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PelletsinsouthernEuropeNewresources,newproducts,newmarketsTheresoundingsuccessofwoodpelletsmarketsinEuropeanCountriessuchasAustria,DenmarkandSweden,hasyettobereplicatedelsewhere.InSouthernEuropeancountries,thelackofavailablewastewoodmeansthatpelletsfromagriculturalresiduesagripelletsarethemostpromisingsolution.Withrawmaterialcostsonaparwiththoseforwoodpellets,andanavailabilityaroundtentimesgreater,thepotentialofthismarketisimmense.Inmanyareasoftheworldtoreduceairpollution.Althoughtherearemanyalternativeuses,theenergysectorrepresentsasubstantialmarketwiththepotentialofconsuminglargequantitiesofstraw.Insomeareas,suchasinCalifornia,existingpowergenerationfacilitiesarewithriceproduction,makingthemattractiveutilizationsitesforstraw.AspartoftheEuropeanprojectPelletsforEurope,amarketassessmentisbeingperformedtoinvestigatetheEuropeanstrawpelletandsouthernEuropeanwoodpelletmarkets.thisassessmentfocusesonEurope,withmoredetailedstudiesofItaly,SpainandGreece.Sofar,thisassessmenthasshowntheagripelletmarkettocarrymuchpromiseandenormouslongtermpotential,despitebeingimpededbysignificanttechnicalbarriers.Thesebarriersarehoweversurmountableintheshortandmediumterm.Thisisespeciallytrueinmediumtolargescaleapplicationsofstrawandstrawpelletfiring.inmunicipalheatingforexample,strawandinsomecasesevenstrawpelletshavealreadyfoundextensiveapplication.EasternWashingtongrowersproduceabundantcropsofwheat,barley,andgrassseed.Indoingso,theyproducemillionsoftonsofstraw.Excesscropresiduecanservetoreduceyields,propagatecroppests,andposeanobstacleforplantingthenextcrop.Disposalofexcesscropresidue,especiallyinthehighestyieldingcounties,isaproblem.Fieldburning,thehistoricalandmosteconomicalsolution,isnolongerasociallyacceptable.Researchersconcludedthatcooperativesmightprovidetheappropriateorganizationalformofbusinessneededtoinitiatethisstrawtoenergyconversion.Assuch,thoseproducingthestrawwouldnotonlybenefitfromthedisposalofthisbyproduct,butwouldstandtobenefitfromthesaleofthestrawandthemanagement/ownershipoftheresultantofffarmenterprise.Atpresent,theworldenergypatternisbyconventionalenergysourcesandsoonpetroleum,naturalgas,coalprimarily,includingthehydroenergywindenergy,thesolarenergy,thetidalenergy,thegeothermalenergy,thenuclearpower,thehydrogencan,energyandsoonbiologicalenergymanykindsofenergycoexistingconditions.Onenergyandsooncoal,petroleum,naturalgas,geothermalenergy,nuclearpower,notonlythereserves,thedevelopmentquantityarelimited,moreoveristherenewableenergysource.Hydroenergy,windenergy,tidalenergyandsoonrenewableenergysource,althoughisinexhaustibletheoretically,inexhaustible,butmaytheeconomicaldevelopmentquantitynotbebig.Soledependencetheseenergycannotsatisfythenationaleconomybyfarthedevelopmentneed.Thereforethepeoplepredictedthattheenergyhuge,distributedwidespread,mayregenerate,pollutesthesmallbiomassenergybecomethefourthgenerationofenergythemainstreamenergyAspartoftheEuropeanprojectPelletsforEurope,amarketassessmentisbeingperformedtoinvestigatethecurrentstateofthestrawpelletandsouthernwoodpelletmarket.Theseassessmentwillfromthebasisfortheanalysisofbarriersandformulationofmarketpenetrationstrategies.Thispapersummarisesthefirstresultofthiswork.AmarketpotentialassessmentforagripelletswascarriedoutinawiderangeofEuropeancountries.MoredetailedinformationontheexitingpelletmarketsprincipallywoodhasalsobeengatheredforSpain,ItalyandGreece.Fromtheseresult,predictionandrecommendationforthesenewandparticularlypromisingmarketplacescanbeformulated.Thefirststepofthisanalysiswastheestimationofthetotalrawmaterialpotentialandthecurrentutilizationofresiduesfromwoodandagriculture,thesecondstepwastheindepthanalysisofpelletproductionanditsrelatedsocioeconomicaspectsbydirectlycontactingmarketactors.Thereby,amoredetailedandsubtleunderstandingofexpectations,plantsandbarrierswasreached.Thirdly,anoverviewofthelegislativeaspectswasgainedinordertoidentifyspecificlegislation,standardsandrecommendationsrelevanttobiofuels.Thisstudyisongoingandwillbecomplementedbytrendsanalyses,assessmentsofbarriers,marketstrategiesandtheidentificationofnewmarketopportunitiesespeciallyinEasternEurope.Agripelletshighash,NitrogenandChlorinecontentsarehighlyproblematicincombustionthefirstbecauseofcomplicationsinthecombustionequipment,andthelattertwobecauseoftheirnoxious/corrosiveemission.Althoughlittlecanbedonetoreduceashcontent,adaptedcombustionequipmentwithanefficientdisposalofashcanpreventashsinteringandthusblockingupequipment.Thisphenomenonisbasicallyametingofashintheboiler.Thismoltenashhardensoncoolingandisthenextremelydifficulttoremove.thereareseveralmethodsthatcanbeusedtocombatthisproblem.ingeneralthesehoweverincreasethehardwareand/oroperatingcosts.Theyare①Specialadaptedgrillsthatmaybemovableorconstructedinsuchawayastoquicklytransporttheashawayfromthecombustionarea.②Theadditionofquicklimetothestraw.ThiscanraisethesinteringtemperaturebyuptoafewhundreddegreesCelsius.③Watercooledgrills④MixingofstrawwithwoodpelletsorwoodchipsNitrogenandChlorinearefarmoredifficulttoremove,andgenerallyrequirefiltersthatareonlycosteffectiveinlargerinstallations.However,concentrationsoftheseconstituentsvaryhugelyandcanbeinfluencedbyforexampledifferentfertilizinghabits.TheChlorine,Nitrogenandashrelatedproblemscanbemorecosteffectivelyhandledinlargerinstallations.Asaconsequence,allstrawbasedenergyproductionalmostexclusivelyfromlooseratherthanpelletisedstraw,takesplaceonamediumtolargescaleinforexample,publicbuildingsordistrictheating.ThecompositionofagriresidueshowevervarieshugelyacrossEurope.Thishasanimpactonthenatureofthetechnicalproblemsfacedinpelletisingandcombusting.Amongtherenewableenergies,biomassplaysanimportantroleItalybecauseofitsavailabilityontheterritory.Infact,oneofthefirstconsequencesoftheKyotoconferencehasbeentheelaborationoftheNationalProgramfortheRenewableEnergiesfromBiomass.InItalythereare4nationalmanufacturesofpelletingequipmentLarus,Kemix,BollaretoandLaMeccanicaand2importers/distributorsbothofCPMplants.Moreover,thereisanengineeringsociety,whoseprincipalactivityistostudythenecessityofaparticularfirmthatwantstoinstallaparticularplantthisengineeringsocietyisinassociationwithLaMeccanica,thatprovidethepalletizingequipments.Theitalymarketforwoodpelletsissmallbutgrowingsteadily,withaprojectedmarketof100300thousandtonesin2003.theacceptanceofthisbiomassfuel,isapositivesignalforafutureagripelletsmarket.Thereisonlyoneenterprisethat,untilnow,istryingtoproducepelletsfromagriculturalresiduesthismanufacturerhasbeenproducingsinceonly5months,butitwillprobablyproduce1215,000tonsofagripelletsperyear.Theutilizationofpelletsforheatingusesisstillinitsearlystages.Thecivilutilizationhasexperiencedaremarkablegrowthinthelast23years,asconfirmedbythegrowingnumberofretailersthatsellpelletsstovesandboilers.Itmustbeunderlinedthatthegreatmajorityofthecitizensdonotknowtheexistenceofthiskindofheatingequipment.欧洲南部的颗粒饲料新资源,新产品,新市场在欧洲国家,像奥地利、丹麦和瑞典的木材配合饲料市场的显著成功,还没有被其他地方借鉴。在欧洲南部的国家,缺乏可利用的废木材意味来自农业的残留物(农业颗粒饲料)的颗粒饲料是最有希望的解决途径。由于原料费和利用效率方面的原因,这一个市场的潜能是极广大的。长久以来,世界各个区域的研究人员都在寻找一种能替代野外燃烧稻草的处理方法来减少污染。尽管有许多种可供选择的使用方法,但是能源部门对于潜在的能够消耗大量的稻草这个市场表现的非常可观。在一些区域,比如说加利福尼亚州,现存的产生能源的设备是随着稻子的生产而产生的,使他们吸引人利用稻草。当一部分欧洲人计划着欧洲的颗粒饲料时,一个关于欧洲的秸秆颗粒饲料和欧洲南部的木材配合饲料市场的市场评估正在运行调查。这一评估把重心集中在欧洲,对意大利、西班牙和希腊进行了详细研究。到现在为止,这一个评估已经显示农业颗粒饲料的市场有很大的前途和巨大的长期潜能,不会被技术上的问题所妨碍。这些问题在短期和中期是可以克服的。秸秆和秸秆颗粒饲料生火的大规模应用是可以实现的。以市政的暖气来说,秸秆和秸秆颗粒饲料已经被广泛应用。华盛顿东部的栽培者生产小麦、大麦和草种子等丰富农作物。依照这样下来,他们生产了数以百万计的大量的稻草。多余的农作物残渣能导致农作物产量减少,繁殖更多对农作物有害之物,而且为种植下一轮农作物形成一个障碍。多余的农作物残渣的处理,尤其在田地最多的乡村中,确实是一个问题。秸秆焚烧,过去大多数的解决方法,不再被社会所接受,电力生产者需要考虑价格因素来给他们的产品定价。虽然从稻草中获得的能量在经济上处于边缘劣势,但是必须同时考虑到它的来源的费用是相当低的,可能使它在经济上能实行,尤其是在
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