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CONTROLENGINEERINGPRACTICE14A,MARTINUNIVERSITYACCEPTED3THROTTLECOMPENSATORSTHEEMPHASISISONTHEDEVELOPMENTOFANADAPTIVECONTROLSTRATEGY,WHICHISAIMEDTOENHANCETHECONTROLSTRATEGYROBUSTNESSWITHRESPECTTOPROCESSPARAMETERVARIATIONS,CAUSEDBYPRODUCTIONDEVIATIONS,VARIATIONSOFEXTERNALCONDITIONS,ANDISBEINGREPLACEDINMODERNVEHICLESBYANELECTRONICTHROTTLE,WHERETHELINKBETWEENTHEGASPEDALANDTHEUSUALLYINCLUDEANINNERCURRENTCONTROLLERTHETHROTTLEMOTIONISCONSTRAINEDBYADUALRETURNSPRINGWHICHPROVIDINGALINEARSYSTEMLIKEBEHAVIORFORAWIDERANGEOFTHROTTLEOPERATIONTHESTEPRESPONSEOFCONTROLSYSTEMISCHARACTERIZEDBYTHESETTLINGTIMEOFAPPROXIARTICLEINPRESSC3CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL38516168325;FAX38516168351EMAILADDRESSESDANIJELPAVKOVICFSBHRDPAVKOVIC,MATELY70MSANDTHESTEADYSTATEACCURACYBETTERTHAN011THECONTROLSTRATEGYHASBEENTUNEDBASEDONTHE09670661/SEEFRONTMATTERR2005ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JCONENGPRAC200501006JOSKODEURFSBHRJDEUR,MJANSZFORDCOMMJANSZ,NEDJELJKOPERICFERHRNPERICTHROTTLEPLATEISREALIZEDBYMEANSOFADCSERVOMOTORINTHISWAY,THEENGINECONTROLUNITCANCORRECTTHETHROTTLEPOSITIONREFERENCEVALUEFORSPECIfiCENGINEOPERATINGMODES,THUSIMPROVINGDRIVABILITY,FUELECONOMY,ANDEMISSIONS,ANDALSOPROVIDINGTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFENGINEBASEDVEHICLEDYNAMICSCONTROLSYSTEMSINCLUDINGTRACTIONCONTROLHUBER,LIEBENROTHLEDEN,MAISCH,REPPICH,1991THEELECTRONICTHROTTLECONSISTSOFANELECTRONICTHROTTLEBODY,ARETURNSTHETHROTTLEINTHESOCALLEDLIMPHOMELHPOSITIONINTHECASEOFPOWERSUPPLYFAILUREITHASBEENDEMONSTRATEDINDEUR,PAVKOVIC,PERIC,JANSZ,HROVAT,2004THATDCDRIVETRANSMISSIONFRICTIONANDTHEDUALRETURNSPRINGNONLINEARITYATTHELHPOSITIONSIGNIfiCANTLYAFFECTTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHEELECTRONICTHROTTLECONTROLSYSTEMANONLINEARCONTROLSTRATEGYISPROPOSEDINTHESAMEREFERENCEINORDERTOCOMPENSATEFORFRICTIONANDLHNONLINEAREFFECTS,THUSCONTROLSTRATEGYPARAMETERSDURINGVEHICLEASSEMBLY,ORUSESSPECIfiCDRIVEMODESDURINGNORMALUSEEGEACHTIMETHEENGINEISTURNEDOFFTHESELFTUNINGALGORITHMSAREBASEDONTHEPERMANENT,ONLINEESTIMATIONOFTHOSEPROCESSPARAMETERSWHICHCANVARYWITHINASINGLEENGINERUNEGTHEDCMOTORARMATURERESISTANCETHEPRESENTEDADAPTIVECONTROLSTRATEGYHASBEENVERIfiEDEXPERIMENTALLYR2005ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSSERVOMOTORS;AUTOMOTIVECONTROL;ELECTRICTHROTTLECONTROL;FRICTION;NONLINEARCONTROL;AUTOTUNER;SELFTUNINGCONTROL1INTRODUCTIONINCONVENTIONALVEHICLESTHEDRIVERGASPEDALISMECHANICALLYLINKEDTOTHETHROTTLEPLATETHISSYSTEMCHOPPER,ANDAPOSITIONCONTROLSTRATEGYAPHOTOGRAPHOFANELECTRONICTHROTTLEBODYISSHOWNINFIG1A,ANDITSINTERNALSTRUCTUREISDEPICTEDINTHELOWERRIGHTPARTOFFIG1BTHEELECTRONICTHROTTLESERVOSYSTEMDOESNOTAGINGTHEADAPTIVESTRATEGYCONSISTSOFAUTOTUNINGANDSELFTUNINGALGORITHMSTHEAUTOTUNERPROVIDESAUTOMATICTUNINGOFTHEADAPTIVECONTROLOFAUTOMOTIVEDANIJELPAVKOVICA,C3,JOSˇKODEURAFACULTYOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGANDNAVALARCHITECTURE,BFORDMOTORCOMPANYLTD,PRODUCTDEVELOPMENTEUROPE,DUNTONCFACULTYOFELECTRICALENGINEERINGANDCOMPUTING,UNIVERSITRECEIVED16JUNE2003;AVAILABLEONLINEABSTRACTANELECTRONICTHROTTLEISADCSERVODRIVEWHICHPOSITIONSTHETHISPAPERPRESENTSANELECTRONICTHROTTLECONTROLSTRATEGYCONSISTING2006121–136ELECTRONICTHROTTLEJANSZB,NEDJELJKOPERICCOFZAGREB,ILUCˇICA5,HR10000ZAGREB,CROATIATECHNICALCENTRE,LAINDON,BASILDON,ESSEXSS156EE,UKYOFZAGREB,UNSKA3,HR10000,ZAGREB,CROATIA19JANUARY2005MARCH2005PLATE,THUSPROVIDINGDRIVEBYWIRECONTROLOFENGINETORQUEOFAPIDCONTROLLER,ANDNONLINEARFRICTIONANDLIMPHOMEWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/CONENGPRACARTICLEINPRESSNICTHROTTLEPROCESSMODELSEEPAVKOVIC,DEUR,JANSZ,PERIC,2003ITCANBEEXPECTEDTHATTHEPERFORMANCEOFANELECTRONICTHROTTLEWITHCONSTANTCONTROLLERPARAMETERSWILLDETERIORATEINTHEPRESENCEOFPROCESSPARAMETERVARIATIONSTHEREARETHREESOURCESOFPROCESSPARAMETERVARIATIONSSEEPAVKOVICDEUR,2002;HASHIMOTO,ISHIGURO,YASUI,AKAZAKI,2003APRODUCTIONDEVIATIONSDIFFERENTETBSFROMTHESAMERESULBCINTWOCONTROLTSOFOFFLINEEXPERIMENTALIDENTIfiCATIONOFELECTROFIG1PHOTOGRAPHOFELECTRONICTHROTTLEBODYA,ANDPRINCIPALDPAVKOVICETAL/CONTROLENGINEERING122PRODUCTIONSERIESCANHAVEDIFFERENTPARAMETERSSTATICCURVESUYINFIG2AILLUSTRATETHATTHEFRICTIONLEVELCHARACTERIZEDBYTHEWIDTHOFTHESTATICCURVEHYSTERESIS,ANDTHELHVOLTAGESTEPCANBEQUITEDIFFERENTFORDIFFERENTETBSAGINGFIG2BINDICATESTHATTHEFRICTIONANDLHVOLTAGESINCREASEWITHAGINGOFETBTHELHPOSITIONHASBEENFOUNDTOVARYWITHAGINGASWELLAGINGMAYALSODECREASETHEDCMOTORVOLTAGEANDTORQUECONSTANTSDUETOTHEWEAKENINGOFTHEMOTORPERMANENTMAGNETSVARIATIONSOFEXTERNALTEMPERATUREANDBATTERYVOLTAGETHEDCMOTORARMATURERESISTANCECANVARYINTHERANGE12ASTHECONSEQUENCEOFTEMPERATUREVARIATIONSHASHIMOTOETAL,2003THISHASDIRECTIMPLICATIONSONTHEFRICTIONANDLHVOLTAGEPARAMETERS,ASILLUSTRATEDBYTHESTATICCURVESINFIG3THEBATTERYVOLTAGEVARIATIONSHAVESIMILARINflUENCEONTHEPROCESSSTATICCURVEPARAMETERSORDERTODEALWITHPROCESSPARAMETERVARIATIONS,CONTROLCONCEPTSCANGENERALLYBEAPPLIEDIROBUSTANDIIADAPTIVECONTROLTHEFORMERCONCEPTASSUMESTHATTHEPROCESSMODELUNCERTAINTIESCANBECAPTUREDBYMEANSOFASPECIfiCCONTROLSTRUCTUREASLIDINGMODEELECTRONICTHROTTLECONTROLSTRUCTUREISOFTENPROPOSEDEITHERINITSSTANDARDFORMSEEEGHASHIMOTOETAL,2003;ROSSI,TILLI,TONIELLI,2000;YOKOYAMA,SHIMIZU,