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附录英文翻译SPINCONTROLFORCARSSTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSARETHELATESTINASTRINGOFTECHNOLOGIESFOCUSINGONIMPROVEDDIRIVINGSAFETYSUCHSYSTEMSDETECTTHEINITIALPHASESOFASKIDANDRESTOREDIRECTIONALCONTROLIN40MILLISECONDS,SEVENTIMESFASTERTTHANTHEREACTIONTIMEOFTHEAVERAGEHUMANTHEYCORRECTVEHICLEPATHSBYADJUSTINGENGINETORQUEORAPPLYINGTHELEFTORRIGHTSIDEBRAKES,ORBOTH,ASNEEDEDTHETECHNOLOGYHASALREADYBEENAPPLIEDTOTHEMERCEDESBENZS600COUPEFULLTEXTCOPYRIGHT1995AMERICANSOCIETYOFMECHANICALENGINEERSAUTOMATICSTABILITYSYSTEMSCANDETECTTHEONSETOFASKIDANDBRINGAFISHTAILINGVEHICLEBACKONCOURSEEVENBEFOREITSDRIVERCANREACTSAFETYGLASS,SEATBELTS,CRUMPLEZONES,AIRBAGS,ANTILOCKBRAKES,TRACTIONCONTROL,ANDNOWSTABILITYCONTROLTHECONTINUINGPROGRESSIONOFSAFETYSYSTEMSFORCARSHASYIELDEDYETANOTHERDEVICEDESIGNEDTOKEEPOCCUPANTSFROMINJURYSTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSHELPDRIVERSRECOVERFROMUNCONTROLLEDSKIDSINCURVES,THUSAVOIDINGSPINOUTSANDACCIDENTSUSINGCOMPUTERSANDANARRAYOFSENSORS,ASTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMDETECTSTHEONSETOFASKIDANDRESTORESDIRECTIONALCONTROLMOREQUICKLYTHANAHUMANDRIVERCANEVERYMICROSECOND,THESYSTEMTAKESASNAPSHOT,CALCULATINGWHETHERACARISGOINGEXACTLYINTHEDIRECTIONITISBEINGSTEEREDIFTHEREISTHESLIGHTESTDIFFERENCEBETWEENWHERETHEDRIVERISSTEERINGANDWHERETHEVEHICLEISGOING,THESYSTEMCORRECTSITSPATHINASPLITSECONDBYADJUSTINGENGINETORQUEAND/ORAPPLYINGTHECATSLEFTORRIGHTSIDEBRAKESASNEEDEDTYPICALREACTIONTIMEIS40MILLISECONDSSEVENTIMESFASTERTHANTHATOFTHEAVERAGEHUMANASTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSENSESTHEDRIVERSDESIREDMOTIONFROMTHESTEERINGANGLE,THEACCELERATORPEDALPOSITION,ANDTHEBRAKEPRESSUREWHILEDETERMININGTHEVEHICLESACTUALMOTIONFROMTHEYAWRATEVEHICLEROTATIONABOUTITSVERTICALAXISANDLATERALACCELERATION,EXPLAINEDANTONVANZANTEN,PROJECTLEADEROFTHEROBERTBOSCHENGINEERINGTEAMVANZANTENSGROUPANDATEAMOFENGINEERSFROMMERCEDESBENZ,LEDBYPROJECTMANAGERARMINMULLER,DEVELOPEDTHEFIRSTFULLYEFFECTIVESTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEM,WHICHREGULATESENGINETORQUEANDWHEELBRAKEPRESSURESUSINGTRACTIONCONTROLCOMPONENTSTOMINIMIZETHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHEDESIREDANDACTUALMOTIONAUTOMOTIVESAFETYEXPERTSBELIEVETHATSTