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英文原文BoomtimeAhealthymarketmeansthatundergroundtruckandLHDmarkersareenjoyinghighorderlevels,withnewmodelsandtechnologyalsocoming.intheLHDsector,severalnewmodelsarealreadyonthemarketfromfirmsincludingEJC,Fermel,RhamEquipmentandSchopfWMEOctNov2004,whileAtlasCopcointendstolaunchatleastonenewdesignin2005–possiblyanSt14.ButitisthetrucksectorthatisthemostactiverightnowwithrenewedemphasisonpowertoweightratiosrightthroughthepayloadrangeThelatestmodelsaretakingadvantageofadvancesindieseltechnologybyfittingmorepowerfulenginesandallowingbetterspeedsonsteepramphauls.Theimpactofthisissignificant,ashigherspeedsmeanlowercycletimesandoffermajorgainsinproductivity,evenallowingreductionsinfleetsizes.Atthetopofthepayloadscalecompetitionisnowparticularlyfierce.SandvikTamrockiscertainlypushingtheboundarieswithitsToro60,athreeaxletruckwitharigidchassisanda60tonnecapacity.ThisCumminspoweredtruckoffersagoodpowertoweightratioandapayloadadvantageoverCaterpillarsAD55andatlasCoposMT5010thatSandvikTamrocksaysshouldallowminestotrimfleetsize,especiallyoverlongerramphauls.sandvikTamrockexpectstheToro60totakebacksomeofthemarketclaimedbyCatssuccessfulAD55,withits55tonnepayload.HoweverAtlasCopcoisfightingbackagainstbothCaterpillarandSandviktamrockwithyetanotherupgradetoitsMT5010truck,providingapowerincreasefrom488597kw/650800hp.ThenewCumminsQsk19dieselbooststheMT5010spowertoweightratiofrom5.276.5kw/tonne,allowingittoreclaimgroundovertheAD55andToro60,despitetheirlargerpayload.AtlseCopcoalsosaysthatdrivelineproblemswhichafflictedearliertruckdesignshavelongsincebeeneliminated.ThecompanypointsoutthatMT5010isasuccessfuldesignwithunitsoperatingIAustraliarecordingspeedsof14kphon110ramps,despitehaving23,000hoursontheclock.Evaluatingwhichofthesethreetrucksoffersthehighestproductivitycouldonlybeachievedbydetailedstudyandperhapsrequiretesting,possiblywithadifferentresultdependingonthenatureofthespecificminingapplication.TherevisedMT5010hasahigherpowertoweightratiothaneithertheAD55ortheToro60butthesetruckshavebiggerpayloadsof55and60tonnesrespectively.Themachinethatbestsuitsagivenminingoperationmaybeduetoanumberofbasicfactorssuchashauldistanceandrampgradientaswellasventilationinfrastructure,ambienttemperatureandevenmaterialtype.Overallthoughthecustomerwillbethewinner,withthelatestlargeAtlasCopco,CaterpillarandSandvikTamrocktrucksallofferingmuchbetterproductivityandreliabilitythanwaseveravailabletothe50tonneclassbefore.Thesamedortofpowertoweightratiogainscanbeseenfurtherdownthetruckpayloadrange.AtlasCopco,Caterpillar,Dux,EJC,MTIandZanamlegmethaveallfittedmorepowerfuldieselstotruckswithpayloadsinthe1230tonnerange,withsimilarbenefitstothoseseenatthetopofthecapacityscale.Forexample,oneCanadianminereplaceditsearliergeneration16and17tonnerswithnewer20tonners,whichoffershorttraveltimesonramp,despitetheirincreasedpayloadandthishasresultedinasubstantialproductivitygainoverall.Thatthenewgenerationofenginesproducemorepowerfromsimilarouterdimensionsisimportant,astheygiveabetterpayload/litreoffuelburned.Howeverthecleaneremissionshaveaddedbenefits,withcostadvantagestomineventilationrequirements.Ingeneral,thenewsmallmidsizedtrucksthemselvesareexternallysimilartopreviousmodels,butarefittedwithstrongerdrivetrainsandaxlestocopewiththeadditionalpowerWMEOct2004WMENov2004.Smalldetailchangeslikeextendedoillifeorfilterswithreplaceableelementsmakeidentifiablebenefitstoservicecosts.Whilethebasicdesignsoftheseupdatedtrucksremainssimilar,thebetterdrivelinesandnewgenerationdieselsmeanthatthemachinesrequirelessmaintenancearemorereliableandareconsiderablycheapertorun.SelfdriveAutomationisstillontheagendawithregardtoLHDsandtrucks,withthemanybenefitsbeingshownatthoseminesthathavetakentheplungeandoptedforthistechnology.TheseisstillprogresstobemadewithregardtoordersbutCaterpillarandSandvilkTamrockarebothpushinghardtosignupcustomersfortheirLHDandtruckautomationsystems,MINEGEMandAutominerespectively.AtthemomentonlyCodelcoisusingthefullAutomineautomationsystematthePipaNorteandDiabloRegimientozonesofitsEITenientecoppermineinChile.ButDeBeersandSandvikTAmrockaredevelopingasystemfortheFinschmineinSouthAfrica.AndwhileCaterpillarhasyettonotchupacommercialsaleforMINEGEM,thetechnologyisbeingusedforproductionatthenorthparkesandOlympicDamminesinAustralia.TherearealotofsimilaritiesinthewayMINEGEMandAutominework,withlaserequipmentmountedonboardtheLHDs.Thesescanthetunnelsaheadofthemachinesastheytram,pickingupchangesinthetunnelprofileandallowingthemachinetorecognizeitspositioninmilliseconds.Thelasersupdatetunnelmapscontinuouslyto,resultinginlargevolumesofdateshuttlingbackandforthconstantly.CatsMINEGEMsystemoperatesonawirelessLANinfrastructurewithan11Mbpscapacity.SandvikTAmrocksAutominesystemrequiressimilarbroadbandcommunicationalcapabilities.BothMINEGEMandAutominearecontrolledbyconventionalandreadilyavailablecomputinghardware,whileagooddealofthecomponentsisstandardofftheshelfitemsselectedfortheirabilitytocopewiththetoughminingcycle.Withthesetechnologies,oneoperatorcansupervisetherunningofuptothreeLHDsthatrunmoreorlessautonomously,withtheonlymanualinputbeingforthebucketloadingpartoftheiroperatingcycle.CaterpilliarsMINEGEMisapackagebuiltupofseverallayersandthisallowscustomerstoselecttheseparatecomponentstheyrequire.ThetacticallayerofMINEGEMprovidesautomaticsteeringforanLHDandpreventsitfromcollidingwiththewallsofthetunneloragainstothervehicles.Theoperatorfillsthebucketandselectsforwardorreverse,withthesystemprovidingautomatedtrammingandbucketdumping.ThestrategiclayerismorecomplexasthisintegratestheoperationofuptothreeLHDs,overseestheiroperationandhashigherlevelplanningcapabilities.Itisthestrategiclayerthatisinchareoftrafficcontrolfunctions,sothatmultiplecyclescanbescriptedforblendingoresfromdifferentdrawpointsforinstance,withtheoverallbenefitofincreasingproductionefficiency.Safetyisimprovedastheoperatorscanbesituatedawayfromwherethemachinesarerunningtheydontevenhavetobeinthemineatallandintheory,couldbesittinginanofficeontheothersideoftheworld.Moreover,themachinesrequirelessmaintenanceandhavelowerrunningcostsasgearchangesaremadeatoptimumtimes,enginesarenotoverrevved,thereislesswheelspinandtheriskfromcollisionswithtunnelwallsofothermachinesisallbuteliminated.However,thecompleteAutomineandMINEGEMtechnologiesarenotinexpensiveandsuitapplicationsinpurposebuiltmineareasorevenmines.Theautomatedequipmentrunsinpartsoftheminethatareseparatedfromotheroperationsandwithpersonnelaccesscarefullycontrolled.Therearehowevercomparativelyfewlargeand/ornewmineswiththesortofblockcavingorsublevelcavingapplicationsthatbestsuitthissophisticatedfullautomationtechnologyandcanjustifytheinvestment.Asaresult,CaterpilliarandSandvikTamrockseparatelyidentifiedaneedforlesssophisticatedsystemsthatoffermanyofthesameoperatingbenefits,whilebeingsubstantiallylesscostly.ByoptingforjustthetacticallayerofMINEGEMcalledCoPilot,aminingfirmcanintroduceaneffectiveandcomparativelylowcosttechnologyforsingleLHDautomation.AndCOPilotcomeswithamanualoverride,allowingittobeusedasaconventionalremotecontrolif/whenrequired.Inthisrespect,SandvikTamrockhasabroadlysimilarproductintheshapeofitsAutomatesystem,whichisalsodesignedforsingleLHDautomateandhasequivalentcontrolspecifications.WithAutomationorCoPilot,minescanintroducesingleLHDautomationintoapplicationswhereconventionalremotecontrolsystemsareusedatpresent.Theadvantageofthisisthatsinglemachinescanbenefitfromtheautomatedtramming,withouttheexpenseofthecompletemachineautomationpackageortheinherentchangestoinfrastructureandminelayout.BothCaterpilliarandSandvikTamrockpointoutthatthistechnologyhashugepotentialwithfirmsusingconventionalremotecontrolandwillbeofparticularbenefitatmineswithhighincidencesLHDcollisiondamage.And,asanyonewhohaseveroperatedaradiocontrolledcarcanattest,itcanbedifficulttojudgedistancesbetweenamovingmachineanditssurroundingsfromadistance.Thesingleautomationequipmentwilltakeawaythisriskofcollisionsandmakesubstantialreductionsinmachinedowntimeandrepairs,aswellasboostingproductivity.AstudycommissionedbyCaterpillarfromAustralianbodySTEMshowsthatreplacingconventionalremotecontrolswithsimplersingleLHDsystemswouldprovidepaybacktimesofthreeyearsandevenlessinsomeinstances,whileprovidingproductivitygainsofupto37.Forthemoment,miningfirmsseemreluctanttoinvestinfullLHDautomationduetotheexpenseandcomplexityofthetechnology.ButwiththeproductionandcostbenefitsofferedbyCatsMINEGEMCoPilotandSandvikTamrocksAutomatesystemforsingleLHDautomationinexistingmines,thatsituationcouldwellchangesoon.RussianfirmMOaZbuildstwoundergroundtrucks,the74059586fornarrowoperatingconditionsandthemoreconventional7529,bothofwhichhave22tonnepayloads.The74059586weighs19.5tonnesunladen,hasacanopyasstandard,ispoweredbyaJMZ238KM2dieselratedat140kwandmeasures2.9mwideforuseinnarrowaccessareas.Asthismodelhas2WDitcancopewith9°maximumslopesandbestsuitsflathaulsortunnelingapplications,offeringamaximumspeedof40kph.The7529,weighs24tonnesunladen,features4WDandhasamorepowerfulJMZ238BN2
编号:201311171351096378    大小:45.50KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
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