外文翻译--负载运行的变压器及直流电机导论.doc外文翻译--负载运行的变压器及直流电机导论.doc

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THETRANSFORMERONLOAD﹠INTRODUCTIONTODCMACHINESTHETRANSFORMERONLOADITHASBEENSHOWNTHATAPRIMARYINPUTVOLTAGE1VCANBETRANSFORMEDTOANYDESIREDOPENCIRCUITSECONDARYVOLTAGE2EBYASUITABLECHOICEOFTURNSRATIO2EISAVAILABLEFORCIRCULATINGALOADCURRENTIMPEDANCEFORTHEMOMENT,ALAGGINGPOWERFACTORWILLBECONSIDEREDTHESECONDARYCURRENTANDTHERESULTINGAMPERETURNS22NIWILLCHANGETHEFLUX,TENDINGTODEMAGNETIZETHECORE,REDUCEMANDWITHIT1EBECAUSETHEPRIMARYLEAKAGEIMPEDANCEDROPISSOLOW,ASMALLALTERATIONTO1EWILLCAUSEANAPPRECIABLEINCREASEOFPRIMARYCURRENTFROM0ITOANEWVALUEOF1IEQUALTOIJXREV111/THEEXTRAPRIMARYCURRENTANDAMPERETURNSNEARLYCANCELTHEWHOLEOFTHESECONDARYAMPERETURNSTHISBEINGSO,THEMUTUALFLUXSUFFERSONLYASLIGHTMODIFICATIONANDREQUIRESPRACTICALLYTHESAMENETAMPERETURNS10NIASONNOLOADTHETOTALPRIMARYAMPERETURNSAREINCREASEDBYANAMOUNT22NINECESSARYTONEUTRALIZETHESAMEAMOUNTOFSECONDARYAMPERETURNSINTHEVECTOREQUATION,102211NININI;ALTERNATIVELY,221011NININIATFULLLOAD,THECURRENT0IISONLYABOUT5OFTHEFULLLOADCURRENTANDSO1IISNEARLYEQUALTO122/NNIBECAUSEINMINDTHAT2121/NNEE,THEINPUTKVAWHICHISAPPROXIMATELY11IEISALSOAPPROXIMATELYEQUALTOTHEOUTPUTKVA,22IETHEPHYSICALCURRENTHASINCREASED,ANDWITHINTHEPRIMARYLEAKAGEFLUXTOWHICHITISPROPORTIONALTHETOTALFLUXLINKINGTHEPRIMARY,111MP,ISSHOWNUNCHANGEDBECAUSETHETOTALBACKEMF,(DTDNE/111)ISSTILLEQUALANDOPPOSITETO1VHOWEVER,THEREHASBEENAREDISTRIBUTIONOFFLUXANDTHEMUTUALCOMPONENTHASFALLENDUETOTHEINCREASEOF1WITH1IALTHOUGHTHECHANGEISSMALL,THESECONDARYDEMANDCOULDNOTBEMETWITHOUTAMUTUALFLUXANDEMFALTERATIONTOPERMITPRIMARYCURRENTTOCHANGETHENETFLUXSLINKINGTHESECONDARYWINDINGHASBEENFURTHERREDUCEDBYTHEESTABLISHMENTOFSECONDARYLEAKAGEFLUXDUETO2I,ANDTHISOPPOSESMALTHOUGHMAND2AREINDICATEDSEPARATELY,THEYCOMBINETOONERESULTANTINTHECOREWHICHWILLBEDOWNWARDSATTHEINSTANTSHOWNTHUSTHESECONDARYTERMINALVOLTAGEISREDUCEDTODTDNVS/22WHICHCANBECONSIDEREDINTWOCOMPONENTS,IEDTDNDTDNVM//2222ORVECTORIALLY2222IJXEVASFORTHEPRIMARY,2ISRESPONSIBLEFORASUBSTANTIALLYCONSTANTSECONDARYLEAKAGEINDUCTANCE222222/NINITWILLBENOTICEDTHATTHEPRIMARYLEAKAGEFLUXISRESPONSIBLEFORPARTOFTHECHANGEINTHESECONDARYTERMINALVOLTAGEDUETOITSEFFECTSONTHEMUTUALFLUXTHETWOLEAKAGEFLUXESARECLOSELYRELATED;2,FOREXAMPLE,BYITSDEMAGNETIZINGACTIONONMHASCAUSEDTHECHANGESONTHEPRIMARYSIDEWHICHLEDTOTHEESTABLISHMENTOFPRIMARYLEAKAGEFLUXIFALOWENOUGHLEADINGPOWERFACTORISCONSIDERED,THETOTALSECONDARYFLUXANDTHEMUTUALFLUXAREINCREASEDCAUSINGTHESECONDARYTERMINALVOLTAGETORISEWITHLOADPISUNCHANGEDINMAGNITUDEFROMTHENOLOADCONDITIONSINCE,NEGLECTINGRESISTANCE,ITSTILLHASTOPROVIDEATOTALBACKEMFEQUALTO1VITISVIRTUALLYTHESAMEAS11,THOUGHNOWPRODUCEDBYTHECOMBINEDEFFECTOFPRIMARYANDSECONDARYAMPERETURNSTHEMUTUALFLUXMUSTSTILLCHANGEWITHLOADTOGIVEACHANGEOF1EANDPERMITMOREPRIMARYCURRENTTOFLOW1EHASINCREASEDTHISTIMEBUTDUETOTHEVECTORCOMBINATIONWITH1VTHEREISSTILLANINCREASEOFPRIMARYCURRENTTWOMOREPOINTSSHOULDBEMADEABOUTTHEFIGURESFIRSTLY,AUNITYTURNSRATIOHASBEENASSUMEDFORCONVENIENCESOTHAT21EESECONDLY,THEPHYSICALPICTUREISDRAWNFORADIFFERENTINSTANTOFTIMEFROMTHEVECTORDIAGRAMSWHICHSHOW0M,IFTHEHORIZONTALAXISISTAKENASUSUAL,TOBETHEZEROTIMEREFERENCETHEREAREINSTANTSINTHECYCLEWHENPRIMARYLEAKAGEFLUXISZERO,WHENTHESECONDARYLEAKAGEFLUXISZERO,ANDWHENPRIMARYANDSECONDARYLEAKAGEFLUXISZERO,ANDWHENPRIMARYANDSECONDARYLEAKAGEFLUXESAREINTHESAMESENSETHEEQUIVALENTCIRCUITALREADYDERIVEDFORTHETRANSFORMERWITHTHESECONDARYTERMINALSOPEN,CANEASILYBEEXTENDEDTOCOVERTHELOADEDSECONDARYBYTHEADDITIONOFTHESECONDARYRESISTANCEANDLEAKAGEREACTANCEPRACTICALLYALLTRANSFORMERSHAVEATURNSRATIODIFFERENTFROMUNITYALTHOUGHSUCHANARRANGEMENTISSOMETIMESEMPLOYEDFORTHEPURPOSESOFELECTRICALLYISOLATINGONECIRCUITFROMANOTHEROPERATINGATTHESAMEVOLTAGETOEXPLAINTHECASEWHERE21NNTHEREACTIONOFTHESECONDARYWILLBEVIEWEDFROMTHEPRIMARYWINDINGTHEREACTIONISEXPERIENCEDONLYINTERMSOFTHEMAGNETIZINGFORCEDUETOTHESECONDARYAMPERETURNSTHEREISNOWAYOFDETECTINGFROMTHEPRIMARYSIDEWHETHER2IISLARGEAND2NSMALLORVICEVERSA,ITISTHEPRODUCTOFCURRENTANDTURNSWHICHCAUSESTHEREACTIONCONSEQUENTLY,ASECONDARYWINDINGCANBEREPLACEDBYANYNUMBEROFDIFFERENTEQUIVALENTWINDINGSANDLOADCIRCUITSWHICHWILLGIVERISETOANIDENTICALREACTIONONTHEPRIMARYITISCLEARLYCONVENIENTTOCHANGETHESECONDARYWINDINGTOANEQUIVALENTWINDINGHAVINGTHESAMENUMBEROFTURNS1NASTHEPRIMARYWITH2NCHANGESTO1N,SINCETHEEMFSAREPROPORTIONALTOTURNS,2212/ENNEWHICHISTHESAMEAS1EFORCURRENT,SINCETHEREACTIONAMPERETURNSMUSTBEUNCHANGED1222NINIMUSTBEEQUALTO22NIIE2122/INNIFORIMPEDANCE,SINCEANYSECONDARYVOLTAGEVBECOMESVNN/21,ANDSECONDARYCURRENTIBECOMESINN/12,THENANYSECONDARYIMPEDANCE,INCLUDINGLOADIMPEDANCE,MUSTBECOMEIVNNIV///221CONSEQUENTLY,22212/RNNRAND22212/XNNXIFTHEPRIMARYTURNSARETAKENASREFERENCETURNS,THEPROCESSISCALLEDREFERRINGTOTHEPRIMARYSIDETHEREAREAFEWCHECKSWHICHCANBEMADETOSEEIFTHEPROCEDUREOUTLINEDISVALIDFOREXAMPLE,THECOPPERLOSSINTHEREFERREDSECONDARYWINDINGMUSTBETHESAMEASINTHEORIGINALSECONDARYOTHERWISETHEPRIMARYWOULDHAVETOSUPPLYADIFFERENTLOSSPOWER222RIMUSTBEEQUALTO222RI)222122122//NNRNNIDOESINFACTREDUCETO222RISIMILARLYTHESTOREDMAGNETICENERGYINTHELEAKAGEFIELD2/12LIWHICHISPROPORTIONALTO22XIWILLBEFOUNDTOCHECKAS22XITHEREFERREDSECONDARY2212221222//IENNINNEIEKVATHEARGUMENTISSOUND,THOUGHATFIRSTITMAYHAVESEEMEDSUSPECTINFACT,IFTHEACTUALSECONDARYWINDINGWASREMOVEDPHYSICALLYFROMTHECOREANDREPLACEDBYTHEEQUIVALENTWINDINGANDLOADCIRCUITDESIGNEDTOGIVETHEPARAMETERS1N,2R,2XAND2I,MEASUREMENTSFROMTHEPRIMARYTERMINALSWOULDBEUNABLETODETECTANYDIFFERENCEINSECONDARYAMPERETURNS,KVADEMANDORCOPPERLOSS,UNDERNORMALPOWERFREQUENCYOPERATIONTHEREISNOPOINTINCHOOSINGANYBASISOTHERTHANEQUALTURNSONPRIMARYANDREFERREDSECONDARY,BUTITISSOMETIMESCONVENIENTTOREFERTHEPRIMARYTOTHESECONDARYWINDINGINTHISCASE,IFALLTHESUBSCRIPT1’SAREINTERCHANGEDFORTHESUBSCRIPT2’S,THENECESSARYREFERRINGCONSTANTSAREEASILYFOUND;EG21RR,21XX;SIMILARLY12RRAND12XXTHEEQUIVALENTCIRCUITFORTHEGENERALCASEWHERE21NNEXCEPTTHATMRHASBEENADDEDTOALLOWFORIRONLOSSANDANIDEALLOSSLESSTRANSFORMATIONHASBEENINCLUDEDBEFORETHESECONDARYTERMINALSTORETURN2VTO2VALLCALCULATIONSOFINTERNALVOLTAGEANDPOWERLOSSESAREMADEBEFORETHISIDEALTRANSFORMATIONISAPPLIEDTHEBEHAVIOUROFATRANSFORMERASDETECTEDATBOTHSETSOFTERMINALSISTHESAMEASTHEBEHAVIOURDETECTEDATTHECORRESPONDINGTERMINALSOFTHISCIRCUITWHENTHEAPPROPRIATEPARAMETERSAREINSERTEDTHESLIGHTLYDIFFERENTREPRESENTATIONSHOWINGTHECOILS1NAND2NSIDEBYSIDEWITHACOREINBETWEENISONLYUSEDFORCONVENIENCEONTHETRANSFORMERITSELF,THECOILSARE,OFCOURSE,WOUNDROUNDTHESAMECOREVERYLITTLEERRORISINTRODUCEDIFTHEMAGNETISINGBRANCHISTRANSFERREDTOTHEPRIMARYTERMINALS,BUTAFEWANOMALIESWILLARISEFOREXAMPLE,THECURRENTSHOWNFLOWINGTHROUGHTHEPRIMARYIMPEDANCEISNOLONGERTHEWHOLEOFTHEPRIMARYCURRENTTHEERRORISQUITESMALLSINCE0IISUSUALLYSUCHASMALLFRACTIONOF1ISLIGHTLYDIFFERENTANSWERSMAYBEOBTAINEDTOAPARTICULARPROBLEMDEPENDINGONWHETHERORNOTALLOWANCEISMADEFORTHISERRORWITHTHISSIMPLIFIEDCIRCUIT,THEPRIMARYANDREFERREDSECONDARYIMPEDANCESCANBEADDEDTOGIVE221211/RENNRRAND221211/NNXXXEITSHOULDBEPOINTEDOUTTHATTHEEQUIVALENTCIRCUITASDERIVEDHEREISONLYVALIDFORNORMALOPERATIONATPOWERFREQUENCIES;CAPACITANCEEFFECTSMUSTBETAKENINTOACCOUNTWHENEVERTHERATEOFCHANGEOFVOLTAGEWOULDGIVERISETOAPPRECIABLECAPACITANCECURRENTS,DTCDVIC/THEYAREIMPORTANTATHIGHVOLTAGESANDATFREQUENCIESMUCHBEYOND100CYCLES/SECAFURTHERPOINTISNOTTHE
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