外文翻译--柔性制造系统.doc外文翻译--柔性制造系统.doc

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外文翻译英文原文:FlexibleManufacturingSystemAlogicalstepfromtheconceptsofgrouplayoutandofNCmachinetoolsandroboticsarecomputer-controlledinterlinkedoutstationmachiningcomplexes,or11exibemanufacturingsystems(FMS)astheyhavebedclothescall.do.Suchsystemscanbelookeduponashighlyautomatedcellsmanufacturingfamiliesofcomponents.TheconceptofFMSisnotanewone;thefirstproposalsweremadeinthemid1960s.Inrecentyearswehaveseenagrowthinthenumberofsystems,particularlyinJapan,suchthatitisestimatedthatinexcessofahundredsystemshavebeeninstalledworldwide.Aflexiblemanufacturingsystemcontainsanumberoffeaturesasfollows:1.InterlinkedNCworkstationsoperatingonalimitedrangeorfamilyofworkpieces.Inearlypropos-alesthemachineswereofmodularconstruction,butinrecentsystemsgeneral-purposeNCmachines,inparticularmachiningcenters,aremostcommonlyused.2.Automatictransportation,loadingatunloadingofworkpiecesandtools,usingautomaticguidedvehicles(AGVs),robots,etc.3.Workpiecesmountedonpalletsft*transportation,pattlytoovercometheproblemsofnewsetupsateachworkstation.4.CentralizedNCorDNC,togetherwithoverallcomputercontrolofthesystem.5.Operationforsignificantperiodsoftimewithlittleornomanualintervention.WithFMStheternflexibilitymeanstheabilitytoaptnessavarietyofcomponentswithouthavingtoadjustmachinesetups.Orchangetooling.Highflexibilityimpliesthatalargefamilyofdifferentcomponentscanbeproducedbytheparticularsystem.Figure5.17showthatseveralvariantsofthebasicFMScon-keptexist.Theseare;l.Flexiblemanufacturingcells(FMs):Thesearebasicallymachiningcentumbutwiththeadditionofapalletpoolormagazine(Fig.5.t8).Theaimistomachinetheworkpiecewithonestupefiestypeofmachinecanbeoperatedunmannedforlongperiodsoftime,withthepalletizedworkpiecestransformedau-somaticallytoandfromthemachine.Flexiblemanufacturingcellsofthistypemustbeservedbymachinesoroperatorsengagedinblankpreparationandpolarizationofworkpieces.Thesecellsarehighlyflexibleinoperation,havingtheabilitytodealwithawiderangeofpats(40to800),insmallbatchesoffrom15to500.2.Flexibletransferlines(fall):These,systemsconsistofanumberofNCorhead-changeablemachinetoolsconnectedbyautomaticmaterialtransfersystems.Thesystemcanmachinedifferentcomponentsbutwithoutflexibleroutingoftheworkpieces.Thefamilyofcomponentsisrelativelysmall(<20)andthecomponentsmustbequitesimilartooneanother,astheoverallf[email protected].Inconsequence,theworkcyclesateachstationnullsarequitewellbalanced.Productionquantitiesmustbequitelargeforeconomicuseofthesesystem(1500to15000perannumforeachcomponent).3.Flexiblemanufacturingsystems(FMS),inthesesystemsNCworkstationsarelinkedbyautomaticworkpiecetransferandhanding.Withflexibleroutingandautomaticworkpieceloadingandunloading.A-chiningtimesateachstationcandifferconsiderably.Thenumberofdifferentcomponentsthatcanbepro-cussedbythesesystemsis'ohm10'o150ingeneralandmoderatequantitiescanbeproduced(15to500componentsperannumfortype)1.WorkHandlingforFMSWorkpiecesareusuallymountedonstandardpalletsforprocessinginFMSandthesepalletslocateautomaticallyateachworkstationinthesystem.Avarietyofwork-handlingdevicesareusedtotransportparts,pallets,andtoolsaroundthesystem.Someoftheseateasfollows:1.Towcarts:Thesearethemostcannondevicesused;theyconsistofasimpleplatformoncastorsandaretowedaroundthesystembyengagementwithunderfloor,continuouslymovingchains.Catsstopatworkstationsbymeansofamechanismtotalreleasesthetowpinattheappropriatetime.Branchesandloopsarecanalledinasimilarmannertorailwaysystems.11temainadvantageoftowcartsistheirsimplicityandlowcost,sincenoon-boardpowerisrequiredfortheirmovementorcontrol.Facilitiesmustbeavailableateachworkstationtoloadandunloadpalletsfromthecarts.Also,thecirculationofcartsmustbeunidirectional.2.Automaticguidedvehicles(AGVs).Thesedevicesareusuallydesignedtofollowwinsburiedintheflooroftheplantorlinespaintedontotefloor.On-boardpowerandcontrolisrequiredforboltmovemintandsteeringatefortotehandlingofpallets.Automaticguidedvehiclesatemoreexpensivethantowcatsandarebothlargerandheavier.TalemainadvantageofAGVsistheirgreaterflexibilityofopera-ton.Thesedevicesmaymoveineitherdirection,butforeaseofcontrol,circulationisusuallyrestrictedtoonedirectiononlyinpractice.3.Railcats:Thesecartsmoveonrailsandaregenerallyrestrictedtobackwardandforwardmotionalongstraighttracks.Powerandcontrolinstructionsatettunsferredbyoverheadconductorsorextrarails.Railcartsoftenaccommodatetwopalletstoallowforpalletexchangeatthesystemworkstations.4.Rollerconveyors:MostoftoteearlyFMSdevelopmentsutilizedpowered-rollerconveyorsformovingworkpiecesfromstatuettetostation.Theuseoftheseconventsinmodernsystemsislesscommon.Rollerconveyorsareexpensivetoinstallandoccupyvaluablefloorspace.Inaddition,theseconveyorsarerelativelyinflexibleinoperationanddifficulttoalteriftheoverallsystemisexpanded.5.Industrialrobots:RobotsareusedinFMSbutnotextensivelyunlessthecellconsistsofonlyafewmachines.Theymaybeusedassecondat)handlingdevices,particularlyforturnedworkpieces,whichmaybetransportedaroundthesysteminhatchesonpalletsbyotherhandlingdevicesandthentransferredtothemachinetoolbyrobotsateachworkstation.Gripperdesignssuitableforhandlingawidevarietyofcomponentsareimportantinthiscase.2.LayoutsforFMSAvarietyofdifferentlayoutsforthemachinetoolsinFMShavebeenadopted,Thechoicedependsonthescopeofthesystemandthetypeofhandlingdevicesusedfortransportingworkpiecesfromworkstationtoworkstation.Theuseofrailcartsmeanthatastraighttrackmustbeused,withmachineslocatedatthesideoftotetrack.Earlysystemsusingrollerconveyorsusuallyemployedasimpleloopconfigura-tio11,withbranchestotheworkstations.TheincreaseduseoftowcartsandAGVshasresultedinmorecomplexmulticolorortree-typelayoutsbeingused.ThelattertypeismostsuitableforAGVsandisparticularlyusefulifexpansionofthesystemwithadditionalworkstationsisanticipated.Figure5.19showsatypicalmulticolorlayoutusingtowcarts,andFig.5.20showsatypicallayoutwhereAGVsareusedforworkhandling.3.FactoryoftheFutureOnthebasisoftheadvancesmadetodateinallaspectsofmanufacturingtechnologyandcomputercontrols,wemayenvisagethefactoryofthefutureasafullyautomatedfacilityinwhichhumanbeingswouldnotbedirectlyinvolvedwithproductionontheshopi1oor(hencethetermunmannedfactories).Allmanufacturing,materialhandling,assembly,andinspectionwouldbedonebyautomatedandcomputer-controlledmachineryandequipment.Similarly,activitiessuchasprocessingincomingorders,productionplanningandscheduling,costaccounting,andvariousdecision-makingprocesses(usuallyperformedbymanagement)wouldalsobedoneautomaticallybycomputers.Theroleofhumanbeingswouldbeconfinedtoactivitiessuchassupervising,maintaining(especiallypreventivemaintenance),andupgradingmachinesandequipment;ship-pingandreceivingsuppliesandfinishedproducts;providingsecurityfortheplantfacilities;andprogramming,upgrading,andmonitoringcomputerprograms,andmonitoring,maintaining,andupgradinghard-ware.Industriessuchassomefood,petroleum,andchemicalalreadyoperateautomaticallywithlittlehumanintervention.Thesearecontinuousprocessesand,unlikepiecepartmanufacturing,areeasiertoautomatefully.Evenso,thedirectinvolvementoffewerpeopleinmanufacturingproductsisalreadyapparent:Surveysshowthat;only10-15percentoftheworkforceisdirectlyinvolvedinproduction.Mostoftheworkforceisinvolvedingatheringandprocessinginformation.Virtuallyunmannedmanufacturingcellsalreadymakeproductssuchasengineblocks,axles,andhousingsforclutchesandaircompressors.Forlarge-scale,flexiblemanufacturingsystems,however,highlytrainedandskilledpersonnelwillalwaysbeneededtoplan,maintain,andoverseeoperation.Thereliabilityofmachines,controlsystems,andpowersupplyiscrucialtofullfactoryautomation.Alocalorgeneralbreakdowninmachinery,computers,power,orcommunicationsnetworkswill,withoutrapidhumaninterventioncrippleproduction.Thecomputer-integratedfactoryofthefutureshouldbecapableofautomaticallyreroutingmaterialsandproductionflowstoothercomputersincaseofsuchemergencies.
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