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附录2英语原文TheComputerandManufacturingComputerAidedDesignThecomputerisbringingmanufacturingintotheInformationAge.Thisnewtool,alongfamiliaroneinbusinessandmanagementoperations,ismovingintothefactory,anditsadventischangingmanufacturingascertainlyasthesteamenginechangedit100yearsago.Thebasicmetalworkingprocessesarenotlikelytochangefundamentally,buttheirorganizationandcontroldefinitelywill.INonerespect,manufacturingcouldbesaidtobecomingfullcircle.Thefirstmanufacturingcouldwasacottageindustrythedesignerwasalsothemanufacturer,conceivingandfabricatingproductsoneatatime.Eventually,theconceptoftheinterchangeabilityofpartswasdeveloped,productionwasseparatedintospecializedfunctions,andidenticalpartswereproducedthousandsatatime.Today,althoughthedesignerandmanufacturermaynotbecomeoneagain,thefunctionsarebeingdrawncloseinthemovementtowardanintegratedmanufacturingsystem,Itisperhapsironicthat,atatimewhenthemarketdemandahighdegreedofproductdiversification,thenecessityforincreasingproductivityandreducingcostsisdrivingmanufacturingtowardintegrationintoacoherentsystem,acontinuousprocessinwhichpartsdonotspendasmuchas95ofproductiontimebeingmovedaroundorwaitingtobeworkedon.Thecomputeristhekeytoeachofthesetwinrequirements.Itistheonlytoolthatcanprovidethequickreflexes,theflexibilityandspeed,tomeetadiversifiedmarket.Anditistheonlytoolthatenablesthedetailedanalysisandtheaccessibilityofaccuratedatanecessaryfortheintegrationofthemanufacturingsystem.Itmaywellbethat,inthefuture,thecomputermaybeessentialtoacompanyssurvival.Manyoftodaysbusinesseswillfadeawaytobereplacedbymoreproductivecombinations.Suchmoreproductivecombinationsaresuperquality,superproductivityplants.Thegoalistodesignandoperateaplantthatwouldproduce100satisfactorypartswithgoodproductivity.Asophisticated,competitiveworldisrequiringthatmanufacturingbegintosettleformore,tobecomeitselfsophisticated,Tomeetcompetition,forexample,acompanywillhavetomeetthesomewhatconflictingdemandsforgreaterproductdiversification,higherquality,improvedproductivity,andlowprices.Thecompanythatseekstomeetthesedemandswillneedasophisticatedtool,onethatwillallowittorespondquicklytocustomerneedswhilegettingthemostoutofitsmanufacturingresources.Thecomputeristhattool.Becomingasuperquality,superproductivityplantrequirestheintegrationofanextremelycomplexsystem.Thiscanbeaccomplishedonlywhenallelementsofmanufacturingdesign,fabricationandassembly,qualityassurance,management,materialshandlingarecomputerintegrated.Inproductdesign,forexample,interactivecomputeraideddesignCADsystemsallowthedrawingandanalysistaskstobeperformedinafractionofthetimepreviouslyrequiredandwithgreateraccuracy.Andprogramsforprototypetestingandevaluationfurtherspeedthedesignprocess.Inmanufacturingplanning,computeraidedprocessplanningpermitstheselection,fromthousandsofpossiblesequencesschedules,oftheoptimumprocess.Ontheshopfloor,distributedintelligenceintheformofmicroprocessorscontrolsmachines,runsautomatedloadingandunloadingequipment,andcollectsdataoncurrentshopconditions.Butsuchisolatedrevolutionsarenotenough.Whatisneededisatotallyautomatedsystem,linkedbycommonsoftwarefromfrontdoortoback.Thebenefitsrangethroughoutthesystem.Essentially,computerintegrationprovideswidelyandinstantaneouslyavailable,accurateinformation,improvingcommunicationbetweendepartments,permittingtightercontrol,andgenerallyenhancingtheoverallqualityandefficiencyoftheentiresystem.Improvedcommunicationcanmean,forexample,designsthataremoreproducible.TheNCprogrammerandthetooldesignerhaveachancetoinfluencetheproductdesigner,andviceversa.Engineeringchanges,thus,canbereduced,andthosethatarerequiredcanbehandledmoreefficiently.Notonlydoesthecomputerpermitthemtobespecifiedmorequickly,butitalsoalertssubsequentusersofthedatatothefactthatachangehasbeenmade.Theinstantaneousupdatingofproductioncontroldatapermitsbetterplanningandmore0effectivescheduling.Expensiveequipment,therefore,isusedmoreproductively,andpartsmovemoreefficientlythroughproduction,reducingworkinprocesscosts.Productquality,too,canbeimproved.Notonlyaremoreaccuratedesignsproduced,forexample,buttheuseofdesigndatabythequalityassurancedepartmenthelpseliminateerrorsduetomisunderstandings.Peopleareenabledtodotheirjobsbetter.Byeliminatingtediouscalculationsandpaperworknottomentiontimewastedsearchingforinformationthecomputernotonlyallowsworkerstobemoreproductivebutalsofreesthemtodowhatonlyhumanbeingscandothinkcreatively.Computerintegrationmayalsolurenewpeopleintomanufacturing.Peopleareattractedbecausetheywanttoworkinamodern,technologicallysophisticatedenvironment.Inmanufacturingengineering,CAD/CAMdecreasestooldesign.NCprogramming,andplanningtimeswhilespeedingtheresponserate,whichwilleventuallypermitinhousestafftoperformworkthatiscurrentlybeingcontractedout.AccordingtotheToolManufacturingEngineersHandbook,processplanningisthesystematicdeterminationofthemethodsbywhichaproductistobemanufacturedeconomicallyandcompetitively.Itessentiallyinvolvesselection,calculation,anddocumentation.Processes,machines,tools,andsequencesmustbeselected.Suchfactorsasfeeds,speeds,tolerances,dimensions,andcostsmustbecalculated.Finally,documentsintheformofsetupinstructions,workinstructions,illustratedprocesssheets,androutingsmustbeprepared.Processplanningisanintermediatestagebetweendesigningandmanufacturingtheproduct.ButhowwelldoesitbridgedesignandmanufacturingMostmanufacturingengineerswouldagreethat,iftendifferentplannerswereaskedtodevelopaprocessplanforthesamepart,theywouldprobablycomeupwithtendifferentplans.Obviously,alltheseplanscannotreflectthemostefficientmanufacturingmethods,and,infact,thereisnoguaranteethatanyoneofthemwillconstitutetheoptimummethodsformanufacturingthepart.Whatmaybeevenmoredisturbingisthataprocessplandevelopedforapartduringacurrentmanufacturingprogrammaybequitedifferentmanufacturingprogramanditmayneverbeusedagainforthesameorsimilarpartduringaprevioussimilarpart.Thatrepresentsalotofwastedeffortandproducesagreatmanyinconsistenciesinrouting,tooling,laborrequirements,costing,andpossiblyevenpurchaserequirements.Ofcourse,processplansshouldnotnecessarilyremainstatic.Aslotsizeschangeandnewtechnology,equipment,andprocessesbecomeavailable,themosteffectivewaytomanufactureaparticularpartalsochanges,andthosechangesshouldbereflectedincurrentprocessplansreleasedtotheshop.Aplannermustmanageandretrieveagreatdealofdataandmanydocuments,includingestablishedstandards,machineabilitydata,machinespecifications,toolinginventories,stockavailability,andexistingprocessplans.Thisisprimarilyaninformationhandlingjob,andthecomputerisanidealcompanion.Thereisanotheradvantagetousingcomputerstohelpwithprocessplanning.Becausethetaskinvolvesmanyinterrelatedactivities,determiningtheoptimumplanrequiresmanyiterations.Sincecomputerscanreadilyperformvastnumbersofcomparisons,manymorealternativeplanscanbeexploredthanwouldbepossiblemanually.Athirdadvantageintheuseofcomputeraidedprocessplanningisuniformity.Severalspecificbenefitscanbeexpectedfromtheadoptionofcomputeraidedprocessplanningtechniques●Reducedclericaleffortinpreparationofinstructions.●Fewercalculationerrorsduetohumanerror.●Feweroversightsinlogicorinstructionsbecauseofthepromptingcapabilityavailablewithinteractivecomputerprograms.●Immediateaccesstouptodateinformationfromacentraldatabase.●Consistentinformation,becauseeveryplanneraccessesthesamedatabase.●Fasterresponsetochangesrequestedbyengineeringofotheroperatingdepartments.●Automaticuseofthelatestrevisionofapartdrawing.●Moredetailed,moreuniformprocessplanstatementsproducedbywordprocessingtechniques.
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