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文献翻译英文原文SolarelectricalenergygenerationAlongwitheconomicaldevelopment,societysprogress,thepeopletotheenergyproposedthatmoreandmorehighrequest,seeksforthenewenergytobecometheurgenttopicwhichthecurrenthumanityfaces.Theexistingenergymainlyhas3kinds,namelythermalpower,waterandelectricityandnuclearpower.Thethermalpowerneedstoburnfossilfuelsandsoonbunkercoal,petroleum.Ontheonehandthefossilfuelreserveslimited,thefeverareless,isfacingthedangerwhichdriesup.Itisestimatedthattheworldoilresourcewillhave30yearsthentodryupagain.OntheotherhandthecombustionfuelwilldischargeCO2andthesulfuroxidecompound,willthereforecausethegreenhouseeffectandtheacidrain,willworsentheterrestrialenvironment.Thewaterandelectricitymustsubmergethemassivelands,hasthepossibilitytocausetheecologicalenvironmenttodestroy,moreoverlargereservoir,oncecollapses,theconsequencewillbeinconceivable.Moreover,countryshydroelectricresourcesarealsolimited,moreovermustreceivetheseasoninfluence.Thenuclearpowerinthenormalconditionnodoubtisclean,buthasthenuclearleakageaccidentally,theconsequenceissimilarlyfearful.TheformerSovietUnionChernobylNuclearPowerStationaccident,hascaused9,000,000peopletoreceivethevaryingdegreeharm,moreoverthisinfluencehasnotterminated.Theseforcethepeopletoseekforthenewenergy.ThenewenergymustsimultaneouslymeettwoconditionsFirst,theimplicationrichwillnotdryupSecond,issafe,isclean,willnotthreatenthehumanityandthedestructionenvironment.Atpresentfoundthenewenergymainlyhadtwokindsfirst,solarenergysecond,fuelcell.Moreover,thewindpowergenerationmayalsobetheauxiliarynewenergy.And,themostidealnewenergyisgreatlypositiveenergy.1.ThesolarelectricalenergygenerationisthemostidealnewenergyShinesishugeonEarthssolarenergy,about40minutesshineonEarthssolarenergy,thensufficientlysuppliesglobalhumanityoneyearenergytheexpense.Itcanbesaidthatthesolarenergyistrueinexhaustible,theinexhaustibleenergy.Moreoverthesolarelectricalenergygenerationisabsolutelyclean,doesnothavetheenvironmentaldamage.Thereforethesolarelectricalenergygenerationishonoredasistheidealenergy.Obtainstheelectricpowerfromthesolarenergy,mustcarryontheelectroopticaltransformationthroughthegreatlypositivebatterytorealize.Itcompletelywasformerlydifferentwithotherpowersourceelectricitygenerationprinciple,hasthefollowingcharacteristic①Nondepletiondanger②Cleandoesnothaveenvironmentaldamageabsolutely③Itisnotdistributedtheresourcestheregionthelimit④Butisusingelectricityplacenearbygenerateselectricity⑤Theenergyqualityishigh⑥Theusereasytoacceptfromthesentiment⑦Thegainenergyexpenditurestimeisshort.Thedeficiencyis①Theilluminationenergydistributiondensityissmall,namelymusttakethehugearea②Obtainstheenergywithfourseasons,thedayandnightsandcloudyclearandsoonmeteorologicalconditionsconcerns.Butgenerallyspeaking,theflawdoesnotcoverthefinejade,takesthenewenergy,thesolarenergyhastheenormousmerit,thereforereceivesvariouscountriesthevalue.Mustenablethesolarelectricalenergygenerationtoachievethepracticalleveltrulyfirst,mustraisethesolarenergyelectroopticconversionefficiencyandreduceitscostsecond,mustrealizethesolarelectricalenergygenerationwithpresentselectricalnetworknetworking.Atpresent,solarpanelsmainlyhasthemonocrystallinesilicon,thepolycrystallinesilicon,theamorphousstatesiliconthreekinds.Themonocrystallinesiliconsolarcellconversionefficiencyishighest,hasreachedabove20,butthepriceisalsothemostexpensive.Theamorphousstatesiliconsolarcellconversionefficiencyislowest,butthepriceisthecheapest,fromnowonmostwillbehopefulusesingenerallygeneratingelectricitywillbethiskindofbattery.Onceitsbigareamoduleelectroopticconversionefficiencyachieves10,eachwattgeneratingsetpricefallsto12USdollars,thensufficientlycompetewithpresentselectricitygenerationway.Itisestimatedthatattheendofthiscenturyitmayachievethislevel.Certainly,inthespecialuseandthelaboratoryusesthesolarcellefficiencymustbemuchhigher,iftheUSBoeingdevelopsbythegalliumarsenicsemiconductorwiththepositiveelectricityplacewhichtoothestibiumgalliumsemiconductoroverlapsbecomes,theelectroopticconversionefficiencymayreach36,hascaughtupwiththecoalburningelectricitygenerationefficiencyquickly.Butbecauseitistooexpensive,atpresentcanonlyberestrictedonthesatelliteuses.2.SolarelectricalenergygenerationapplicationAlthoughsolarelectricalenergygenerationdayandnights,clearandrain,seasoninfluence,butmaycarryonscattered,thereforeitissuitableforvariouseachhouseholdminutetocarryontheelectricitygenerationseverally,moreovermustjoininthepowersupplynetwork,causeseachfamilywhentheelectricpoweriswealthymaysoldittotheElectricitycompany,whentheinsufficiencybepossiblefromtheElectricitycompanytobuyup.Realizesthispointstechnologynottobedifficulttosolve,thekeyliesinmusthavethecorrespondinglegalsafeguard.NowtheUS,Japanandsoondevelopedcountryhasmadethecorrespondinglaw,guaranteedthatcarriesonthesolarelectricalenergygenerationthefamilybenefit,encouragesthefamilytocarryonthesolarelectricalenergygeneration.JapanhasrealizedthesolarelectricalenergygenerationsystemthesameelectricitycompanyelectricalnetworksnetworkinginApril,1992,hadsomefamiliestostarttoinstallthesolarelectricalenergygenerationequipment.TheJapaneseMinistryofInternationalTradeandIndustrystartedfrom1994takeindividualhousingasanobject,implementedtopurchasesthesolarelectricalenergygenerationequipmentsexpensetosubsidize2/3systems.Requeststhefirstyearhad1000householdsfamilies,when2000tohave70,000householdsfamiliestoinstallthesolarelectricalenergygenerationequipment.AccordingtotheJapaneseDepartmentconcernedestimatesintheJapanese21,000,000householdsindividualhousing,ifhas80toinstallthesolarelectricalenergygenerationequipment,thenmaysatisfy14whichthenationaltotalpowerneeds,ifunitsandsoonfactoryandofficebuildingalsocarryonthesolarelectricalenergygenerationwiththeroom,thenthesolarelectricalenergygenerationwilloccupythenationalelectricpower3040.ThecurrenthindrancesolarelectricalenergygenerationpopularmostprimaryfactoristheexpenseisexpensiveInordertosatisfythegeneralfamilypowerrequirement3kilowattgeneratingsystem,needs6,000,000to7,000,000JapaneseYen,hasnotincludedtheinstallmentwages.Theconcernedexpertbelievedthatwhenmustfallatleastto1,000,000to2,000,000JapaneseYen,thesolarelectricalenergygenerationonlythencanpopularizetruly.Thekeytoreducetheexpenselieinthesolarcelltoraisetheconversionefficiencyandtoreducethecost.Sometimeago,theUSTexasInstrumentsCompanyandSCECorporationannouncedthattheydeveloponekindofnewsolarcell,eachunitisthediameterlessthan1millimeterbead,theydistributeregularlydenselyandnumerouslyonthesoftaluminumfoil,lookslikemanysilkwormeggstoclingonthepaperisthesame.Thendistributesinabout50squarecentimetersareahas1,700suchunits.Thiskindofnewbatteryscharacteristicis,althoughtheconversionefficiencyhas810,butthepriceischeap.Moreoveraluminumfoilbottombushsoftsolid,maylookliketheclothtofoldequallyatwill,anddurable,hangsintowardthesunplacethenmaygenerateelectricity,isconvenient.Itissaidthatusesthiskindofnewsolarcell,solongaseachwattpowercapacityequipment1.5to2USdollars,moreovereachroundofonceelectricitysexpensemightalsofallto14centsabout,definitelymaycompetewiththeordinarypowerplant.Eachfamilyhangsthiskindofbatteryontheroof,thewalltowardthesun,everyyearmayobtain1,0002,000degreeselectricpowers.3.SolarelectricalenergygenerationprospectThesolarelectricalenergygenerationhasamoreexcitingplan.First,Japanproposescreatesthecenturyplan.Preparesthedesertandtheseaareacarriesontheelectricitygenerationusingtheground,andthroughsuperconductingcablewholeworldsolarpowerstationconnectionunificationelectricalnetworkinordertoglobal.Accordingtoreckoning,to2000,in2050,in2100,evenifallusesthesolarelectricalenergygenerationsuppliesthewholeworldenergy,theoccupyinglandareaisalso651,100squarekilometer,1,867,900squarekilometer,8,291,900squarekilometers.8,291,900squarekilometersonlyoccupythecompleteseaarea2.3orthecompletedesertarea51.4,evenistheSaharaarea91.5.Thereforethisplanhasthepossibilitytorealize.Anotheroneisthespaceelectricitygenerationplan.Asearlyasin1980theNASAandDepartmentofEnergyproposedthatinthespatialconstructionsolarpowerstationtentativeplan,preparesonthesynchronousorbittoputonelong10kilometers,toextend5kilometerbigplates,abovecoversentirelythesolarcell,likethisthenmayprovide5,000,000kilowattselectricpowers.Butthisneedstosolvetothegroundwirelesselectrictransmissionquestion.Alreadyproposedwiththemicrowavebeam,thelaserbeamandsooneachkindofplan.Atpresentalthoughhasrealizedtheshortdistance,theshorttime,thelowpowermicrowavewirelesselectrictransmissionwiththemockup,buttotruepracticalalsohasthelongdistance.Alongwithourcountrytechnologysdevelopment,in2006,Chinahadthreeenterprisestoenterglobalfirstten,symbolizesthatChinawillbecomeoneofglobalnewenergyscienceandtechnologycentral,intheworldthesolarenergylightbendsdownwidespreadapplication,whatcausedpresenttobedeficientwasrawmaterial
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