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外文资料-Engineering Design Knowledge Management in De-centralised Virtual Enterprises(2008,5(6):787-800).pdf外文资料-Engineering Design Knowledge Management in De-centralised Virtual Enterprises(2008,5(6):787-800).pdf -- 5 元

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ComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,787800787ComputerAidedDesignandApplications©2008CADSolutions,LLChttp//www.cadanda.comEngineeringDesignKnowledgeManagementinDecentralisedVirtualEnterprisesHayderAziz1,JamesGao2andZhengXiLi31AlMuthannaUniversity,SamawaIraq,hayderuruki.com2UniversityofGreenwich,j.gaogre.ac.uk3NorthChinaUniversityofTechnology,lzxncut.edu.chABSTRACTTheproblemsofcollaborativeengineeringdesignandknowledgemanagementattheconceptualstageinanetworkofdissimilarenterpriseswasinvestigated.ThisissueinengineeringdesignisaresultofthesupplychainandvirtualenterpriseVEorientedindustrythatdemandsfastertimetomarketandaccuratecost/manufacturinganalysisfromconception.ThesolutionconsistedofadecentralisedsuperpeernetarchitecturetoestablishandmaintaincommunicationsbetweenenterprisesinaVE.Inthesolutionoutlinedbelow,theenterprisesareabletoshareknowledgeinacommonformatandnomenclatureviathebuildingblockshareablesuperontologythatcanbetailoredonaprojectbyprojectbasis,whilstmaintainingthecommonnomenclatureofthesuperontologyeliminatingknowledgeinterpretationissues.Thetwotierarchitecturelayoutofthesolutiongluestogetherthepeerpeerandsuperontologiestoformacoherentsystemforbothinternalandvirtualenterpriseknowledgemanagementandproductdevelopment.Keywordsvirtualenterprise,PLM,ontology,peertopeer,STEP.DOI10.3722/cadaps.2008.7878001.INTRODUCTIONCollaborativeengineeringdesignandmanagementinalargenetworkofdissimilarenterpriseshasbecomeanecessityinthenewworldofglobalizationandoutsourcingwithintheengineeringindustries.Formulatingtechniquesandtechnologiesinthisareahavebeenevaluatedindepth1.Intheirreviewofcollaborativeconceptualdesigntoolsandtechniques,highlightingthegapthatexistsbetweentheneedforcollaborationandtheavailabletoolswhichenablesimplesharingofdesignknowledge,theauthorsconcludedthatthereisamajorgapinthetechniquestoenablerealtimecollaborationinaheterogeneousenvironment.PreviousresearchonthetopichadstudiedvariousaspectsoftheproblemincludingthePaloAltoCollaborativeTestbedPACTbytheAdvancedResearchProjectsAgencyARPAwhereexistingengineeringtoolswereintegratedusinganencapsulatingagentuponwhichanumberofdevelopmentsweredevelopedbyresearchteamsincludingJATLite,aJavabasedagentinfrastructure2andMETAMORPHagentbasedarchitecture3allofwhichsharedthesameprincipleofcreatingagentsintegratedwiththeindividualapplicationstohandlethecollaborationbetweentools.ThecollaborationaspectsofVirtualEnterprisesVEinmanufacturingwerecoined4asthevirtualcorporation.Thiswasfurtherevolvedintotheideaspresentedby5asanarchitectureforthevirtualenterprisewhichlaidoutthelogicalsequencesfortheestablishment,operationanddissolutionofaVE.Furtherelaborationonby6wherethebasicfeaturesofaVEwerelaidout,andtechniquesutilizingtheStandardfortheExchangeofProductmodelsSTEPstandardandclientserverwebbasedinternetforenablingavirtualcollaboration.ComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,787800788OtherperspectivesonVEsinclude7,ontheotherhand8realizedtheinherentlydecentralizednatureofaVEandformulatedprocessesforcreatingandmanagingtheVEswithoutactuallysuggestingatechnicalimplementationforVEs.Reidsformulation8fortheinherentdecentralizednatureofavirtualenterpriseformsthefoundationfor9whichdevelopedthepotentialtopologyusingasuperpeernetarchitecturetoovercomethelimitationsofapurepeertopeersystembutwithoutthestructuralandownershipissuesarisingfromcentralizationofknowledge.CollaborationwithinthecontextofengineeringdesignisthesharingofexistingengineeringdesignexpertisebetweenindividualsfromwithinaVEthatiscomposedofentitiesthatarecollaboratinginaoneoffventureandhavenotcollaboratedpreviously.Theentitiesarepresumedtobedissimilar,meaningthattheyhaveadifferentinternalcompanyoperation,productdevelopmentprocessandtoolstotheotherparticipantsintheVE.EngineeringcompanieswithavarietyofOriginalEquipmentManufacturersOEMscustomersfaceahugeproblemwithmeetingtheindividualrequirementsoftheirclients.Interactionwithclientandproductdefinitionprimarilytakesplaceduringtheearlyconceptstageofproductdevelopment.ThusitisimperativethatparticipantsintheVEnetworkclients,engineers,andVEentitiescaninteracteffectivelyandproduceconceptdesignsfortheproductthatarepracticaltomanufacture,costeffectiveanddonotrepeatthesamemistakesmadeinearlierprojectsthisofcoursedoesnotprecludetheadditionofnewdesignandthoughtflaws.Conceptualdesignisanessentialpartoftheproductlifecycle,whichhasadisproportionateeffectonthecosts,andeventualsuccess,oftheartefact.Traditionallythisphaseoftheprojectiscarriedoutinfacetofacemeetingsandbrainstormingsessionswithmanydelegates,fromthedifferentdisciplinesintheenterprise,withexternalcustomersandsuppliersalsotakingpart.ProblemariseswhenenterpriseswishtocollaboratewithalargenumberofsuppliersandoriginalequipmentmanufacturerOEMcustomersbylargenumber,thisresearchassumesamanymanyrelationship.CurrentapplicationsenablecollaborationusingbusinesstobusinessB2Bprotocols.However,thesedonottakeintoaccountthatdisparateenterprisesdonothaveunifieddatamodelsorworkflows.ThislackofstandardizationresultsinalotoftimeandmoneyspentmappingB2Blinksbetweendifferentvendorssystemsaswellastheuniquelycustomizeddatamodelsandworkflowsimplementedontopofvendorspecificapplications.WithinthesettingofaVirtualEnterpriseVE,wherealliancescanincludedozensofenterprisesandoftenlastforonlyasingleproject,thesecostswouldbeprohibitivebecauseitwouldineffectentailrepeatingthetaskofinterenterpriseintegrationbetweeneachenterprisecollaboratingintheVE.ThisisastrongfactorinreducingtheabilityoflargeenterprisestoparticipateinoneoffVEpartnerships,reducingagilityandpotentiallylosingbusiness.SomesolutionshaveincludedtheuseofapplicationserviceprovidersASPorenablingalargeenterprisesdatasystemtofunctionasanASPfortheircollaboratorsbenefitinaVEsetting.Howevertheproblemwiththistypeofsystemisthemanagementofintellectualpropertyoftheindividualenterprisesandwhetherenterprisescangiveupcontroloftheirinformationtoapartner,whomay,especiallyinthecaseofsmallandspecializedenterprises,alsobecollaboratingwiththeircompetitorssimultaneously.SuchfearscanpotentiallyhindertheformationofVEsbetweenenterprisesofanysize.KnowledgeManagement.Theenterprisesprimeasset,itsknowledge,whilststoredinanelectronicformat,isnotmanagedcoherentlythusperpetuatinganinvisiblelimitonthecompanysknowledge,basedontheimpulseofknowledgeworkersrecollectionsofpreviousexperience.Researchersandvendorshaveinvariablyattemptedtosolvetheproblemofcoherencythroughcentralizationhoweverthisisnotapplicableinacollaborativeanddistributeddevelopmentenvironmentwhichisinherentlydecentralized.Theattemptsatinterenterprisecollaborationarefurthercomplicatedwhenenterpriseswithdifferentdepthofdetailintheirdatamodelsanddifferenttaxonomiesinthisresearch,taxonomyisatermusedtodenotethedatamodel,ormodels,usedinternallybyanenterprisetomanageitsproductandprojectdatacollaboratetogether.Creatingasituationinwhichdetailislostinthetransferfromhightolowdetailenterprisedatasystems.Finally,theprimereasonforthisinvestigationisthatSMEshaveuptonowbeenleftoutofdevelopmentsinPLM,knowledgemanagementandVEdevelopmentsinspiteofformingthemajorityoftheworldsengineeringcommunity.ThisnegativelyaffectstheabilityofSMEstomanagetheirknowledge,reuseexistingexpertise,collaboratewithotherSMEsinthevirtualenterprisesettingsandcollaboratewiththelargerenterprisesthatformtheircustomerbase.ThisweaknessaffectsnotonlytheSMEsbutalsothelargeenterprisesthatutilizeSMEswithintheirsupplychainorVEnetwork.ComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,7878007892.FORMATANDMEDIUMOFINTERENTERPRISECOLLABORATIONOneofthefoundationsofeffectivecollaborationiscommunication.Communication,withinthecontextofthisresearchisthoughtofascomposedofamediumandaformat.Oncemediumsandformatsareformallyestablished,comprehensiblecommunicationbetweentwoentitiesmaytakeplace.Thisisapplicabletoanytypeofcommunication.ForexampleaconversationbetweentwopersonswouldbeMediumOralfaceface.FormatLanguageknowntoboth.OranotherexamplewouldbewrittencommunicationbetweengroupsofpeoplewouldbeMediumpaperandink.Formatalphabeticalcharactersincommonlanguage.Naturallyboththeseelementsmustmatchatallcollaboratingpartiesformutuallyunderstandablecommunicationstotakeplace.Thiscomponentoftheresearchaimedtosolvethekeyproblemofestablishingcommunicationlinksbetweengeographicallyseparateandorganizationallyunrelatedentities,rapidlyandatlowcost,withtheaimofthecommunicationbeingthecollaborativedevelopmentofengineeringproducts.Whilstthismaysoundlikeasimpleproblemintodaysworldofstandardizeddatatelecoms,thelackofendtoendstandardizationoftaxonomies,authentication/accesscontrolsystemsandformatsbetweenenterpriseshasbeenaglaringshortcomingofmodernBusinesstoBusinessapplications.IneffectthishasbeenoneofthemajordrawbacksthathasstuntedthegrowthandspreadofPLMandKMtechnologiestosmallerenterprisestoday.Figure1illustratestheholisticoperationofthesystemincludingtheheterogeneousontologies,themediumtotransportthedatabetweentheontologiesandtheformatforunderstandingthecommunication.OntologyforenterpriseAcontainsthebusinessandprocessknowledgeforcompanyAwithinthevirtualenterprise.SimilarlyOntologyforenterpriseBcontainsthedomainontologywhichisinthisinstanceDIFFERENTfromtheontologyinenterpriseA.ThemediuminthisfigureissimplythemeansbywhichcommunicationstakesplaceinthisinstanceviaTCP/IPi.e.overtheinternetTheredlinedenotingtheformatofthetaxonomydenotesthefileformatsusedtoencodetheontologiesofenterprisesAandB.FinallytheworkflowprocessesaimtogluethedisparatebusinessprocessesfromtheunrelatedenterprisestoenabletheautomationofthebusinessprocessesintheVE.Fig.1Format,medium,ontologyandworkflow.Theformataspectofcollaborationbetweenenterprisesisindependentofthemediumused.Howeverthekeyproblem,withinthecontextofthisresearch,oftheformatiscreatingauniversallanguageandtaxonomytaxonomyinthiscontextisthenomenclatureusedinacollaborativeengineeringsettingthatwillmeetthefollowingchallengingcriteria,whichareasubsetoftheoverallaimoftheresearchOntologyofenterpriseAOntologyofenterpriseBMEDIUMTCP/IPWorkflowprocessesbetweencollaboratorsFormatoftaxonomyComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,787800790Providingasupersetofallpossibletaxonomiesinusetodayorinthefutureforinterenterprisecollaborationbetweenengineeringorientedentities.Providingaformatthatcanbeusedcommonlybyallandatnocosttoenabletherapiddisseminationandimplementationbyallpartiesinacollaborativeventure.Enablingtherapidauthenticationandaccessmanagementofallparticipants.Providingamethodtorapidlyresolvesyntacticdifferencesbetweendifferententerprisesdatastructures.Theabovementionedrequirementshaveproventobeatoughchallengeforresearchersinthepastasshownbythedisparatetechnologieswhichonlylookatpartiallysolvingtheproblems.ThesolutionsinexistencetodayincludewellestablishedInternationalStandardsOSIIEEE802fornetworklinksanddatacommunicationsprotocolssuchasTransportControlProtocol/InternetProtocolTCP/IP.HowevereventhoughthereareclearlyestablishedguidelinesandevenstandardizedformatssuchasXMLandRDFstandardsthereremainsapracticaldisconnectinthesphereofstandardizednomenclatureortaxonomiesforcollaborationbetweendisparateenterprises.Sincenotwoenterprisesarethesame,theideaofusingXMLbasedmessagingforinterenterprisecollaborationisnoteasyasthecollaboratingcompaniesXMLschemashavetobemappedtoeachother.Inordertoachievespeedyinteroperability,astandardhastobesetforbasicmessaging.ThereareaplethoraofstandardsindevelopmentbyvariousgroupsincludingRosettaNet,anendlesslistofXMLschemasanddatatypedefinitions.Thesestandardsimplementdifferentlevelsofdetailintheontology.SomelikeSTEPPDMattempttoimplementthecompleteinformationstructureoftheengineeringenterprise.OtherslikeJuxtaPoseJXTAimplementonlythemessagingcomponents.Thechoiceofstandardstousedependsonthelevelofstandardizationthatallenterprisescanadhereto.However,withliterallymillionsofenterprises,largeandsmall,eachwithitsowncompanyspecificdatastructuresandpeculiarities,itcanbesafelyassumedthatradicallyalteringtheinternalworkingsofallenterprises,toadheretoasinglestandardizedtaxonomyanddatatransfermediumisanimprobablepropositiononthegroundsoftheunsuitabilityofastandardizedtaxonomyforallcompaniesworkingneedsandalackoflegislationforcingcompaniestoadheretoanystandardizedmedium.Tohaveaholisticoverviewoftheproblem,detailsofvariouscompanytaxonomiesandstandardsdesignedforinterenterprisecollaborationwerecollated.TheseareArvinMeritortaxonomyanddatamodelsTier1automotivesupplierISO90012000managementstandardsguidelinessimplemanagementstandardISOSTEPPDMwww.iso.ch,STEPstandardtaxonomydefininganinternationallyagreedupontaxonomyforengineeringProductDatamanagement,thisstandardcomplementstheISO10303STEPbelow.ISO10303STEP,basicengineeringproductdata,differentApplicationProtocolsdefinethedatamodelsfordifferentindustries.seewww.iso.chforfulldetails,generallymodeledinEXPRESS,andstoredinplaintextformatRosettaNet–XMLbasedgenericB2BstandardizationmodelJXTA,www.jxta.orgopensourcegenericlowlevelauthenticationanddatamanagementnomenclatureforalltypesofapplicationsbasedonXMLformatTaxonomiesaboveprovideddetailsofdifferentcharacteristicsofanenterprisesdatamodel,andnoneofthemcanbeconsideredtobeacompleterepresentationofacompanysdatamodelnoneofthemclaimtobe,withtheexceptionofSAPsmassivetaxonomies.Therestofthetaxonomieshowevereachprovidedasubsetofoverlappingfunctionsthatcanbenormalizedtoprovideastandardsbasedenterprisedatamodelusablebyall.ExcellentexamplesoftaxonomiesaretheApplicationProtocol2xxstandardsoftheISO10303STEPstandard.Fortheactualformatsofthedata,thefollowingstandardswerelookedatXML–eXtensiblemarkuplanguage,aplaintextformatmarkuplanguageusedtodefineindustryspecificmarkuplanguagessomeofwhicharedefinedabove.BizTalk,MathMLandRosettaNetareexamplesoftaxonomiesimplementedwithXMLmarkupOWL,WebOntologyLanguageisthedefinitiveXML/RDFbasedontologymodellingandmanipulationformatincorporatingDescriptionLogicsandconstraints.
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