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1ElectronicpowersteeringsystemWhatitisElectricallypoweredsteeringusesanelectricmotortodriveeitherthepowersteeringhydraulicpumporthesteeringlinkagedirectly.Thepowersteeringfunctionisthereforeindependentofenginespeed,resultinginsignificantenergysavings.HowitworksConventionalpowersteeringsystemsuseanengineaccessorybelttodrivethepump,providingpressurizedfluidthatoperatesapistoninthepowersteeringgearoractuatortoassistthedriver.Inelectrohydraulicsteering,oneelectricallypoweredsteeringconceptusesahighefficiencypumpdrivenbyanelectricmotor.Pumpspeedisregulatedbyanelectriccontrollertovarypumppressureandflow,providingsteeringeffortstailoredfordifferentdrivingsituations.Thepumpcanberunatlowspeedorshutofftoprovideenergysavingsduringstraightaheaddrivingwhichismostofthetimeinmostworldmarkets.Directelectricsteeringusesanelectricmotorattachedtothesteeringrackviaagearmechanismnopumporfluid.Avarietyofmotortypesandgeardrivesispossible.Amicroprocessorcontrolssteeringdynamicsanddrivereffort.Inputsincludevehiclespeedandsteering,wheeltorque,angularpositionandturningrate.WorkingInDetailAsteeringsensorislocatedontheinputshaftwhereitentersthegearboxhousing.Thesteeringsensorisactuallytwosensorsinoneatorquesensorthatconvertssteeringtorqueinputanditsdirectionintovoltagesignals,andarotationsensorthatconvertstherotationspeedanddirectionintovoltagesignals.Aninterfacecircuitthatsharesthesamehousingconvertsthesignalsfromthe2torquesensorandrotationsensorintosignalsthecontrolelectronicscanprocess.Inputsfromthesteeringsensoraredigestedbyamicroprocessorcontrolunitthatalsomonitorsinputfromthevehiclesspeedsensor.Thesensorinputsarethencomparedtodeterminehowmuchpowerassistisrequiredaccordingtoapreprogrammedforcemapinthecontrolunitsmemory.Thecontrolunitthensendsouttheappropriatecommandtothepowerunitwhichthensuppliestheelectricmotorwithcurrent.Themotorpushestheracktotherightorleftdependingonwhichwaythevoltageflowsreversingthecurrentreversesthedirectionthemotorspins.Increasingthecurrenttothemotorincreasestheamountofpowerassist.Thesystemhasthreeoperatingmodesanormalcontrolmodeinwhichleftorrightpowerassistisprovidedinresponsetoinputfromthesteeringtorqueandrotationsensorsinputsareturncontrolmodewhichisusedtoassiststeeringreturnaftercompletingaturnandadampercontrolmodethatchangeswithvehiclespeedtoimproveroadfeelanddampenkickback.Ifthesteeringwheelisturnedandheldinthefulllockpositionandsteeringassistreachesamaximum,thecontrolunitreducescurrenttotheelectricmotortopreventanoverloadsituationthatmightdamagethemotor.Thecontrolunitisalsodesignedtoprotectthemotoragainstvoltagesurgesfromafaultyalternatororchargingproblem.Theelectronicsteeringcontrolunitiscapableofselfdiagnosingfaultsbymonitoringthesystemsinputsandoutputs,andthedrivingcurrentoftheelectricmotor.Ifaproblemoccurs,thecontrolunitturnsthesystemoffbyactuatingafailsaferelayinthepowerunit.Thiseliminatesallpowerassist,causingthesystemtorevertbacktomanualsteering.AdashEPSwarninglightisalsoilluminatedtoalertthedriver.Todiagnosetheproblem,atechnicianjumpstheterminalsontheservicecheckconnectorandreadsoutthetroublecodes.3clickheretoseeabiggerElectricpowersteeringsystemspromiseweightreduction,fuelsavingsandpackageflexibility,atnocostpenalty.Europeshighfuelpricesandsmallervehiclesmakeafertiletestbedforelectricsteering,atechnologythatpromisesautomakersweightsavingsandfueleconomygains.Andinashorttime,electricsteeringwillmakeittotheU.S.,too.Itsjustjustamatteroftime,saysAlyBadawy,directorofresearchanddevelopmentforDelphiSaginawSteeringSystemsinSaginaw,Mich.Theissuewascostandthatsbehindusnow.By2002hereintheU.S.thecostofelectricpowersteeringwillabsolutelybeawashoverhydraulic.Today,electricandhybridpoweredvehiclesEV,includingToyotasPriusandGMsEV1,aretheperfectdomainforelectricsteering.Butby2010,aTRWInc.internalstudyestimatesthatoneoutofeverythreecarsproducedintheworldwillbeequippedwithsomeformofelectricallyassistedsteering.TheClevelandbasedsupplierclaimsitsnewsteeringsystemscouldimprovefueleconomybyupto2mpg,whileenhancinghandling.Therearetruebottomlinebenefitsaswellforautomakersbyreducingoverallcostsanddecreasingassemblytime,sincetheresnoneedforpumps,hosesandfluids.Anotherclaimedadvantageisshorteneddevelopmenttime.Forinstance,aDelphigroupdevelopedETUNE,arideandhandlingsoftwarepackagethatcanberunoffalaptopcomputer.Theycantakethatcomputerandplugitin,attachittothecontrollerandchangeallthehandlingparameterseffortlevel,returnability,dampingonthefly,Badawysays.Itusedtotakemonths.DelphihasoneOEMcustomerthatshouldstartlowvolumeproductionin99.Electricsteeringunitsarenormallyplacedinoneofthreepositionscolumndrive,piniondriveandrackdrive.Whichsystemwillbecomethenormisstillunclear.Shortterm,OEMswillchoosethesteeringsystemthatiseasiesttointegrateintoanexistingplatform.Obviously,4greaterpotentialcomesfromdesigningthesystemintoanallnewplatform.Wehaveallthreedesignsunderconsideration,saysDr.HermanStrecker,groupvicepresidentofsteeringsystemsdivisionatZFinSchwaebischGmuend,Germany.ItsuptothemarketandOEMswhichversionfinallywillbeusedandmanufactured.Thelargemanufacturershaveallgrabbedholdofwhattheyconsideracoretechnology,explainsJamesHandysides,TRWvicepresident,electricallyassistedsteeringinSterlingHeights,Mich.Hiscompanyoffersaportfolioofelectricsteeringsystemshybridelectric,rack,pinion,andcolumndrive.TRWoriginallyconcentratedonwhatitstillbelievesisthepurestengineeringsolutionforelectricsteeringtherackdrivesystem.Thesystemissometimesreferedtoasdirectdriveorball/nutdrive.Still,thiswinterTRWhedgeditsbet,formingajointventurewithLucasVarity.TheBritishsupplierreceived50millioninexchangeforitselectriccolumndrivesteeringtechnologyandassets.InitialproductionofthecolumnandpiniondriveelectricsteeringsystemsisexpectedtobegininBirmingham,England,in2000.Whatwelackisthecredibilityinthesteeringmarket,saysBrendanConner,managingdirector,TRW/LucasVarityElectricSteeringLtd.ThecombinationwithTRWprovidesuswithagoodopportunityforustobridgethatgap.LucasVaritycurrentlyhasexperimentalsystemson11differentvehicletypes,mostlyEuropean.TRWiscurrentlysupplyingitsEASsystemsforFordandChryslerEVsinNorthAmericaandforGMsnewOpelAstra.In1995,accordingtoDelphi,traditionalhydraulicpowersteeringsystemswereon7596ofallvehiclessoldglobally.That37millionvehiclepoolconsumesabout10milliongallonsinhydraulicfluidthatcouldbesuperfluous,ifelectricsteeringreallytakesoff.Thepresentinventionrelatestoanelectricallypowereddrivemechamsmforprovidingpoweredassistancetoavehiclesteeringmechanism.Accordingtooneaspectofthepresentinvention,thereisprovidedanelectricallypowereddrivenmechanismforprovidingpoweredassistancetoavehiclesteeringmechanismhavingamanuallyrotatablememberforoperatingthesteeringmechanism,thedrivemechanismincludingatorquesensoroperabletosensetorquebeingmanuallyappliedtotherotatablemember,anelectricallypowereddrivemotordrivinglyconnectedtotherotatablememberandacontrollerwhichisarrangedtocontrolthespeedanddirectionofrotationofthedrivemotorinresponsetosignalsreceivedfromthetorquesensor,thetorquesensorincludingasensorshaftadaptedforconnectiontotherotatablemembertoformanextensionthereofsothattorqueistransmittedthroughsaidsensorshaftwhentherotatablememberismanuallyrotatedandastraingaugemountedonthesensorshaftforproducingasignalindicativeoftheamountoftorquebeingtransmittedthroughsaidshaft.Preferablythesensorshaftisnonrotatablymountedatoneaxialendinafirstcouplingmemberandisnonrotatablymountedatitsoppositeaxialendinasecondcouplingmember,thefirstandsecondcouplingmembersbeinginterengagedtopermitlimitedrotationtherebetweensothattorqueunderapredeterminedlimitistransmittedbythesensorshaftonlyandsothattorqueabovesaidpredeterminedlimitistransmittedthroughthefirstandsecondcouplingmembers.Thefirstandsecondcouplingmembersarepreferablyarrangedtoactasa
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