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSWILLREDUCETHENUMBEROFACCIDENTS,ORATLEASTTHESEVERITYOFDAMAGESAFETYSTATISTICSSAYTHATMOSTOFTHEDEADLYACCIDENTSINWHICHASINGLECARSPINSOUTACCOUNTINGFORFOURPERCENTOFALLDEADLYCOLLISIONSCOULDBEAVOIDEDUSINGTHENEWTECHNOLOGYTHEADDITIONALCOSTOFTHENEWSYSTEMSAREONTHEORDEROFTHEINCREASINGLYPOPULARANTILOCKBRAKE/TRACTIONCONTROLUNITSNOWAVAILABLEFORCARSTHEDEBUTOFSTABILITYCONTROLTECHNOLOGYTOOKPLACEINEUROPEONTHEMERCEDESBENZS600COUPETHISSPRINGDEVELOPEDJOINTLYDURINGTHEPASTFEWYEARSBYROBERTBOSCHGMBHANDMERCEDESBENZAG,BOTHOFSTUTTGART,GERMANY,VEHICLEDYNAMICSCONTROLVDCINBOSCHTERMINOLOGY,ORTHEELECTRONICSTABILITYPROGRAMESP,ASMERCEDESCALLSIT,MAINTAINSVEHICLESTABILITYINMOSTDRIVINGSITUATIONSBOSCHDEVELOPEDTHESYSTEM,ANDMERCEDESBENZINTEGRATEDITINTOTHEVEHICLEMERCEDESENGINEERSUSEDTHESTATEOFTHEARTDAIMLERBENZVIRTUALREALITYDRIVINGSIMULATORINBERLINTOEVALUATETHESYSTEMUNDEREXTREMECONDITIONS,SUCHASSTRONGCROSSWINDSTHEYTHENPUTTHESYSTEMTHROUGHITSPACESONTHESLICKICEOFLAKEHORNAVANNEARARJEPLOG,SWEDENWORKISCURRENTLYUNDERWAYTOADAPTTHETECHNOLOGYTOBUSESANDLARGETRUCKS,TOAVOIDJACKKNIFING,FOREXAMPLESTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSWILLFIRSTAPPEARINMID1995ONSOMEEUROPEANSCLASSMODELSANDWILLREACHTHEUSMARKETDURINGTHE1996MODELYEARNOVEMBER1995INTRODUCTIONITWILLBEAVAILABLEASA750OPTIONONMERCEDESMODELSWITHV8ENGINES,ANDTHEFOLLOWINGYEARITWILLBEA2400OPTIONONSIXCYLINDERCARSABOUT1650OFTHELATTERPRICEISFORTHETRACTIONCONTROLSYSTEM,APREREQUISITEFORSTABILITYCONTROLBOSCHISNOTALONEINDEVELOPINGSUCHASAFETYSYSTEMITTAUTOMOTIVEOFAUBURNHILLS,MICH,INTRODUCEDITSAUTOMOTIVESTABILITYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMASMSINJANUARYATTHE1995NORTHAMERICANINTERNATIONALAUTOSHOWINDETROITASMSISAQUANTUMLEAPINTHEEVOLUTIONOFANTILOCKBRAKESYSTEMS,COMBININGTHEBESTATTRIBUTESOFABSANDTRACTIONCONTROLINTOATOTALVEHICLEDYNAMICSMANAGEMENTSYSTEM,SAIDTIMOTHYDLEULIETTE,ITTAUTOMOTIVESPRESIDENTANDCHIEFEXECUTIVEOFFICERASMSMONITORSWHATTHEVEHICLECONTROLSINDICATESHOULDBEHAPPENING,COMPARESTHATTOWHATISACTUALLYHAPPENING,THENWORKSTOCOMPENSATEFORTHEDIFFERENCE,SAIDJOHANNESGRABER,ASMSPROGRAMMANAGERATITTAUTOMOTIVEEUROPEITTSSYSTEMSHOULDBEGINAPPEARINGONVEHICLESWORLDWIDENEARTHEENDOFTHEDECADE,ACCORDINGTOTOMMATHUES,DIRECTOROFENGINEERINGOFBRAKECHASSISSYSTEMSATITTAUTOMOTIVENORTHAMERICACOMPANYENGINEERSARENOWADAPTINGTHESYSTEMTOSPECIFICCARMODELSFROMSIXORIGINALEQUIPMENTMANUFACTURERSALESSSOPHISTICATEDANDLESSEFFECTIVEBOSCHSTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMALREADYAPPEARSONTHE1995750ILAND850CIV12MODELSFROMMUNICHBASEDBMWAGTHEBMWDYNAMICSTABILITYCONTROLDSCSYSTEMUSESTHESAMEWHEELSPEEDSENSORSASTRACTIONCONTROLANDSTANDARDANTILOCKBRAKEABSSYSTEMSTORECOGNIZECONDITIONSTHATCANDESTABILIZEAVEHICLEINCURVESANDCORNERSTODETECTSUCHPOTENTIALLYDANGEROUSCORNERINGSITUATIONS,DSCMEASURESDIFFERENCESINROTATIONALSPEEDBETWEENTHETWOFRONTWHEELSTHEDSCSYSTEMALSOADDSASENSORFORSTEERINGANGLE,UTILIZESANEXISTINGONEFORVEHICLEVELOCITY,ANDINTRODUCESITSOWNSOFTWARECONTROLELEMENTSINTHEOVERALLANTILOCKBRAKE/TRACTIONCONTROL/STABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMTHENEWBOSCHANDITTAUTOMOTIVESTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSBENEFITFROMADVANCEDTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPEDFORTHEAEROSPACEINDUSTRYJUSTASINASUPERSONICFIGHTER,THEAUTOMOTIVESTABILITYCONTROLUNITSUSEASENSORBASEDCOMPUTERSYSTEMTOMEDIATEBETWEENTHEHUMANCONTROLLERANDTHEENVIRONMENTINTHISCASE,THEINTERFACEBETWEENTIREANDROADINADDITION,THESYSTEMISBUILTAROUNDAGYROSCOPELIKESENSORDESIGNUSEDFORMISSILEGUIDANCEBEYONDABSANDTRACTIONCONTROLSTABILITYCONTROLISTHELOGICALEXTENSIONOFABSANDTRACTIONCONTROL,ACCORDINGTOASOCIETYOFAUTOMOTIVEENGINEERSPAPERWRITTENBYVANZANTENANDBOSCHCOLLEAGUESRAINERERHARDTANDGEORGPFAFFWHEREASABSINTERVENESWHENWHEELLOCKISIMMINENTDURINGBRAKING,ANDTRACTIONCONTROLPREVENTSWHEELSLIPPAGEWHENACCELERATING,STABILITYCONTROLOPERATESINDEPENDENTLYOFTHEDRIVERSACTIONSEVENWHENTHECARISFREEROLLINGDEPENDINGONTHEPARTICULARDRIVINGSITUATION,THESYSTEMMAYACTIVATEANINDIVIDUALWHEELBRAKEORANYCOMBINATIONOFTHEFOURANDADJUSTENGINETORQUE,STABILIZINGTHECARANDSEVERELYREDUCINGTHEDANGEROFANUNCONTROLLEDSKIDTHENEWSYSTEMSCONTROLTHEMOTIONNOTONLYDURINGFULLBRAKINGBUTALSODURINGPARTIALBRAKING,COASTING,ACCELERATION,ANDENGINEDRAGONTHEDRIVENWHEELS,CIRCUMSTANCESWELLBEYONDWHATABSANDTRACTIONCONTROLCANHANDLETHEIDEABEHINDTHETHREEACTIVESAFETYSYSTEMSISTHESAMEONEWHEELLOCKINGORSLIPPINGSIGNIFICANTLYDECREASESDIRECTIONALSTABILITYORMAKESSTEERINGAVEHICLEMOREDIFFICULTIFACARMUSTBRAKEONALOWFRICTIONSURFACE,LOCKINGITSWHEELSSHOULDBEAVOIDEDTOMAINTAINSTABILITYANDSTEERABILITYWHEREASABSANDTRACTIONCONTROLPREVENTUNDESIREDLONGITUDINALSLIP,STABILITYCONTROLREDUCESLOSSOFLATERALSTABILITYIFTHELATERALFORCESOFAMOVINGVEHICLEARENOLONGERADEQUATEATONEORMOREWHEELS,THEVEHICLEMAYLOSESTABILITY,PARTICULARLYINCURVESWHATTHEDRIVERSENSESASFISHTAILINGISPRIMARILYATURNINGORSPINNINGAROUNDTHEVEHICLESAXISASEPARATESENSORMUSTRECOGNIZETHISSPINNING,BECAUSEUNLIKEABSANDTRACTIONCONTROL,ACARSLATERALMOVEMENTCANNOTBECALCULATEDFROMITSWHEELSPEEDSSPINHANDLERSTHENEWSYSTEMSMEASUREANYTENDENCYTOWARDUNDERSTEERWHENACARRESPONDSSLOWLYTOSTEERINGCHANGES,OROVERSTEERWHENTHEREARWHEELSTRYTOSWINGAROUNDIFACARUNDERSTEERSANDSWERVESOFFCOURSEWHENDRIVENINACURVE,THESTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMWILLCORRECTTHEERRORBYBRAKINGTHEINNERWITHRESPECTTOTHECURVEREARWHEELTHISENABLESTHEDRIVER,ASINTHECASEOFABS,TOAPPROACHTHELOCKINGLIMITOFTHEROADTIREINTERFACEWITHOUTLOSINGCONTROLOFTHEVEHICLETHESTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMMAYREDUCETHEVEHICLESDRIVEMOMENTUMBYTHROTTLINGBACKTHEENGINEAND/ORBYBRAKINGONINDIVIDUALWHEELSCONVERSELY,IFTHEHTERALSTABILIZINGFORCEONTHEREARAXLEISINSUFFICIENT,THEDANGEROFOVERSTEERINGMAYRESULTINREARENDBREAKAWAYORSPINOUTHERE,THESYSTEMACTSASASTABILIZERBYAPPLYINGTHEOUTERFRONTWHEELBRAKETHEINFLUENCEOFSIDESLIPANGLEONMANEUVERABILITY,THEBOSCHRESEARCHERSEXPLAINED,SHOWSTHATTHESENSITIVITYOFTHEYAWMOMENTONTHEVEHICLE,WITHRESPECTTOCHANGESINTHESTEERINGANGLE,DECREASESRAPIDLYASTHESLIPANGLEOFTHEVEHICLEINCREASESONCETHESLIPANGLEGROWSBEYONDACERTAINLIMIT,THEDRIVERHASAMUCHHARDERTIMERECOVERINGBYSTEERINGONDRYSURFACES,MANEUVERABILITYISLOSTATSLIPANGLEVALUESLARGERTHANAPPROXIMATELY10DEGREES,ANDONPACKEDSNOWATAPPROXIMATELY4DEGREESMOSTDRIVERSHAVELITTLEEXPERIENCERECOVERINGFROMSKIDSTHEYARENTAWAREOFTHECOEFFICIENTOFFRICTIONBETWEENTHETIRESANDTHEROADANDHAVENOIDEAOFTHEIRVEHICLESLATERALSTABILITYMARGINWHENTHELIMITOFADHESIONISREACHED,THEDRIVERISUSUALLYCAUGHTBYSURPRISEANDVERYOFTENREACTSINTHEWRONGWAY,STEERINGTOOMUCHOVERSTEERING,ITTSGRABEREXPLAINED,CAUSESTHECARTOFISHTAIL,THROWINGTHEVEHICLEEVENFURTHEROUTOFCONTROLASMSSENSORS,HESAID,CANQUICKLYDETECTTHEBEGINNINGOFASKIDANDMOMENTARILYACTIVATETHEBRAKESATINDIVIDUALWHEELSTOHELPRETURNTHEVEHICLETOASTABLELINEITISIMPORTANTTHATSTABILITYCONTROLSYSTEMSBEUSERFRIENDLYATTHELIMITOFADHESIONTHATIS,TOACTPREDICTABLYINAWAYSIMILARTONORMALDRIVING
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