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附录外文文献及翻译作者Arvidsson译名阿维德森国籍瑞典原文出处FOREIGNPATENTDOCUMENTS国外专利文献Thetechnologyofendeffector.Theendeffectorisatypeofmechantronicsequipmentwhichsynthesizesthelastresearchachievementofengineandprecisionengine,microelectronicsandcomputer,automationcontrolanddrive,sensorandmessagedisposeandartificialintelligenceandsoon.Withthedevelopmentofeconomicandthedemandforautomationcontrol,robottechnologyisdevelopedquicklyandalltypesoftherobotsproductsarecomeintobeing.Thepracticalityuseofrobotproductsnotonlysolvestheproblemswhicharedifficulttooperateforhumanbeing,butalsoadvancestheindustrialautomationprogram.Atpresent,theresearchanddevelopmentofrobotinvolvesseveralkindsoftechnologyandtherobotsystemconfigurationissocomplexthatthecostatlargeishighwhichtoacertainextentlimittherobotabroaduse.Todevelopmenteconomicpracticalityandhighreliabilityrobotsystemwillbevaluetorobotsocialapplicationandeconomydevelopment.Withtherapidprogresswiththecontroleconomyandexpandingofthemoderncities,theletofsewageisincreasingquicklyWiththedevelopmentofmoderntechnologyandtheenhancementofconsciousnessaboutenvironmentreserve,moreandmorepeoplerealizedtheimportanceandurgentofsewagedisposal.Activebacteriamethodisaneffectivetechniqueforsewagedisposal,Thelacunarisplasticisaneffectivebasementforactivebacteriaadhesionforsewagedisposal.Theabundancerequirementforlacunarisplasticmakesitisaconsequentfortheplasticproducingwithautomationandhighproductivity.Therefore,itisverynecessarytodesignamanipulatorthatcanautomaticallyfulfilltheplasticholding.Withtheanalysisoftheproblemsinthedesignoftheplasticholdingmanipulatorandsynthesizingtherobotresearchanddevelopmentconditioninrecentyears,aeconomicschemeisconcludedonthebasisoftheanalysisofmechanicalconfiguration,transformsystem,drivedeviceandcontrolsystemandguidedbytheideaofthecharacteristicandcomplexofmechanicalconfiguration,electronic,softwareandhardware.Inthisarticle,themechanicalconfigurationcombinesthecharacterofdirectioncoordinateandthearthrosiscoordinatewhichcanimprovethestabilityandoperationflexibilityofthesystem.Themainfunctionofthetransmissionmechanismistotransmitpowertoimplementdepartmentandcompletethenecessarymovement.Inthistransmissionstructure,thescrewtransmissionmechanismtransmitstherotarymotionintolinearmotion.Wormgearcangivevarytransmissionratio.Bothofthetransmissionmechanismshaveacharacteristicofcompactstructure.Thedesignofdrivesystemoftenislimitedbytheenvironmentconditionandthefactorofcostandtechnicallever.Thestepmotorcanreceivedigitalsignaldirectlyandhastheabilitytoresponseouterenvironmentimmediatelyandhasnoaccumulationerror,whichoftenisusedindrivingsystem.Inthisdrivingsystem,openloopcontrolsystemiscomposedofsteppingmotor,whichcansatisfythedemandnotonlyforcontrolprecisionbutalsoforthetargetofeconomicandpracticality.Onthisbasis,theanalysisofsteppingmotorinpowercalculatingandstyleselectingisalsogiven.Theanalysisofkinematicsanddynamicsforobjectholdingmanipulatorisgivenincompletingthedesignofmechanicalstructureanddrivesystem.Kinematicsanalysisisthebasisofpathprogrammingandtrackcontrol.Thepositiveandreverseanalysisofmanipulatorgivestherelationshipbetweenmanipulatorspaceanddrivespaceinpositionandspeed.Therelationshipbetweenmanipulatorstippositionandarthrosisanglesisconcludedbycoordinatetransformmethod.Thegeometrymethodisusedinsolvinginversekinematicsproblemandtheresultwillprovidetheoryevidenceforcontrolsystem.Thef0unctionofdynamicsistogettherelationshipbetweenthemovementandforceandthetargetistosatisfythedemandofrealtimecontrol.inthischamfer,NewtonEuripidesmethodisusedinanalysisdynamicproblemof七hecleaningrobotandthearthrosisforceandtorquearegivenwhichprovidethefoundationforstepmotorselectingandstructuredynamicoptimalting.Controlsystemisthekeyandcorepartoftheobjectholdingmanipulatorsystemdesignwhichwilldirecteffectthereliabilityandpracticalityoftherobotsysteminthedivisionofconfigurationandcontrolfunctionandalsowilleffectorlimitthedevelopmentcostandcycle.WiththedemandofthePCL839card,thePCcomputerwhichhasa.tightstructureandiseasytobeextendedisusedastheprincipalcomputercellandtakesthefunctionofsysteminitialization,dataoperationanddispose,stepmotordriveanderrordiagnoseandsoon.Atthesametime,theconfigurationstructurefeatures,taskprinciplesandthepositionfunctionwithhighprecisionofthecontrolcardPCL839areanalyzed.Hardwareisthematterfoundationofthecontrol.Systemandthesoftwareisthespiritofthecontrolsystem.Thetargetofthesoftwareistocombineallthepartsinoptimizingstyleandtoimprovetheefficiencyandreliabilityofthecontrolsystem.Thesoftwaredesignoftheobjectholdingmanipulatorcontrolsystemisdividedintoseveralblockssuchassysteminitializationblock,dataprocessblockanderrorstationdetectanddisposemodelandsoon.PCL839cardcansolvethecommunicationbetweenthemaincomputerandthecontrolcellsandtakethemeasureofreducingtheinfluenceoftheoutersignaltothecontrolsystem.Thestartandstopfrequencyofthestepmotorisfarlowerthanthemaximumrunningfrequency.Inordertoimprovetheefficiencyofthestepmotor,theincreaseanddecreaseofthespeedismustconsideredwhenthestepmotorrunninginhighspeedandstartorstopwithgreatacceleration.Theincreaseanddecreaseofthemotorsspeedcanbecontrolledbythepulsefrequencysenttothestepmotordrivewitharationalmethod.Thiscanbeimplementedeitherbyhardwareorbysoftware.Astepmotorshiftcontrolmethodisproposed,whichissimpletocalculate,easytorealizeandthetheorymeansisstraightforward.Themotorsaccelerationcanfitthetorquefrequencycurveproperlywiththismethod.Andtheamountofcalculationloadislessthanthelinearaccelerationshiftcontrolmethodandthemethodwhichisbasedontheexponentialruletochangespeed.Themethodistestedbyexperiment.In1997,TheJapancareerdevelopmentNASDAemissiontechnologyexperimentSatelliteETSVIITheeTestSatellite,isTheearliestdemonstrationofonorbitcapturetechnologyindependentverificationspacerobotsystem,asshowninfigure4.IntheETSVIItrackingonaXiaoLiangastarofmechanicalarm.AsetofNASDAisdeveloped,thelengthofthe2mforsixdegreesoffreedomERAofmechanicalArmRobotArmETSVII,itcontainssingledegreeoffreedom,attheendoftheactuatorisusedtocapturethestandardinterfaceunitcanbereplaced,threeendactuatoris120°inthesupportplatformontheperiphery,AnothersetofTongChanShengisdevelopedandAdvancedRoboticmanipulatorsARHHand,onARHby5dofofmechanicalarmandwiththreethumbandforefingerandmiddlefinger,ofmultisensorendactuators,threedexterousHandfingersthroughsportsorganizationofeachjoint,becauseonlyonepairofrotationofdexterousfingerswithbettersex,therefore,moredexterousHandreferstothemovementofrotationdeputyadoptManymeansofdexteroushandinhandcanincreasetheconstraint,thegrabobjectsandoperationoftheadaptabilityarequitegood,whileconsideringthedrivingcomponentsareadopted,thelayoutofthepalm,dexteroushandstructureofconcretestructuredependsonthepalmofthemotorandtransmissionoftheform.Mostcurrentdexteroushandusingelectricdrive,hydraulicpressuredriveandthewaythatonlyafewdexteroushandbytheshapememoryalloySMAdrive,piezoelectricdrivenandscalabilitypolymerdrivenewdrivetechnology.Duetotheelectricdrivemodehasconvenientcontrol,lowcost,maturetechnology,theadvantagesofdesignasthedcservomotordrivingcomponents.Transmissionsystemismoredexteroushandreferstothestructuredesign.Followthecordtransmissionwaytodriveprincipleandpeoplerealizethemovementandforceoflongdistancetransmission,cansatisfytherequirementsfingers.ThisdesignUSESaropeandpulley,thetransmissionwayofeachfingerjointslongdistancedrivingthreeandsixsoftcable.Threemultisensorendeffectorcontainingfivekindsofsensors,includingacamera,threeclosesensor,asoftsensor,asoftsensorandaforce/torquesensor,hashighreliabilityandindependentability.Handcanfinishfuel,replacebatteries,tightenthescrewsfloatingobjects,andloosenetc.Precisegrabandoperationaltasks.ETSVIIonorbitdemonstrationoftwoimportantduringtheexperiment,thetwofloatingobjectthroughthetestcapturemanipulatorendactuatorstocapture.Inordertocompletetheobjectofdifferentoperation,ETSVIIendactuatordesignedthreeGPFGRAPPLEwithtorqueFIXTUREinterfacethestandardinterfaceGPFSinterface,formostoftheload,includingORUvolitionalelectricinterfaceofGPFMGPFMITI,mainlyforthemechanicalarminterfacewiththreemeansofcompleteconnection,dexteroushandoperationusedforNALtrussstructureoftheoperationofGPFNGPFNALinterface.ARHhandisonehalfofSemidexterousdexterityhandclaws,threedegrees,bymixingfingersandflexiblereferstothesurface.Bymixingfingerincludesadcmotordrivesthetranslationoftwofingersandsteppingmotordrivenbytherotationofthefingers,basictargetfunction.GrabFlexiblereferstoareconfigurableformbythehand,inthesimilarstructuresurfacetoinstallafingertightneedlespringpressuregroups,theneedlecontentobjectsarrayswithsurfacerollingarray,strongabilitytoadapttotheobjectshapeofobjects,andtheconstraintisclosed,preventfromslidingintospaceobjects.Atlast,theresearchcontentandtheachievementaresumupandtheproblemsandshortagesinmainthecontentarealsolisted.Thedevelopmentandapplicationofrobotinthefutureisexpected.末端执行器技术末端执行器是典型的机电一体化装置,它综合运用了机械与精密机械、微电子与计算机、自动控制与驱动、传感器与信息处理以及人工智能等多学科的最新研究成果,随着经济的发展和各行各业对自动化程度要求的提高,机器人技术得到了迅速发展,出现了各种各样的机器人产品。机器人产品的实用化,既解决了许多单靠人力难以解决的实际问题,又促进了工业自动化的进程。目前,由于机器人的研制和开发涉及多方面的技术,系统结构复杂,开发和研制的成本普遍较高,在
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