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附录附录一英文材料MICROPLANETARYREDUCTIONGEARUSINGSURFACEMICROMACHININGAbstractAmicroplanetarygearmechanismfeaturingahighgearreductionratiowithcompactnessinsizeispresentedinthispaper.SUMMiTVisemployedforthefabricationmethodsothattheredundancyofassemblingpartsiseliminated.Thedesignrulesofwhichhasalsobeenchecked.Tomakefulluseofthebenefitsofthesurfacemicromachining,theplanetaryreductiongearisdesignedtowardusingtheonchipmicroengine.Theexpectedgearreductionratioiscalculatedandcomparedwiththeconventionalchaingearmechanism.Themicroplanetarygearmechanismpresentedinthispaperisexpectedtohave1621reductionratioutilizinglessspaceconsumption.Thisisanorderofmagnitudehigherthanthepreviouslyreporteddesigninasinglereductiongeartrain.KeywordsMEMS,planetarygear,reductiongearsurfacemicromachining,SUMMiTVprocessNomenclatureasungearbplanetgearscinternalgearfixeddinternalgearrotarynthenumberofunitsofgeartrainDdiameterofthepitchcircleNnumberofteethPnumberofplanetsIntroductionThegearmechanismsinmicroelectromechanicalsystemsMEMSarecommonlyexpectedtogeneratehightorqueintheconfinedmicrosizesystems.However,itisgenerallydifficultforthemicroscalesystemstohavesuchahightorquewithouthavingmultiplereductionsystems.Thedesignofthereductiongeardrivebasedonaplanetaryparadoxgearmechanismcanincreasethetorquewithinacompactarea,sincethemicroplanetarygearsystemhasanadvantageofhighreductionratioperunitvolume1.Howeveritsmechanismissocomplicatedthatrelativelyfewattemptshavebeenmadetominiaturizethegearsystems23.Suzumorietal.2usedthemechanicalparadoxplanetarygearmechanismtodrivearobotfor1inpipesforwardorbackward.Theyemployedasinglemotortodrivethegearmechanismswithhighreductionratio.PrecisegearfabricationwasenabledbymicrowireelectricaldischargemachiningmicroEDM.Theseparts,however,shouldbeassembledbeforethedrivemotorisattachedtothegearbox.Takeuchiet.al.3alsousedmicroEDMtofabricatethemicroplanetarygears.TheysuggestedspecialcermetsorHighCarbonSteelforpossiblematerials.Whilethedesigncanachieveareductionratioof200,thegearsshouldalsobeassembledandmotordriven.Toenablethedrivingoftheplanetarygearbyonchipmeans,SandiaUltraplanarMultilevelMEMSTechnologySUMMiTVprocess4forplanetarygearfabricationisadoptedinthisstudy.TheSUMMiTVprocessistheonlyfoundryprocessavailablewhichutilizesfourlayersofreleasablepolysilicon,foratotaloffivelayersincludingagroundplane5.Duetothisfact,itisfrequentlyusedincomplicatedgearmechanismsbeingdrivenbyonchipelectrostaticactuators5.However,inmanycases,themicroenginesmaynotproduceenoughtorquetodrivethedesiredmechanicalload,sincetheirelectrostaticcombdrivestypicallyonlygenerateafewtensofmicronewtonsofforce.Fortunately,theseenginescaneasilybedrivenattensofthousandsofrevolutionsperminutes.Thismakesitveryfeasibletotradespeedfortorque7.Rodgersetal.7proposedtwoduallevelgearswithanoverallgearreductionratioof121.Thussixofthesemodulartransmissionassembliescanhavea2,985,9841reductionratioatthecostofthehugespace.Withthedesireforsizecompactnessandatthesametime,highreductionratios,theplanetarygearsystemispresentedinthispaper.Itwillbethefirstplanetarygearmechanismusingsurfacemicromachining,totheauthorsknowledge.Theprinciplesofoperationsoftheplanetarygearmechanism,fabrication,andtheexpectedperformanceoftheplanetarygearsystemsaredescribedinthispaper.PrinciplesofoperationAnalternativewayofusinggearstotransmittorqueistomakeoneormoregears,i.e.,planetarygears,rotateoutsideofonegear,i.e.sungear.Mostplanetaryreductiongears,atconventionalsize,areusedaswellknowncompactmechanicalpowertransmissionsystems1.TheschematicoftheplanetarygearsystememployedisshowninFigureSinceSUMMiTVdesignsarelaidoutusingAutoCAD2000,theFigure1isgeneratedautomaticallyfromthelayoutmasksAppendix1.Oneunitoftheplanetarygearsystemiscomposedofsixgearsonesungear,a,threeplanetarygears,b,onefixedringgear,c,onerotatingringgear,d,andoneoutputgear.Thenumberofteethforeachgearisdifferentfromoneanotherexceptamongtheplanetarygears.Aninputgearisthesungear,a,drivenbythearmconnectedtothemicroengine.Therotatingringgear,d,isservedasanoutputgear.Forexample,ifthearmdrivesthesungearintheclockwisedirection,theplanetarygears,b,willrotatecounterclockwiseattheirownaxisandatthesametime,thosewillrotateaboutthesungearinclockwisedirectionresultinginplanetarymotion.Duetotherelativemotionbetweentheplanetarygears,b,andthefixedringgear,c,therotatingringgear,d,willrotatecounterclockwisedirection.Thisissocalleda3Kmechanicalparadoxplanetarygear1.FabricationprocedureandteststructuresThefeaturesoftheSUMMiTVprocessofferfourlevelsofstructuralpolysiliconlayersandanelectricalpolylevel,andalsoemploytraditionalintegratedcircuitprocessingtechniques4.TheSUMMiTVtechnologyisespeciallysuitableforthegearmechanism.TheplanetarygearmechanismcanbedrivenbytheonchipengineandthusisanotherreasonofusingtheSUMMiTVprocess.SincetheSandiaprocessissuchawellknownprocedure57,onlybriefexplanationispresented.Figure2representsthecrosssectionalviewofFigure1,andalsowasgeneratedfromtheAutoCADlayoutmasksAppendix1.Thediscontinuityinthecrosssectionisfortheetchholes.Thepoly1grayisusedforthehubsandalsopatternedtomakethefixedringgear,i.e.,c,thesungear,i.e.,a,therotatingringgear,i.e.,c,andtheoutputgearispatternedinthepoly2.Sincetheplanetarygearneedstocontactboththefixedringandrotatingringgear,poly2isaddedtopoly3,wherethegearteethareactuallyformed.Thepoly4layerisusedforthearmthatdrivesthesungear.Afterthereleaseetch,theplanetarygearswillfalldownsothatthosewillengageboththeringgears.ThefiguresfortheteststructuresarepresentedinAppendix2.Sincetheaimofthispaperistosuggestagearreductionmechanism,theplanetarygearsystemisdecomposedtoseveralgearunitstoverifyitsperformance.Thefirstteststructureisaboutthearm,whichrotatesthesungear,connectedtotheonchipengine.Theangularvelocityofthearmdependsontheengineoutputspeed.Thesecondteststructuredescribesthepointatwhichthesungearandplanetarygearsareengagedtothefixedringgear.Becauseofthefactthattheringgearisfixed,theplanetarygearisjusttransmittingthetorquefromthesungeartothefixedringgearwithoutplanetmotion,e.g.,rotatingitsownaxisnotaroundthesungear.Whentherotatingringgearismountedontopofthefixedringgear,i.e.,thethirdteststructure,theplanetarygearsbegintorotatearoundthesungearsothattheplanetmotionareenabled.Therefore,onceoneoutputgearisattachedtotherotatingringgear,i.e.,thefinalteststructure,thewholereductionunitiscompleted.Dismantlingtheplanetarygearintothreeteststructuresallowsthepinpointingofpossibleerrorsinthegearsystem.SolutionsprocedureandexpectedperformanceThereductionratioisdefinedastheratiobetweentheangularvelocityofthedrivergearandthatofthedrivengear.Highreductionratiosindicatetradingspeedfortorque.Forexample,a101gearreductionunitcouldincreasetorqueanorderofmagnitude.Sincethegearsintheplanetarysystemshouldbemeshedtooneanother,thedesignofgearmoduleshouldfollowarestriction.Forexample,thenumberofteethforthesungearpluseitherthatofthefixedringgearorthatoftherotatingringgearshouldbethemultipleofthenumberofplanets,Pequation1.Equation2,whichrepresentthereductionratio,shouldobservetheequation1first.TheNisthenumberoftheteethforcorrespondinggear.Gears,a,b,c,dintheplanetarygeaisacomparablesizeofthecurrentgearreductionunits5,andthetoothnumbersare12,29,69,and72respectively.Thereforetheoverallreductionratiois1621fromequation2.Rodgersetal.7reporteda121reductionunitusingsurfacemicromachining,whichislessthanorderofmagnitudeforthegearreductionratiooftheplanetarygearsystem.AlthoughthereductionfromRodgersetal.7needstobeoccupiedinapproximately0.093mm2,theplanetarygearsystemonlyutilizesanareaofapproximately0.076mm2.Thus,thisplanetaryreductiondesigncanachievean
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