOORLYSOLUBLEFORMS,ITCANTABLE2HEAVYMETALCONCENTRATIONSOFVARIOUSASHTYPESPALOLA,1998HEAVYMETALSMG/KGCOALASHPEATASHWOODASHBARKASHARSENICAS23–2002–20002–607–28CADMIUMCD001–250005–804–404–20CHROMECR36–740015–25015–25040–81COPPERCU30–300020–40015–30057–144MERCURYHG001–800001–1002–10012–04NICKELNI18–80015–20020–25036–52LEADPB31–18005–15015–100053–140ZINCZN14–13,00010–60015–10,0001100–5100TABLE1MAXIMUMPERMITTEDCONCENTRATIONSOFHEAVYMETALSINSOILIMPROVEMENTMATERIALSANDINFLYASHFROMPOWERPLANTAORAVA,2003ELEMENTPOWERPLANTAFLYASHMG/KGMAXIMUMPERMITTEDCONCENTRATIONMG/KGYEAR2002YEAR2001YEAR1999MERCURYHG25031–20CADMIUMCD2695056330ARSENICAS183419733550NICKELNI––100LEADPB56591065527150COPPERCU8672901178600ZINCZN189737697061500OHANNEETAL/MINERALSENGINEERINBEASSUMEDTHATASHFERTILISATIONWILLNOTRESULTINSIGNIFICANTHEAVYMETALIMPACTS,EGINWATERSYSTEMS,WITHINASHORTPERIODOFTIMEFOLLOWINGFERTILISATIONINTHELONGRUN,HARMFULHEAVYMETALSMAY,HOWEVER,BERELEASEDFROMASHINSOLUBLEFORMSANDBETHEREBYTRANSLOCATEDINTOTHEVEGETATIONNIEMINEN,2003THELIMINGEffECTOFASHLOWERSTHESOLUBILITYOFHEAVYMETALSINTHESOILASHMAYATFIRSTRAISETHECADMIUMCONCENTRATIONINTREESTANDS,BUTONCETREEGROWTHHASIMPROVEDTHECONCENTRATIONSOFTRACEELEMENTSANDHEAVYMETALSMAYFALLEVENBELOWTHEINITIALLEVELTHERISEINTHECDCONCENTRATIONINSOMEPLANTSPECIESCANLASTFORALONGTIMEMOILANEN,2003CADMIUMISCONSIDEREDTOBETHEMOSTHARMFULOFALLHEAVYMETALSBECAUSEITREMAINSINTHESOIL,ITBECOMESENRICHEDINFOODCHAINS,ANDITISTOXICTOORGANISMSELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATIONFIG1ISCURRENTLYTHEMOSTCOMMONMETHODUSEDINSEPARATINGTHESOLIDMATTERFROMPOWERPLANTFLUEGASESTHEADVANTAGESOFELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATIONINCLUDEHIGHCOLLECTIONEffiCIENCYASHIGHAS999ANDITSSUITABILITYFORDEALINGWITHPARTICLESOFDIffERENTSIZESEVENPARTICLESIZESBELOW1LMANDVARIABLEFLUEGASVOLUMESITSFURTHERADVANTAGESARELONGSERVICELIFE,GOODOPERATIONALRELIABILITY,ANDLOWOPERATINGANDMAINTENANCECOSTSWALSH,1997;IMMONEN,1987THEFUNCTIONINGOFTHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORISSIGNIFICANTLYDEPENDENTONTHEPROPERTIESOFTHEFLYASHTOBECOLLECTEDTHEAMOUNTANDSIZEDISTRIBUTIONOFTHEPARTICLESTOBEREMOVEDHAVEASIGNIFICANTIMPACTONTHEFUNCTIONINGOFTHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORALTHOUGHTHECOLLECTIONEffiCIENCYOFELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORISMOREORLESSCONSTANTIRRESPECTIVEOFTHEPARTICLEMASS,THEEffECTIVEMIGRATIONVELOCITYISLOWERINTHECASEOFSMALLPARTICLESDUETOTHEDIffERENTCHARGINGPROPERTIESOFTHEPARTICLES,THECOLLECTIONEffiCIENCYOFTHEPARTICLESVARIESASAFUNCTIONOFPARTICLESIZETHEMOSTDIffiCULTPARTICLESIZEFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFSEPARATIONIS02–05LMNYKANEN,1993;KOUVO,2003THECONCENTRATIONSOFHEAVYMETALINASHCANBEREDUCEDBYFRACTIONATIONOFTHEFINESTASHPARTICLESFROMFLUEGASESBYMEANSOFMULTICHAMBERELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSTHEFRACTIONATINGPROPERTIESOFTHEPRECIPITATORCANBEINFLUENCEDBYACTIONSSUCHASRESTRICTINGANDPULSATINGTHECURRENTOURRESEARCHRESULTSHAVESHOWNTHATHEAVYMETALSFIG1ALSTOMFINLANDOY’SELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORJALOVAARAETAL,2003G1920061596–16021597ARECONCENTRATEDINFINEASHPARTICLESORAVAETAL,2004;ORAVA,2003ACCORDINGTOTHERESULTSOFTHUNANDKORHONEN1999,THE3FIELDELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORWASSTOPPED,DEPENDINGONTHEOPERATINGCONDITIONS,84–95OFTHEOVERALLAMOUNTOFASHINTHEFIRSTFIELD,4–15INTHESECONDFIELD,ANDAPPROX1INTHELASTFIELDTHECADMIUMCONCENTRATIONOFASHCANBEREDUCEDATLEASTBY15–25BYMEANSOFFRACTIONATINGTHEASHUSINGELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSORAVAETAL,2004;THUNANDKORHONEN,1999DEPENDINGONTHEBOILERINQUESTION,ASHESFROMBARKFUELLEDANDWOODCHIPFUELLEDPOWERPLANTSGRATEBOILERSAREDIVIDEDINTOWEIGHTPERCENTAGECATEGORIESASFOLLOWSBOTTOMASH70–90,CYCLONEFLYASH10–30,ELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORFLYASH2–8ANDDUSTEMISSIONS01–30AGARWALANDAGARWAL,1999INDUSTCOMBUSTIONANDFLUIDIZEDBEDCOMBUSTION,THESHAREOFFLYASHGENERATIONIS80–100ASMUCHAS75–90OFTHEHEAVYMETALSCDANDZNARECONTAINEDINTHEFINEPARTICLEFRACTIONOFTHEFLYASH,WHICHISSEPARATEDBYELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSDAHLETALFIG2SETSOUTTHEZINC,LEADANDCADMIUMCONTENTSMG/KGANDMINBOTTOMASH,CYCLONEASHANDELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORFLYASHBASEDONTHEFIGURE,ASHCANTHUSBEREDUCEDTOBELOWTHEMAXIMUMPERMITTEDCONCENTRATIONS2MATERIALSANDMETHODSTHEFRACTIONATINGTRIALSWITHFLYASHWEREPERFORMEDATFOURPOWERPLANTSA,B,CANDDTHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSWEREOPERATEDATTHEPOWERPLANTSATDIffERENTVOLTAGELEVELSANDSAMPLESWERETAKENFROMTHEESP’SVARIOUSFIELDSALLTHESAMPLESTAKENFROMTHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSWERETAKENFROMTHEASHFEEDERSLOCATEDUNDERTHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSBEFORETHEASHWASFEDINTOTHESILOTHESAMPLESWEREANALYSEDFORTHEPRESENCEOFPB,CU,ZN,NI,ASANDCDUSINGTHEGRAPHITEMETHOD1598OHANNEETAL/MINERALSENGINEERING1920061596–1602ITMAYBESTATED,FOREXAMPLE,THATELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORFLYASHHASAHIGHERCDCONTENTTHANCYCLONEASH,WHICHISPARTLYDUETOTHEFACTTHAT,COMPAREDTOCYCLONES,ELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSSEPARATESMALLERPARTICLESTHATCONTAINTHEMAJORITYOFHEAVYMETALSINTHISCASE,THEPORTIONOFTHEFLYASHTHATISSUITABLEFORUSEASAFERTILISER,INTERMSOFITSCONSISTENCY,REMAINSATTHECYCLONEOBERNBERGERANDBIEDERMANN,1997THEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORCANMOREEffECTIVELYFRACTIONATEFLYASHTHANTHETRADITIONALMETHODSWHENAMECHANICALCLASSIFIERCYCLONEISCONNECTEDBEFORETHEASHREACHESTHEPRECIPITATORFIG3SHOWSABASICLAYOUTDRAWINGOFAPOWERPLANTFIREDBYUSINGBIOFUELSANDWHICHISPROVIDEDWITHAMULTICYCLONEBEFORETHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORASMUCHAS75–90OFTHEHEAVYMETALSCDANDZNCONTAINEDINFLYASHAREBOUNDTOTHEFINEFLYASHFRACTIONSEPARATEDBYTHEELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORDAHLETAL,2002PROPERLYDESIGNEDANDADJUSTEDELECTROSTATICPRECIPITAFIG2HEAVYMETALCONCENTRATIONSANDTHEIRDIVISIONASBULKPERCENTAGEFIGURESINBOTTOMASH,CYCLONEFLYASHANDFILTERFLYASHAGARWALANDAGARWALTIONISINPRINCIPLE,CAPABLEOFSEPARATINGTHATFRACTIONOFTHEFLUEGASES,WHICHCONTAINSTHEGREATESTAMOUNTOFHEAVYMETALSBUTONLYAFRACTIONOFTHEOVERALLAMOUNTOFASHTHEHEAVYMETALCONCENTRATIONSINTHEMAINPARTOFTHEFIG3THEASHFRACTIONSPRODUCEDBYABIOFUELFIREDANDPARTICLESIZEDETERMINATIONWASDONEUSINGAMALVERNDEVICEPOWERPLANTAUSESPEAT,FORESTCHIPANDOILANDTHEBYPRODUCTSOFTHEMECHANICALWOODPROCESSINGINDUSTRYASITSFUELSTHEBOILERCAPACITYAVAILABLETOTHEPOWERPLANTIS150MWTHEFRACTIONATINGTRIALSWEREPERFORMEDWITHTHEPOWERPLANT’SCURRENT3FIELDELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORPOWERPLANTBUSESTWOBOILERS,ONEAPYROFLOWCIRCULATINGFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERCAPACITY55MWANDTHEOTHERAFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERCAPACITY42MWTHETRIALSWERECARRIEDOUTUSINGTHEFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERTHEPOWERPLANT’SPRINCIPALFUELISMILLEDPEATWITHWOODFUELS,SOOTANDALUMINIUMOXIDEMIXEDINWITHITTHEFLYASHFROMBOTHBOILERSISCONVEYEDVIA2FIELDELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSTOACOMMONASHSILOPOWERPLANTCISEQUIPPEDWITHTWOPOWERPLANTBOILERSBOILER1ISAFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERWITHAFUELCAPACITYOF267MWBOILER2ISAPYROFLOWCIRCULATINGFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERWITHAFUELCAPACITYOF315MWTHETESTSWEREPERFORMEDUSINGTHEPYROFLOWCIRCULATINGFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERTHEFUELSUSEDATTHEPOWERPLANTWEREMAINLYMILLEDPEATANDVARIOUSWOODFUELSBOTHBOILERSAREEQUIPPEDWITH3FIELDELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSFROMWHICHTHEBOILERS’FLYASHISBLOWNPNEUMATICALLYTOACOMMONASHSILOTHEELECTRICALPOWERGENERATEDBYPOWERPLANTD’SFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERPLANTIS77MWANDITSHEATINGCAPACITYIS246MWTHEFUELSUSEDINTHEFLUIDIZEDBEDBOILERAREPOWERPLANT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