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英文原文IntroducingCCpronouncedSeeSharpisaprogramminglanguagedesignedforMicrosofts.NETplatform.Sinceitsfirstreleasein2002,Chasfoundmanyroles.Itiswidelyusedontheserversideofwebsites,andalsoonboththeclientandserverinlineofbusinessWindowsdesktopapplications.YoucanwritesmartphoneuserinterfacesandXbox360gamesinC.Morerecently,MicrosoftsSilverlightplatformhasmadeCanoptionforwritingRichInternetApplicationsthatruninawebbrowser.ButwhatkindoflanguageisCTounderstandalanguagewellenoughtouseiteffectively,itsnotenoughtofocuspurelyonthedetailsandmechanisms,althoughwellbespendingplentyoftimeonthoseinthisbook.Itisequallyimportanttounderstandthethinkingbehindthedetails.Sointhischapter,welllookatwhatproblemsCwasbuilttosolve.Thenwellexplorethestyleofthelanguage,throughaspectsthatdistinguishitfromotherlanguages.AndwellfinishthechapterwithalookatthelateststepintheevolutionofC,itsfourthversion.WhyCWhy.NETProgramminglanguagesexisttohelpdevelopersbemoreproductive.Manysuccessfullanguagessimplifyorautomatetedioustasksthatpreviouslyhadtobedonebyhand.Someoffernewtechniquesthatallowoldproblemstobetackledmoreeffectively,oronalargerscalethanbefore.HowmuchdifferenceCcanmaketoyouwilldependonyourprogrammingbackground,ofcourse,soitsworthconsideringwhatsortsofpeoplethelanguagedesignershadinmindwhentheycreatedC.CisaimedatdevelopersworkingontheWindowsplatform,anditssyntaxisinstantlyfamiliartousersofCorC,orotherlanguagesthatdrawfromthesametradition,suchasJavaScriptandJava.Fundamentallanguageelementssuchasstatements,expressions,functiondeclarations,andflowcontrolaremodeledascloselyaspossibleontheirequivalentsinCfamilylanguages.Afamiliarsyntaxisnotenoughofareasontopickalanguage,ofcourse,soCoffersproductivityenhancingfeaturesnotfoundinsomeofitspredecessors.Garbagecollectionfreesdevelopersfromthetyrannyofcommonmemorymanagementproblemssuchasmemoryleaksandcircularreferences.Verifiabletypesafetyofcompiledcoderulesoutawiderangeofbugsandpotentialsecurityflaws.WhileCorCWindowsdevelopersmaynotbeaccustomedtothosefeatures,theywillseemoldhattoJavaveterans,butJavahasnothingtocompetewiththeLINQfeaturesCoffersforworkingwithcollectionsofinformation,whetherinobjectmodels,XMLdocuments,ordatabases.Integratingcodefromexternalcomponentsisremarkablypainless,eventhosewritteninotherlanguages.Calsoincorporatessupportforfunctionalprogramming,apowerfulfeaturepreviouslymostcommonlyseeninacademiclanguages.ManyofthemostusefulfeaturesavailabletoCdeveloperscomefromthe.NETFramework,whichprovidestheruntimeenvironmentandlibrariesforC,andallother.NETlanguages,suchasVB.NET.Cwasdesignedfor.NET,andoneofthemainbenefitsofitscloserelationshipwiththe.NETFrameworkisthatworkingwithframeworkfeaturessuchastheclasslibraryfeelsverynatural.The.NETFrameworkClassLibraryWorkinginCmeansmorethanusingjustthelanguagetheclassesofferedbythe.NETFrameworkareanextremelyimportantpartoftheCdeveloperseverydayexperienceandtheyaccountforalotofthisbookscontent.Mostofthelibraryfunctionalityfallsintooneofthreecategoriesutilityfeatureswrittenin.NET,wrappersaroundWindowsfunctionality,andframeworks.Thefirstgroupcomprisesutilitytypessuchasdictionaries,lists,andothercollectionclasses,aswellasstringmanipulationfacilitiessuchasaregularexpressionengine.Therearealsofeaturesthatoperateonaslightlylargerscale,suchastheobjectmodelsforrepresentingXMLdocuments.SomelibraryfeaturesarewrappersaroundunderlyingOSfunctionality.Forexample,thereareclassesforaccessingthefilesystem,andforusingnetworkfeaturessuchassockets.Andthereareclassesforwritingoutputtotheconsole,whichwecanillustratewiththeobligatoryfirstexampleofanyprogramminglanguagebook,showninExample11.Example11.TheinevitableHello,worldexampleclassProgram{staticvoidMain{System.Console.WriteLineHello,world}}Wellexamineallthepiecesshownhereinduecourse,butfornow,notethateventhissimplestofexamplesdependsonaclassfromthelibrarytheSystem.Consoleclassinthiscasetodoitsjob.Finally,theclasslibraryofferswholeframeworkstosupportbuildingcertainkindsofapplications.Forexample,WindowsPresentationFoundationWPFisaframeworkforbuildingWindowsdesktopsoftwareASP.NETwhichisnotanacronym,despiteappearancesisaframeworkforbuildingwebapplications.NotallframeworksareaboutuserinterfacesWindowsCommunicationFoundationWCFisdesignedforbuildingservicesaccessedoverthenetworkbyothercomputersystems,forinstance.Thesethreecategoriesarenotstrict,asquiteafewclassesfitintotwo.Forexample,thepartsoftheclasslibrarythatprovideaccesstothefilesystemarenotjustthinwrappersaroundexistingWin32APIs.Theyaddnewobjectorientedabstractions,providingsignificantfunctionalitybeyondthebasicfileI/Oservices,sothesetypesfitintoboththefirstandsecondcategories.Likewise,frameworksusuallyneedtointegratewithunderlyingservicestosomeextentforexample,althoughtheWindowsFormsUIframeworkhasadistinctiveAPIofitsown,alotoftheunderlyingfunctionalityisprovidedbyWin32components.Sothethreecategoriesherearenotstrict.Theyjustofferausefulideaofwhatsortsofthingsyoucanfindintheclasslibraries.LanguageStyleCisnottheonlylanguagethatrunsonthe.NETFramework.Indeed,supportformultiplelanguageshasalwaysbeenakeyfeatureof.NET,reflectedinthenameofitsruntimeengine,theCLRorCommonLanguageRuntime.Asthisnameimplies,.NETisnotjustforonelanguagenumerouslanguageshaveaccesstotheservicesofthe.NETFrameworkclasslibrary.WhymightyouchooseCovertheothersWealreadymentionedoneimportantreasonCwasdesignedspecificallyfor.NET.Ifyouareworkingwith.NETtechnologiessuchasWPForASP.NET,youllbespeakingtheirlanguageifyouworkinC.ComparethiswithC,whichsupports.NETthroughextensionstotheoriginallanguage.Theextensionsarecarefullythoughtoutandworkwell,butcodethatuses.NETlibrariesjustlooksdifferentfromnormalC,soprogramsthatbridgetheworldsof.NETandstandardCneverfeelcompletelycoherent.AndthedualpersonalityoftenpresentsdilemmasshouldyouusestandardCcollectionclassesortheonesinthe.NETclasslibrary,forexampleInnative.NETlanguagessuchasC,suchquestionsdonotemerge.Fistheoddoneouthere.Itsafunctionalprogramminglanguage,heavilyinfluencedbyalanguagecalledML.Backin1991,whenyourauthorswerefirstyearstudents,ouruniversityscomputersciencecoursechoseMLforthefirstprogramminglanguagelecturesinpartbecauseitwassoacademicthatnoneofthestudentswouldpreviouslyhavecomeacrossanythinglikeit.Fisstillattheacademicendofthespectrumdespitehavingclimbedfarenoughdowntheivorytowertobeastandardpartofamainstreamdevelopmentenvironment.Itexcelsatcomplicatedcalculationsandalgorithms,andhassomecharacteristicsthatcanhelpwithparallelexecution.However,aswithmanyfunctionallanguages,thecostofmakingsomehardproblemseasieristhatalotofthingsthatareeasyinmoretraditionallanguagesareremarkablyhardinFfunctionallanguagesareadeptatcomplexproblems,butcanbeclumsywithsimpleones.ItseemslikelythatFwillmostlybeusedinscientificorfinancialapplicationswherethecomplexityofthecomputationtobeperformeddwarfsthecomplexityofthecodethatneedstoactontheresultsofthosecalculations.ManagedCodeThe.NETFrameworkprovidesmorethanjustaclasslibrary.Italsoprovidesservicesinsubtlerwaysthatarenotaccessedexplicitlythroughlibrarycalls.Forexample,earlierwementionedthatCcanautomatesomeaspectsofmemorymanagement,anotorioussourceofbugsinCcode.AbandoningheapallocatedobjectsonceyouredonewiththemisacodingerrorinC,butitsthenormalwaytofreethemin.NET.ThisserviceisprovidedbytheCLRthe.NETFrameworksruntimeenvironment.AlthoughtheCcompilerworkscloselywiththeruntimetomakethispossible,providingthenecessaryinformationabouthowyourcodeusesobjectsanddata,itsultimatelytheruntimethatdoestheworkofgarbagecollection.Dependingonwhatsortsoflanguagesyoumayhaveworkedwithbefore,theideathatthelanguagedependsheavilyontheruntimemightseemeithercompletelynaturalorsomewhatdisconcerting.ItscertainlydifferentfromhowCandCworkwiththoselanguages,thecompilersoutputcanbeexecuteddirectlybythecomputer,andalthoughthoselanguageshavesomeruntimeservices,itspossibletowritecodethatcanrunwithoutthem.ButCcodecannotevenexecutewithoutthehelpoftheruntime.Codethatdependsentirelyontheruntimeiscalledmanagedcode.Managedcompilersdonotproducerawexecutablecode.Instead,theyproduceanintermediateformofcodecalledIL,theIntermediateLanguage.Theruntimedecidesexactlyhowtoconvertitintosomethingexecutable.OnepracticalupshotofmanagedcodeisthatacompiledCprogramcanrunonboth32bitand64bitsystemswithoutmodification,andcanevenrunondifferentprocessorarchitecturesitsoftenpossibleforcodethatrunsonanARMbasedhandhelddevicetorununmodifiedonIntelbasedPCs,oronthePowerPCarchitecturefoundintheXbox360gameconsole.IfyoureaJavadeveloper,allofthiswillsoundratherfamiliarjustsubstitutebytecodeforILandthestoryisverysimilar.Indeed,apopularbutsomewhatignorantjokeamongthelessthoughtfulmembersoftheJavacommunityistodescribeCasapoorimitationofJava.WhenthefirstversionofCappeared,thedifferencesweresubtle,butthefactthatJavawentontocopyseveralfeaturesfromCillustratesthatCwasalwaysmorethanamereclone.Thelanguageshavegrownmoreobviouslydifferentwitheachnewversion,butonedifference,presentfromthestart,isparticularlyimportantforWindowsdevelopersChasalwaysmadeiteasytogetatthefeaturesoftheunderlyingWindowsplatform.ContinuityandtheWindowsEcosystemSoftwaredevelopmentplatformsdonotsucceedpurelyontheirownmeritscontextmatters.Forexample,widespreadavailabilityofthirdpartycomponentsandtoolscanmakeaplatformsignificantlymorecompelling.Windowsisperhapsthemoststrikingexampleofthisphenomenon.Anynewprogrammingsystemattemptingtogainacceptancehasaconsiderableadvantageifitcanplugintosomeexistingecosystem,andoneofthebiggestdifferencesbetweenCandJavaisthatCandthe.NETFrameworkpositivelyembracetheWindowsplatform,whileJavagoesoutofitswaytoinsulatedevelopersfromtheunderlyingOS.While.NEToffersfeaturestoeaseintegrationwiththeunderlyingplatform,thereisstillsupportfornonWindowssystems.MicrosoftsSilverlightcanrunCandVB.NETcodeonMac
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