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徐州工程学院毕业设计外文翻译学生姓名学院名称机电工程学院专业名称机械设计制造及其自动化指导教师2011年5月27日英文原文AdaptiverobustposturecontrolofaparallelmanipulatordrivenbypneumaticmusclesKeywordsPneumaticmuscleParallelmanipulatorAdaptivecontrolNonlinearrobustcontrolAbstractRathersevereparametricuncertaintiesanduncertainnonlinearitiesexistinthedynamicmodelingofaparallelmanipulatordrivenbypneumaticmuscles.Thoseuncertaintiesnotonlycomefromthetimevaryingfrictionforcesandthestaticforcemodelingerrorsofpneumaticmusclesbutalsofromtheinherentcomplexnonlinearitiesandunknowndisturbancesoftheparallelmanipulator.Inthispaper,adiscontinuousprojectionbasedadaptiverobustcontrolstrategyisadoptedtocompensateforboththeparametricuncertaintiesanduncertainnonlinearitiesofathreepneumaticmusclesdrivenparallelmanipulatortoachievepreciseposturetrajectorytrackingcontrol.Theresultingcontrollereffectivelyhandlestheeffectsofvariousparametervariationsandthehardtomodelnonlinearitiessuchasthefrictionforcesofthepneumaticmuscles.Simulationandexperimentalresultsareobtainedtoillustratetheeffectivenessoftheproposedadaptiverobustcontroller.©2008ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.1.IntroductionPneumaticmuscleisanewtypeofflexibleactuatorsimilartohumanmuscle.Itisusuallymadeupofarubbertubeandcrossweavesheathmaterial.Pneumaticmuscleshavetheadvantagesofcleanness,cheapness,lightweight,easymaintenance,andthehigherpower/weightandpower/volumeratioswhencomparedwithpneumaticcylindersAhn,Thanh,Yang,2004.Thebasicworkingprincipleofapneumaticmuscleisasfollowswhentherubbertubeisinflated,thecrossweavesheathexperienceslateralexpansion,resultinginaxialcontractiveforceandthemovementoftheendpointpositionofthepneumaticmuscle.Thus,thepositionorforcecontrolofapneumaticmusclealongitsaxialdirectioncanberealizedbyregulatingtheinnerpressureofitsrubbertube.TheparallelmanipulatordrivenbypneumaticmusclesPMDPMstudiedinthispaperisanewapplicationofpneumaticmuscles.ItconsistsofthreepneumaticmusclesconnectingthemovingarmoftheparallelmanipulatortoitsbaseplatformasshowninFig.1.Bycontrollingthelengthsofthreepneumaticmuscles,threedegreesoffreedomDOFrotationmotionoftheparallelmanipulatorcanberealized.Suchaparallelmanipulatorcombinestheadvantagesofcompactstructureofparallelmechanismswiththeadjustablestiffnessandhighpower/volumeratioofpneumaticmuscles,whichwillhavepromisingwideapplicationsinrobotics,industrialautomation,andbionicdevices.Manyresearchershaveinvestigatedtheprecisepositioncontrolofpneumaticmusclesduringthepastseveralyears.Mostofthemdealtwiththecontrolofsingleorantagonisticpneumaticmuscles.Specifically,Bowler,Caldwell,andMedranoCerda1996,employedanadaptivepoleplacementschemetocontrolabidirectionalpneumaticmuscleactuatorsystem,foruseona7DOFanthropomorphicrobotarm.CaiandYamaura1996presentedaslidingmodecontrollerforamanipulatordrivenbyartificialmuscleactuators.Kimura,Hara,Fujita,andKagawa1997,appliedthefeedbacklinearizationmethodtothepositioncontrolofasingleinputpneumaticsystemwithathirdorderdynamicsincludingthepressuredynamics.KimotoandIto2003addednonlinearrobustcompensationstoalinearcontrollerinordertostabilizethesystemgloballyandachieverobustnesstouncertainnonlinearities.Carbonell,Jiang,andRepperger2001,Chan,Lilly,Repperger,andBerlin2003,Repperger,Johnson,andPhillips1998andRepperger,Phillips,andKrier1999,proposedseveralmethodssuchasfuzzybackstepping,gainscheduling,variablestructureandfuzzyPDIforaSISOpneumaticmusclesystemwithasecondorderdynamicstoachieveasymptoticpositiontracking.Lilly2003,LillyandQuesada2004andLillyandYang2005,appliedtheslidingmodecontroltechniquewithboundarylayertocontrolpneumaticmuscleactuatorsarrangedinbicepandtricepconfigurations.Tian,Ding,Yang,andLin2004,adoptedtheRPEalgorithmtotrainneuralnetworksformodelingandcontrollinganartificialmusclesystem.Hildebrandt,Sawodny,Neumann,andHartmann2002Sawodny,Neumann,andHartmann2005,presentedacascadecontrollerforatwoaxisplanararticulatedroboticarmdrivenbyfourpneumaticmuscles.Asreviewedabove,someoftheresearchersdesignedrobustcontrollerswithoutconsideringthepressuredynamics,whiletheeffectofpressuredynamicsisessentialfortheprecisecontrolofpneumaticmusclesCarbonelletal.,2001Chanetal.,2003Lilly,2003LillyQuesada,2004LillyYang,2005Reppergeretal.,1998,1999.Someoftheresearchersdevelopedcontrollerswiththeassumptionthatthesystemmodelisaccurate,orthatmodeluncertaintiessatisfymatchingconditiononly,whilethoseassumptionsarehardtobesatisfiedinpracticeHildebrandtetal.,2002,2005Kimuraetal.,1997.ForthePMDPMshowninFig.1,itnotonlyhasallthecontroldifficultiesassociatedwiththepneumaticmuscles,butalsotheaddeddifficultiesofthecoupledmultiinputmultioutputMIMOcomplexdynamicsoftheparallelmanipulatorandthelargeextentofunmatchedmodeluncertaintiesofthecombinedoverallsystem.Inotherwords,thereexistrathersevereparametricuncertaintiesanduncertainnonlinearities,whicharecausednotonlybythetimevaryingfrictionforcesandstaticforcemodelingerrorsofpneumaticmusclesbutalsobytheinherentcomplexnonlinearitiesandunknowndisturbancesoftheparallelmanipulator.Therefore,itisverydifficulttocontrolpreciselythepostureofthePMDPM.TherecentlyproposedadaptiverobustcontrolARChasbeenshowntobeaveryeffectivecontrolstrategyforsystemswithbothparametricuncertaintiesanduncertainnonlinearitiesXuYao,2001Yao,2003Yao,Bu,Reedy,Chiu,2000YaoTomizuka,2001.Thisapproacheffectivelyintegratesadaptivecontrolwithrobustcontrolthroughutilizingonlineparameteradaptationtoreducetheextentofparametricuncertaintiesandemployingcertainrobustcontrollawstoattenuatetheeffectsofvariousuncertainties.InARC,aprojectiontypeparameterestimationalgorithmisusedtosolvethedesignconflictbetweenadaptivecontrolandrobustcontrol.Thus,highfinaltrackingaccuracyisachievedwhileguaranteeingexcellenttransientperformance.Inthispaper,theposturecontrolofaPMDPMshowninFig.1isconsideredinwhicheachpneumaticmuscleiscontrolledbytwofastswitchingvalves.Theadaptiverobustcontrolstrategyisappliedtoreducethelumpeduncertainnonlinearitiesandparametricuncertaintieswhileusingcertainrobustfeedbacktoattenuatetheeffectsof
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