OKAMOTO,1998ORINAMOREADVANCEDNEURALNETWORKBASEDFORMSEEEGBARIC,PETROVIC,PERIC,2002,2004THEEFFECTIVENESSOFSUCHANAPPROACHCANBELIMITEDBYHIGHLEVELOFNOISEINTHECONTROLLEROUTPUTSIGNALCHATTERING,AND/ORTHEREQUIREMENTSONVERYLOWSAMPLINGTIMEANDPOWERFULSCHEMATICOFADAPTIVEELECTRONICTHROTTLECONTROLSYSTEMBPRACTICE142006121–136PROCESSORTHELATTERCONCEPTOFADAPTIVECONTROLASSUMESONLINETUNINGOFCONTROLLERPARAMETERSBASEDONTHERESULTSOFONLINEPROCESSIDENTIfiCATIONSUCHACONCEPTHASNOTBEENWELLINVESTIGATEDINTHEAVAILABLELITERATURE,WITHANEXCEPTIONOFHASHIMOTOETAL2003,ANDGAGNERANDBONDESSON2000,WHEREADAPTIVELHCOMPENSATORSAREPRESENTEDTHISPAPERPROPOSESAMORECOMPREHENSIVEADAPTIVEELECTRONICTHROTTLECONTROLSTRATEGYCOMPAREDTOTHOSEGIVENINHASHIMOTOETAL2003,ANDGAGNERANDBONDESSON2000,ANDPRESENTSTHERESULTSOFTHOROUGHEXPERIMENTALTESTSTHEADAPTATIONMECHANISMTUNESTHECONTROLSTRATEGYFROMDEURETAL2004WITHRESPECTTOWIDERANGEVARIATIONSOFALLPROCESSPARAMETERSTHEOVERALLADAPTIVECONTROLSTRATEGYCANBEIMPLEMENTEDONALOWCOSTAUTOMOTIVEMICROCONTROLLERSYSTEMWITHINTEGERARITHMETICONLYANDTYPICALELECTRONICTHROTTLESAMPLINGTIMEINTHERANGEFROM2TO5MSTHEADAPTATIONSTRATEGYCONSISTSOFAUTOTUNINGANDSELFTUNINGALGORITHMSFIG1BTHEAUTOTUNERTUNESTHECONTROLLERPARAMETERSFOREACHSINGLEETBINTHESTAGEOFVEHICLEPRODUCTIONITCANALSOBEEXECUTEDDURINGSPECIfiCVEHICLEDRIVEMODESARTICLEINPRESSDPAVKOVICETAL/CONTROLENGINEERINGEGDURINGMAINTENANCEINTERVALS,OREACHTIMETHEENGINEISTURNEDOFF,THUSADAPTINGTHECONTROLSTRATEGYWITHRESPECTTOSLOWVARIATIONSOFPROCESSPARAMETERSEGFRICTIONANDLHVARIATIONSTHESELFTUNINGALGORITHMPERFORMSREALTIMEESTIMATIONOFTHOSEPROCESSPARAMETERSWHICHCANVARYWITHINASINGLEENGINERUNEGARMATURERESISTANCE,ANDUPDATESTHERELEVANTCONTROLSTRATEGYPARAMETERSTHEPAPERISORGANIZEDINSEVENSECTIONSSECTION2DESCRIBESTHEPROCESSMODELSECTION3PRESENTSTHENONLINEARCONTROLSTRATEGY,ANDGIVESSOMEILLUSTRATIVEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSASIMULATIONANALYSISOFTHEINflUENCEOFPROCESSPARAMETERVARIATIONSONTHEELECTRONICTHROTTLEPERFORMANCEISPRESENTEDINSECTION4THEAUTOTUNERISDESCRIBEDINSECTION5SECTION6VARIANTSOFARMATURERESISTANCEESTIMATORAREPROPOSED,FIG2VARIATIONSOFPROCESSSTATICCURVESFORDIFFERENTETBSA,ANDVARIATIONSOFPROCESSSTATICCURVEPARAMETERSDUETOAGINGBDEPENDINGONTHEAVAILABILITYOFARMATURECURRENTMEASUREMENTANDAUTOTUNINGPROCEDUREBOTHAUTOTUNINGANDSELFTUNINGALGORITHMSAREVERIfiEDEXPERIMENTALLYCONCLUDINGREMARKSAREGIVENINSECTION72PROCESSMODELTHEPROCESSMODELISSHOWNINFIG4SEEEGPRESENTSSELFTUNINGALGORITHMSWHICHADAPTTHECONTROLSTRATEGYWITHRESPECTTOVARIATIONSOFARMATURERESISTANCE,BATTERYVOLTAGE,ANDLHPOSITIONDIFFERENTFIG3INflUENCEOFARMATURERESISTANCEONPROCESSSTATICCURVESIMULATIONPRACTICE142006121–136123SCATTOLINIETAL,1997THEHIGHBANDWIDTHDYNAMICSOFTHECHOPPERISAPPROXIMATEDBYTHEPROPORTIONALTERMWITHTHEGAINKCHTHEELECTRONICTHROTTLEBODYISDESCRIBEDBYTHEWELLKNOWNDCMOTORLINEARMODELWHICHISEXTENDEDWITHNONLINEARMODELSOFFRICTIONANDDUALRETURNSPRINGADYNAMICFRICTIONMODELISUSEDINSIMULATIONSITREPRESENTSANEXTENSIONOFTHEDAHLFRICTIONMODEL,ANDISDESCRIBEDINDETAILINDEURETAL2004THELOADTORQUEMLDUETOTHETHROTTLEAIRMASSflOWHASNOTBEENFOUNDTOHAVESIGNIfiCANTINflUENCEONTHEELECTRONICTHROTTLEBEHAVIOR,ANDITISTREATEDASANUNKNOWNDISTURBANCEFIG5SHOWSTHEPROCESSSTATICCURVECFFIG2THEVOLTAGEPARAMETERSOFTHEPROCESSSTATICCURVEARERELATEDTOTHECORRESPONDINGLHANDFRICTIONTORQUESASFOLLOWSCFFIGS4AND52ULHKLDMLHKCHKAKT,1US;CMS;CKCHKAKT2FOLLOWINGCONDITIONISSATISfiEDKDBKLffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2KSJP,6THELINEARPROCESSDYNAMICSCANBEREPRESENTEDBYASIMPLEINTEGRALLAGMODELIT1MODELSEEDEURETAL,2004GPSYSUSKPS1TEMS,7WHERETHEPROCESSGAINKPANDTHEELECTROMECHANICALTIMECONSTANTTEMAREGIVENBYKPKCHKLKV,TEMJKD8ACCORDINGTOIDENTIfiCATIONRESULTSINPAVKOVICETAL2003,THECONDITION6ISSATISfiEDINTHEREGIONABOVETHELIMPHOMEPOSITIONY4YLH;CFSLOPESOFTHEPROCESSSTATICCURVEINFIG2FORYOYLHANDY4YLHARTICLEINPRESSPRACTICE142006121–136FIG4BLOCKDIAGRAMOFELECTRONICTHROTTLEPROCESSU;UA;UEMFCOMMANDEDSIGNAL,ARMATUREVOLTAGE,ANDBACKELECTROMOTIVEFORCE;IAARMATURECURRENT;MM;MS;MF;MLMOTOR,RETURNSPRING,FRICTION,ANDLOADTORQUE;YM;YMOTORANDTHROTTLEPOSITION;OMMOTORSPEED;KCHCHOPPERGAIN;KA;KT;KVARMATURE,TORQUE,ANDVOLTAGEGAIN;JTOTALMOMENTOFINERTIA;1/KLGEARRATIO;YLHLIMPHOMEPOSITION;MC;MSCOULOMBANDBREAKAWAYFRICTIONDPAVKOVICETAL/CONTROLENGINEERING124INGENERAL,THEVALUESOFLHVOLTAGESULH7ANDTHESLOPESOFPROCESSSTATICCURVEDUDYC6ABOVEANDBELOWC0THELHPOSITIONYLHARENOTEQUALACCORDINGTOPAVKOVICETAL2003,THEARMATURETIMECONSTANTISVERYSMALLTAC2505MS,ANDITDOESNOTAFFECTTHELINEARPROCESSDYNAMICSTHUS,THELINEARPROCESSMODELFIG4WITHMF0ANDMSKSKLYCANBEDESCRIBEDBYTHESECONDORDERLAGMODELGPSYSUSKP21AP1SAP2S2,3WITHKP2KCHKAKTKSKL;AP1KDKSK2L;AP2JKSK2L,4WHEREKDISTHEDAMPINGCOEFfiCIENTDUETOTHEBACKELECTROMOTIVEFORCEUEMFKDKAKTKV5IFTHERETURNSPRINGSTIFFNESSKSISSMALLENOUGHIEIFTHESLOPEOFTHEPROCESSSTATICCURVEISSMALL,SOTHATTHE3NONLINEARCONTROLSTRATEGYFIG5PROCESSSTATICCURVEFIG6SHOWSTHEBLOCKDIAGRAMOFTHEPROPOSEDELECTRONICTHROTTLECONTROLSTRATEGYTHECONTROLSTRATEGYCONSISTSOFAPIDFEEDBACKCONTROLLER,AfiRSTORDERLEADLAGFEEDFORWARDCONTROLLERFFC,ANDNONLINEARFRICTIONANDLHCOMPENSATORSBRIEFDESCRIPTIONOFTHECONTROLSTRATEGYSTRUCTURE,TUNING,ANDEXPERIMENTALVERIfiCATIONISGIVENINTHENEXTSUBSECTIONSMOREDETAILEDELABORATIONCANBEFOUNDINDEUR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