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英文翻译一个未完工的二层预制混凝土结构物的抗震测试.doc英文翻译一个未完工的二层预制混凝土结构物的抗震测试.doc -- 5 元

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1TestsonaHalfScaleTwoStorySeismicResistingPrecastConcreteBuildingThispaperdescribesexperimentalstudiesontheseismicbehavioranddesignofprecastconcretebuildings.AhalfscaletwostoryprecastconcretebuildingincorporatingadualsystemandrepresentingaparkingstructureinMexicoCitywasinvestigated.Thestructurewastesteduptofailureinalaboratoryundersimulatedseismicloading.Insomeofthebeamtocolumnjoints,thebottomlongitudinalbarsofthebeamwerepurposelyundevelopedduetodimensionalconstraints.Emphasisisgiveninthestudyontheevaluationoftheobservedglobalbehavioroftheteststructure.Thisbehaviorshowedthatthewallsoftheteststructurecontrolledtheforcepathmechanismandsignificantlyreducedthelateraldeformationdemandsintheprecastframes.Seismicdesigncriteriaandcodeimplicationsforprecastconcretestructuresresultingfromthisresearcharediscussed.TheendresultofthisresearchisthatabetterunderstandingofthestructuralbehaviorofthistypeofbuildinghasbeengainedresultsofsimulatedseismicloadtestsofatwostoryprecastconcretebuildingconstructedwithprecastconcreteelementsthatareusedinMexicoaredescribedherein.Thestructuralsystemchosenintheteststructureisthesocalleddualtype,definedasthecombinationofstructuralwallsandbeamtocolumnframes.Connectionsbetweenprecastbeamsandcolumnsintheteststructureareofthewindowtype.Thistypeofconstructionistypicallyusedinlowandmediumrisebuildingsinwhichcolumnsareconnectedwithwindowsateachstorylevel.Thesewindowscontainthetopandbottomreinforcement.Fig.1showsthistypeofconstructionforacommercialbuildinginMexicoCity.InmostprecastconcreteframessuchasthoseshowninFig,1,longitudinalbeambottombarsarenotfullydevelopedduetoconstraintsimposedbythedimensionsoffilecolumnsinbeamtocolumnjoints.Inanefforttoovercomethisdeficiency,andasdescribedlater,somepracticingengineersinMexicodesignthesejointsbyprovidinghoopsaroundthehooksofthatreinforcementinordertoachieveitsrequiredcontinuity.However,thispracticeisnotcoveredintheACIBuildingCode2ACI31802,norintheMexicoCityBuildingCodeMCBC,1993.Partofthisresearchwasdonetoaddressthisissue.TheobjectivesofthisresearchwereIoevaluatetheobservedbehaviorofaprecastconcretestructuresinthelaboratoryandtoproposetheuseofprecaststructuralelementsorprecaststructureswithbothanacceptablelevelofexpectedseismicperformanceandappealingfeaturesfromtheviewpointofconstructionEmphasisisgiveninthispaperontheglobalbehavioroftheteststructure.Inthesecondpartofthisresearchwhichgillbepresentedinacompanionpaper,theobservedbehaviorofconnectionsbetweenprecastelementsintheteststructure,aswellasthebehavioroftheprecastfloorsystemwillbediscussedindetail.Structuralandnonstructuraldamagesobservedinbuildingsduringpastearthquakesthroughouttheworldhaveshowntheimportanceofcontrollinglateraldisplacementinstructurestoreducebuildingdamageduringearthquakes.Itisalsorelevanttomentionthatthereareseveralcasesofstructuresinmoderateearthquakesinwhichtheobserveddamageinnonstructuralelementsinbuildingswasconsiderableeventhoughthestructuralelementsshowedlittleornodamage.ThisbehaviorisalsorelatedIoexcessivelateraldisplacementdemandsinthestructure.Tominimizeseismicdamageduringearthquakes,theabovediscussionsuggeststheconvenienceofusingastructuralsystemcapableofcontrollinglateraldisplacementsinstructures.Asolutionofthistypeisthesocalleddualsystem.StudiesbyPaulayandPriestley4ontheseismicresponseofdualsystemshaveshownthatthepresenceofwallsreducethedynamicmomentdemandsinstructuralelementsintheframesubsystem.Alsoinconjunctionwithshaketabletestsconductedonacastinplacereinforcedconcretedualsystem.Bertero5hasshownthepotentialofthedualsystem,inachievingexcellentseismicbehaviornthisinvestigation,thedualsystemisappliedtothecaseofprecastconcretestructures.DUCTILITYDEMANDINDUALSYSTEMSInordertodevelopabaseforalateranalysisoftheobservedseismicresponseoftheteststructurestudiedinthisprojectasimpleanalyticalmodelisusedtoevaluatethemainfeaturesofductilitydemandsindualsystems.3Fig2showstheresultsofasimpleapproachtoanalyzethelateralloadresponseiiiadualsystem.Thelateralloadhasbeennormalizedinsuchamannerthatthecombinationofmaximumlateralresistanceinbothsubsysterni.e.wallsandframesleadstoalateralresistanceoftheglobalsystemequaltounitybisalsoassumedthatbothsubsystemshavethesamemaximumlateralresistance.InthefirstcaseFig2a,itisassumedthatthewallandframesubsystemshaveglobaldisplacementductilitycapacitiesequalto4and2respectively.InthesecondcaseFig.2b,theframesubsystemresponseisassumedtobeelastic,andthelateralstiffnessofthewallsubsystemistakentobe4timesthatoftheframesubsystem.AsshowninFig2,thelateraldeformationcompatibilityofthecombinedsystemiscontrolledbythelateraldeformationcapacityofthewallsubsystem.InthefirstcaseFig2akanelasticplasticenvelopeforthelateralglobalresponseofthedualsystemisassumed,andthecorrespondingdisplacementductilityuisequalto33.ForthesecondcaseFig.2bwithanelasticbehavioroftheframesubsystem,thisductilityisequalto25.Thesesimpleexamplesillustratethatintheanalyzedcases,duetothehigherflexibilityintheframesubsystemsascomparedtothoseofthewallsubsystern,inadualsystem,theductilitydemandsintheframesubsystemresultinsmallerductilityvaluesthanthoseofthewallsubsystem.Thisanalyticalfindingwasverifiedinthisstudyfromtheexperimentalstudiesconductedontheteststructure.ThisverificationislaterdiscussedinthepaperItisofinteresttonotethatresultsofthetypeshowninFig.2havebeenalsofoundbyBerteroinshaketabletestsofadualsystem.DESCRIPTIONOFTESTSTRUCTURETheteststructureusedinthisinvestigationisatwostoryprecastconcretebuilding,representativeofalowriseparkingstructurelocatedinthehighestseismiczoneofMexicoCity.Theprototypewasconstructedatonehalfscale.Forthesakeofsimplicity,rampsrequiredinaparkingstructurehavenotbeenconsideredintheselectedprototypestructure.Theiruse,requiringlargeopeningsinthefloorsystem,wouldhaverequiredaverycomplexmodelofthefloorsystemforbothlinearandnonlinearanalysisofthestructure.4Adetaileddescriptionofthedimensions,materials,designprocedures,andconstructionoftheteststructurecanbefoundelsewhere.6Asummaryofthisinformationisgivenbelow.ThedimensionsandsomecharacteristicsoftheteststructureareshowninFig.3.ThelongitudinalandtransverseareshowninFig3a.Also,theexteriorlongitudinalframecontainingthewallColumnLines1and3aretermedthelateralframeseeFig,3b,andtheinternallongitudinalframewiththesingleteeColumnLine2aretermedthecentralframe.DoableteesspanninginthelongitudinaldirectionaresupportedbyLshapedprecastbeamsinthetransversedirectionasshowninFig3a.Thestructureusesprecastframesandprecaststructuralwalls,thelatterelementsfunctioningasthemainlateralloadresistingsystem.Fig.4showsanearlyphaseoftheconstructionoftheteststructure.Ascanbeseen,thewindowsinthecolumnsandwallsareleftintheseelementsforalaterassemblagewiththeprecastbeams.TheunfasteneddesignbaseshearrequiredbytheMexicoCityBuildingCodeMCBC,19932is0.2WT,whereWTisthetotalweightoftheprototypestructure,assumingadeadloadof5,15KPa108psiandaliveloadof0.98KPa20.5psi.TheprototypestructurewasdesignedusingproceduresofelasticanalysesandproportioningrequirementsoftheMCBC,Intheseanalyses,thegrossmomentofinertiaofthemembersinthestructurewasconsideredandrigidoffsetsdistancesfromthejointstothefaceofthesupportswereassumedforallbeamsinthestructureexceptforbeamsinthecentralframe,whichhadsubstandarddetailingaswillbedescribedlatch.Resultsfromtheseanalysesindicatedthatthestructuralwallsintheteststructurewouldtakeabout65percentofthedesignlateralloads.AreviewofthenominallateralresistanceofthestructureusingtheMCBCproceduresshowedthatthisresistingforcewasabout1.3timestherequiredcodelateralresistance0,2Wr,Thisisoneofseveralfactors,laterdiscussed,thatcontributedtotheoverstrengthofthestructure.Thelongitudinalreinforcementinallthestructuralelementsoftheteststructore
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