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外文翻译在高速潮湿机械加工条件下后刀面表层磨损机理.doc外文翻译在高速潮湿机械加工条件下后刀面表层磨损机理.doc

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编号:201311171412186488    类型:共享资源    大小:1.42MB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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11CHAPTERVTOOLWEARMECHANISMSONTHEFLANKSURFACEOFCUTTINGINSERTSFORHIGHSPEEDWETMACHINING5.1IntroductionAlmosteverytypeofmachiningsuchasturning,milling,drilling,grinding...,usesacuttingfluidtoassistinthecosteffectiveproductionofpartsassetupstandardrequiredbytheproducer[1].Usingcoolantwithsomecuttingtoolsmaterialcausesseverefailureduetothelackoftheirresistancetothermalshock(likeAL2O3ceramics),usedtoturnsteel.Othercuttingtoolsmaterialslikecubicboronnitride(CBN)canbeusedwithoutcoolant,duetothetypeoftheirfunction.TheaimofusingCBNistoraisethetemperatureoftheworkpicetohighsoitlocallysoftensandcanbeeasilymachined.Thereasonsbehindusingcuttingfluidscanbesummarizedasfollows.®Extendingthecuttingtoollifeachievedbyreducingheatgeneratedandasaresultlesswearrateisachieved.Itwillalsoeliminatetheheatfromtheshearzoneandtheformedchips.®Coolingtheworkpieceofhighqualitymaterialunderoperationplaysanimportantrolesincethermaldistortionofthesurfaceandsubsurfacedamageisaresultofexcessiveheatthatmustbeeliminatedorlargelyreducedtoproduceahighqualityproduct.Reducingcuttingforcesbyitslubricatingeffectatthecontactinterfaceregionandwashingandcleaningthecuttingregionduringmachiningfromsmallchips.Thetwomainreasonsforusingcuttingfluidsarecoolingandlubrication.CuttingFluidasaCoolant:Thefluidcharacteristicsandconditionofusedeterminethecoolantactionofthecuttingfluid,whichimprovestheheattransferattheshearzonebetweenthecuttingedge,workpiece,andcuttingfluid.22Thepropertiesofthecoolantinthiscasemustincludeahighheatcapacitytocarryawayheatandgoodthermalconductivitytoabsorbtheheatfromthecuttingregion.Thewater-basedcoolantemulsionwithitsexcellenthighheatcapacityisabletoreducetoolwear[44].CuttingFluidasaLubricant:Thepurposeistoreducefrictionbetweenthecuttingedge,rakefaceandtheworkpiecematerialorreducingthecuttingforces(tangentialcomponent).Asthefrictiondropstheheatgeneratedisdropped.Asaresult,thecuttingtoolwearrateisreducedandthesurfacefinishisimproved.CuttingFluidPropertiesFreeofperceivableodorPreserveclaritythroughoutlifeKindandunirritatedtoskinandeyes.Corrosionprotectiontothemachinepartsandworkpiece.Costeffectiveintermsofftoollife,safety,dilutionratio,andfluidlife.[1]5.1.1CuttingFluidTypesTherearetwomajorcategoriesofcuttingfluidsNeatCuttingOilsNeatcuttingoilsarepoorintheircoolantcharacteristicsbuthaveanexcellentlubricity.Theyareappliedbyfloodingtheworkareabyapumpandre-circulatedthroughafilter,tankandnozzles.Thistypeisnotdilutedbywater,andmaycontainlubricityandextreme-pressureadditivestoenhancetheircuttingperformanceproperties.Theusageof33thistypehasbeendecliningfortheirpoorcoolingability,causingfirerisk,proventocausehealthandsafetyrisktotheoperator[1].®WaterBasedorWaterSolubleCuttingFluidsThisgroupissubdividedintothreecategories:1.Emulsion`mineralsoluble'white-milkycolorasaresultofemulsionofoilinwater.Containfrom40%-80%mineraloilandanemulsifyingagentbesidecorrosioninhibitors,besidebiocidetoinhibitthebacteriagrowth.2.Microemulsion`semi-synthetic'inventedin1980's,haslessoilconcentrationand/orhigheremulsifierratio10%-40%oil.Duetothehighlevelsofemulsifiertheoildropletsizeinthefluidaresmallerwhichmakethefluidmoretranslucentandeasytoseetheworkpieceduringoperation.Otherimportantbenefitisinitsabilitytoemulsifyanyleakageofoilfromthemachinepartsinthecuttingfluid,acorrosioninhibitors,andbacteriacontrol.3.Mineraloilfree`synthetic'isamixofchemicals,water,bacteriacontrol,corrosioninhibitors,anddyes.Doesnotcontainanymineraloils,andprovidesgoodvisibility.23totheworkpiece.bareinmindthatthelackofmineraloilinthistypeofcuttingfluidneedstotakemoreattentiontomachinepartslubricationsinceitshouldnotleaveanoilyfilmonthemachineparts,andmightcausesealsdegradationduethelackofprotection.5.1.2CuttingFluidSelectionManyfactorsinfluencetheselectionofcuttingfluid;mainlyworkpiecematerial,typeofmachiningoperation,machinetoolparts,paints,andseals.Table5-1preparedatthemachinetoolindustryresearchassociation[2]providessuggestionsonthetypeoffluidtobeused.445.1.3CoolantManagementToachieveahighlevelofcuttingfluidsperformanceandcosteffectiveness,acoolantrecyclingsystemshouldbeinstalledinthefactory.Thissystemwillreducetheamountofnewpurchasedcoolantconcentrateandcoolantdisposable,whichwillreducemanufacturingcost.Iteitherdonebythecompanyitselforberentedout,dependsonthebudgetandmanagementpolicyofthecompany[1].Table5-1Guidetotheselectionofcuttingfluidsforgeneralworkshopapplications.MachiningoperationWorkpiecematerialFreemachiningandlow-carbonsteelsMedium-CarbonsteelsHighCarbonandalloysteelsStainlessandheattreatedresistantalloysGrindingCleartypesolubleoil,semisyntheticorchemicalgrindingfluidTurningGeeralprpose,solubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidExtreme-pressuresolubleoil,semi-syntheticorsyntheticfluidMillingGeneralpurpose,solubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidExtreme-pressuresolubleoil,semi-syntheticorsyntheticfluidExtreme-pressuresolubleoil,semi-syntheticorsyntheticfluid(neatcuttingoilsmaybenecessary)DrillingExtreme-pressuresolubleoil,semi-syntheticorsyntheticfluidGearShappingExtreme-pressuresolubleoil,semi-syntheticorsyntheticfluidNeat-cuttingoilspreferable
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