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AJIANG,INREVISED27OWINGTOTHEIRUNIQUECHARACTERISTICSOFHIGHERSTRENGTHTOANDISTHOUGHTTOBETHESIMPLESTANDMOSTECONOMICMETHODTOFINISHSTEEL,ALUMINUM,COPPER,PLASTICSANDMANYOTHERNICKELHASEXHIBITEDMOREPOPULARITYDUETOITSEXCELLENTMETALSCANBEPLATEDTHEREARECURRENTLYTWOGENERALSOLUTIONSTOTREATINGMAGNESIUMPRIORTOPLATINGZINCIMMERSIONANDCONVERSIONTREATMENTINAFLUORIDECONTAININGBATH3ITISNOTEDTHATINMANYPREVIOUSREPORTSONTHEELECTROLESSPLATINGONSURFACECOATINGSTECHNOLOGY201MATERIALSANOTHERADVANTAGEOFTHEELECTROLESSDEPOSITIONWEIGHTRATIOANDAGOODDAMPINGCAPACITYHOWEVER,THEAPPLICATIONOFMAGNESIUMALLOYSHASBEENLIMITEDDUETOTHEUNDESIRABLEPROPERTIES,INCLUDINGPOORCORROSIONANDWEARRESISTANCETHECORROSIONOFMAGNESIUMALLOYSDEPENDSONTHEIRMETALLURGYANDENVIRONMENTALFACTORSTOIMPROVETHEPRACTICALUSAGEOFMAGNESIUMALLOYS,MANYRESEARCHERSHAVEATTEMPTEDTODEVELOPANTICORROSIVEANDHIGHWEARRESISTANCESTRATEGIES1–8ELECTROLESSDEPOSITIONISAVARIETYOFCHEMICALDEPOSITIONTECHNOLOGY,INVOLVINGTHEDEPOSITIONOFMETALSFROMSOLUTIONONTOSURFACESWITHOUTAPPLYINGANEXTERNALELECTRICVOLTAGE9PROPERTIESSUCHASHIGHHARDNESS,WEARANDCORROSIONRESISTANCEANDHASATTRACTEDEXTENSIVEINTERESTSFROMTHEACADEMEANDTHEINDUSTRY10–14HOWEVER,THEELECTROLESSPLATINGONMAGNESIUMALLOYS,HASMANYCHALLENGESINTHEPROCESSINGOFPLATINGANDTHEREISLIMITEDREPORTSONMAGNESIUMALLOYS1,15–18THEMAGNESIUMALLOYISEXTREMELYSUSCEPTIBLETOGALVANICCORROSIONTHATPITSEVERELYONTHEMETALRESULTINGINANUNATTRACTIVEAPPEARANCEASWELLASDECREASEDMECHANICALPROPERTIESTHEMOSTDIFFICULTPARTOFPLATINGMAGNESIUMISDEVELOPINGANAPPROPRIATEPRETREATMENTPROCESS,ONCEASUITABLEUNDERCOATINGISINPLACEMANYDESIRED2006ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSCHROMIUMFREEPRETREATMENT;MAGNESIUMALLOY;CORROSIONRESISTANCE1INTRODUCTIONMAGNESIUMANDITSALLOYSPLAYANIMPORTANTROLEINMANYFIELDS,SUCHASAEROSPACE,ELECTRONICSANDAUTOMOBILEFIELDSTECHNIQUEISTHATGOODQUALITYDEPOSITSWITHUNIFORMITYCANBEOBTAINEDWITHOUTSPECIALREQUIREMENTSFORSUBSTRATEGEOMETRIESANDCAPABILITYOFDEPOSITINGONEITHERCONDUCTIVEORNONCONDUCTIVEPARTSAMONGTHEPLATINGMETALS,ELECTROLESSITSSTRUCTURE,MORPHOLOGY,MICROHARDNESSANDCORROSIONRESISTANCETHEPRETREATMENTLAYERONTHESUBSTRATENOTONLYREDUCESTHECORROSIONOFMAGNESIUMDURINGNI–PPLATINGPROCESS,BUTALSOREDUCESTHEPOTENTIALDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHEMATRIXANDTHESECONDPHASETHUS,ANI–PCOATINGWITHFINEANDDENSESTRUCTUREWASOBTAINEDONTHEAZ91DMAGNESIUMALLOY,WHICHSHOWSBETTERCORROSIONRESISTANCETHANTHENI–PWITHCHROMIUMOXIDEPLUSHFASPRETREATMENTELECTROLESSNI–PLAYERWITHONAZ91DMAGNESIUMWXZHANG,JGHE,ZHKEYLABORATORYOFAUTOMOBILEMATERIALSJILINUNIVERSITY,DEPARTMENTOFMATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERING,RECEIVED1JULY2006;ACCEPTEDAVAILABLEONLINEABSTRACTAPHOSPHATEMANGANESECONVERSIONFILMWASPROPOSEDASTHEPRETREATMENTSUBSTRATE,TOREPLACETHETRADITIONALCHROMIUMOXIDEPLUSHFPRETREATMENT⁎CORRESPONDINGAUTHORDEPARTMENTOFMATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERING,JILINUNIVERSITY,CHANGCHUN130025,CHINAEMAILADDRESSLIANJSJLUEDUCNJSLIAN02578972/SEEFRONTMATTER2006ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JSURFCOAT200609312CHROMIUMFREEPRETREATMENTALLOYQJIANG,JSLIAN⁎MINISTRYOFEDUCATION,CHANGCHUN130025,CHINAJILINUNIVERSITY,CHANGCHUN130025,CHINAFORM28SEPTEMBER2006NOVEMBER2006LAYERBETWEENNI–PCOATINGANDAZ91DMAGNESIUMALLOYTHESUBSEQUENTNI–PDEPOSITEDONTHELAYERWASALSOCHARACTERIZEDBY20074594–4600WWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/SURFCOATMAGNESIUMALLOYS1,15–18,THEMAGNESIUMALLOYWASETCHEDINASOLUTIONOFCHROMIUMOXIDEANDNITRICACIDANDSOAKEDINHFSOLUTIONTOFORMACONVERSIONFILMBEFOREELECTROLESSPLATINGNI–PNEVERTHELESS,METALFINISHINGINDUSTRIESHAVETOLOOKFORALTERNATIVEMATERIALSORSPECIFICALLYDEPOSITIONMETHODSTOREPLACETHEHEXAVALENTCHROMIUMCOMPOUNDS,WHICHAREPROGNICKELCOATINGFOR10MINAFTERTAKINGTHEFILTERPAPERAWAY,REDSPOTSORREDAREASWERENOTEDONTHESURFACEOFTHECOATINGTHEPOROSITYOFCOATINGWASEVALUATEDRELATIVELYBYTHERATIOOFREDSPOTAREATOTHEZONEAREAPREVIOUSLYPASTEDBYTHEFILTERPAPERTHEPRINCIPLESOFTHEMETHODWEREBRIEFLYEXPLAINEDINREF20ACIDIMMERSIONTESTTHETESTIN10HCLSOLUTIONATROOMTEMPERATUREWASCARRIEDOUTFORDIFFERENTTHICKNESSCOATINGSONAZ91DMAGNESIUMALLOYIFTHEREWEREMICROPORESINTHECOATINGS,THESOLUTIONWOULDERODETHESUBSTRATETHROUGHTHEPORESTHENTHEHINTHESOLUTIONWOULDBEREDUCEDBYTHEMAGNESIUMANDTURNEDINTOTHEHYDROGENGASBUBBLES21ELECTROCHEMICALMEASUREMENTSTHEPOLARIZATIONCURVESOFNI–PDEPOSITSWEREPERFORMEDONANELECTROCHEMICALANALYZERCHI800,SHANGHAI,CHINABYLINEARSWEEPVOLTAMMETRYTECHNIQUEATROOMTEMPERATUREINA3WTNACLAQUEOUSSOLUTIONUSINGACLASSICTHREEELECTRODECELLTHEWORKINGELECTRODEWASCLEANEDINACETONEAGITATEDULTRASONICALLYFOR10MINBEFORETESTINGTHECOATEDSAMPLESWEREMASKEDWITHEPOXYRESINEP651SOTHATONLY1CM2AREAWXZHANGETAL/SURFACECOATINGSRESSIVELYRESTRICTEDDUETOTHEIRHIGHTOXICITYONENVIRONMENT19ANDHFALSOEXHIBITSSTRONGCORROSIVETHATCANNOTBEEASILYCONTROLLEDTHUS,THEENVIRONMENTALANDHEALTHFRIENDLYTECHNOLOGYHAVEBEENEXTENSIVELYSTUDIEDTOEFFECTIVELYINHIBITTHEMAGNESIUMCORROSIONRECENTLY4–7MOREOVER,THENICKELIONSWEREPROVIDEDBYBASICNICKELCARBONATEINMOSTNI–PPLATINGBATHFORMAGNESIUMALLOYINOURPREVIOUSSTUDY,ANELECTROLESSNI–PDEPOSITIONONTHEAZ91DMAGNESIUMALLOYWASPROPOSED18FROMAPLATINGBATHCONTAININGSULFATENICKELAFTERTHEALLOYWASPICKLEDINAACIDSOLUTIONOFCHROMIUMOXIDEANDACTIVATEDINHFSOLUTIONTOFORMAMGF2F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