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英文文献PLCintheicestoragecentralairconditioningsystemofcontrol1IntroductionInPLCin30yearswhichdeveloped,itpassesthroughdevelopsunceasingly,alreadycouldunifysimulatesI/O,thenetworkcorrespondsaswellasusesnewprogrammingstandardlikeIEC611313.However,engineersonlymustusedigitalI/OandfewsimulationsI/Onumberaswellassimpleprogrammingskillonpotential80industrialapplication.PLChasbeenwidelyusedinallindustrialsectors.AccordingtoTheUnitedStatesmarketinformationWorldPLCandsoftwaremarketreport,in1995theglobalsoftwarePLCanditseconomiesofscaleofabout5billionUSdollars5.Aselectronictechnologyandthedevelopmentofcomputertechnology,Becauseusestraditionalthetooltobepossibletosolve80industrialapplication,likethisintenselyneedstohavelowcostsimplePLCThuspromotedthelowcostminiaturePLCgrowth,ithastheusefultrapezoidallogicalprogrammingdigitalI/O.However,thishasalsocreatedthediscontinuityinthecontroltechnology,ontheonehand80applicationneedtousethesimplelowcostcontroller,butontheotherhandother20applicationthenhavesurpassedthefunctionwhichthetraditioncontrolsystemcanprovide.Engineerisdevelopingthese20applicationtoneedtohavethehighercirculationspeed,theseniorcontrolalgorithm,themoresimulationsfunctionaswellascanwellandtheenterprisenetworkintegration.In80andthe90s,thesemustdevelop20applicationengineershadconsideredusesPCintheindustrycontrol.PCprovidesthesoftwarefunctionmaycarryouttheseniortask,providestherichprogrammingandtheuserenvironment,andthePCCOTSpartenablescontrolengineerthetechnologywhichdevelopsunceasinglytouseinotherapplications.ThesetechnologiesincludingfloatingpointprocessorHighspeedI/Omainline,likePCIandethernetFixeddatamemorysoftwaredevelopmentkit.MoreoverPCalsocanprovidetheincomparableflexibility,highlyeffectivesoftwareaswellasseniorlowcosthardware.Icethermalstorageairconditioningisthecentralpowergridcouldberedundantnighticeelectricityintheformofcoldstorage,inthedaytimepeakhoursofelectricitytoprovideairconditioningservicesmeltingice.Asmostpartsofourcountryatnightthanduringthedaymuchlowerprice,usingicecoldstoragecentralairconditioningcangreatlyreduceuseroperatingcosts.Icestoragecentralairconditioningsystemconfigurationofequipmentthanconventionalairconditioningsystemtoincreasesome,requireahigherdegreeofautomation,butitautomaticallytomeettherequirementsoftheairconditionedbuildingsalldayeverydayundertheconditionsoftheenergyhehasexhaustedall,thebiggestlimitstosaveoperatingcosts.thePLCfunctionsaregreatlyenhanced,withthefollowingcharacteristics1highreliability.PLCbenefitedfromthehighreliabilityhardwareandsoftwareonaseriesofantijammingmeasuresandthecycleofitsspecialscanningmethodsofwork.2withrichI/Ointerfacemodule.PLCfordifferentindustrialfieldsignalandthecorrespondingI/Omodulesandindustrialdevicesorequipmentatthesceneofadirectconnection.Inadditiontoimprovingperformance,italsohasavarietyofmanmachinedialogueinterfacemodulestotheindustrialcompositionoflocalareanetworks,italsomultiplecommunicationsnetworkinterfacemodule.3modularstructure.Tomeettheneedsofvariousindustrialcontrol,inadditiontoasmallPLCunit,thevastmajorityofPLCaremodularstructure.PLCvariouscomponents,includingtheCPU,powersupply,I/O,etc.ismodularindesignfromtherackandcableswillconnecteachmodule,thesystemssizeandfunctioninaccordancewiththeneedsofusersofitsownportfolio.4easytolearnprogramming.MostofthePLCprogrammingrelaycontrolcircuitsimilartotheladderdiagramform,theuser,donothavecomputerexpertise,itiseasytogeneralengineeringandtechnicalpersonnelunderstandandmaster.5Installationissimpleandeasymaintenance.PLCdoesnotrequirespecializedequipmentroominavarietyofindustrialenvironmentscanbedirectlyrun.Variousmodulesarerunandfaultindicationdevices,userfriendlyunderstandingoftheoperationandfindfault.Themodularstructure,soanyfailureofamodule,userscanreplacethemodule,allowingthesystemtorapidlyresumeoperation.Second,thecharacteristicsandApplicationofindustrialPC2ControlsystemThecontrolsystemconsistsofthecrewFloorControlWorkstationandPCcentralmanagementworkstation,withthecrewusingprogrammablelogiccontrollerPLCwiththetouchscreen,PCusingindustrialgradecomputersandprinters,systemconfigurationnecessaryiftheannexcommunicationsequipmentinterfaces,networkinterfacecards,modemsandsoon,toachievetheparametersofthestoragesystemandintelligentautomaticoperation.Underthecrewatthesceneandtouchscreensystemscancontrol,parametersettingsanddata.PCremotemanagementandprint,itcontainsthecrewandallofthefeaturestouchscreen.Followingthesystemasawholecrewofindustrialprogrammablelogiccontrollerasthecore,toachieveautomaticcontrol.Controlequipmentanddevicesincludingdetectionsensorcomponents,electricvalves,converter,etc..Underthe2.1SystemsRegionalworkstations2.1.1TP21touchscreenTP27usedasacolortouchscreenoperatorpanel,completelyreplaceconventionalbutton,lightsdevice,thecontrolcabinetinterviewedmoretidy.Moreover,TP27touchscreenatthesceneshowedthatthestatecanberealized,systemsettings,modeselection,parametersetting,faultrecording,recordload,timeofday,realtimedata,loadcurveandreportingstatistics,andotherfunctions,Chineseintuitiveandfriendlyuserinterface.2.1.2SIEMENSPLCSIMATICS7300SeriesPLCappliedtoallwalksoflife,allkindsofoccasionsinthedetection,monitoringandcontrolautomation,itspowerfulfeaturestobothoperateindependently,orlinkedtoanetworkabletoachievecomplexcontrolfunctions.Theproductfeaturesphotoelectricisolation,andhighelectromagneticcompatibilityhighindustrialapplicability,allowingtheambienttemperatureof60℃hasastrongantijammingandantivibrationandimpactresistance,intheharshenvironmentoftheworkhasbeenwidelyapplications.IalsomeansfreedomofcommunicationsS7300PLC,averyuniquefeatures,itmakesS7300PLCwithanycommunicationprotocolcanopenotherequipment,communicationscontroller,orPLCS7300canbedefinedbytheusersthemselvescommunicationsprotocolsforexampleASCIIprotocol,baudrateof1.5Mbit/sadjustable.Thusthescopeofthecommunicationscanbegreatlyincreased,thecontrolsystemconfigurationmoreflexibleandconvenient.Anyserialinterfacewithperipherals,suchasprinterorbarcodereaders,thedrive,amodemModem,theupperPCcanbeconnectedtothemachine.UserscanprogramtodevelopcommunicationprotocoltoexchangedatasuchasASCIIcharactercode,RS232interfacewiththeequipmentavailablePC/PPIfreecablelinkingcommunicationscommunication.1.ChipandChipHolderslntegratedCircuisareusuallycalledIcsorchips.Thayarecomplexcircuits,whichhavebennetchedontotinychipsofsemiconductorsilicon.Thechipispackagedinaplasticholderwithpinsspacedona0.12.54mmgrid,whichwillfittheholesonstipboard.Veryfinewiresinisdethepackagelinkthechiptothepins.2.PinnumbersThepinsarenumberedanticlockwisearoundtheICchipstartingnearthenotchordot.Itshowsthenumberingfor8pinand14pinIcs,buttheprincipleisthesameforallsizes.3.ChipholdersDILsocketsICschipareeasilydamagededbyheatwhensolderingandtheirshortpinscannotbeprotectedwithaheatsink.Insteadweuseachipholder,strictlycalledaDILsocketDILDualInLine,whichcanbesafelysolderedontothecircuitboard.Thechipispushedintotheholderwhenallsoldingiscomplete.Chipholdersareonlyneddedwhensoldingsotheyarenotusedonbreaboards.Commerciallyproducedcircuitboardsoftenhavechipssoldereddirectlytotheboardwithoutachipholder,usuallythisisdonebyamachinewhichisabletoworkveryquickly.Pleasedonnotattemptodothisyourselfbecauseyouarelikelytodestorythechipanditwillbedifferenttoremovewithoutdamagebydesoldering.4.RemovingachipfromitsholderIfyouneedtoremoveachipitcanbegentlyprizedoutoftheholderwithasmallflatbladescrewdriver.Carefullyleverupeachendbyinsertingthescrewdriverbladebetweenthechipanditsholderandgentlytwistingthescrewdrive.Takecaretostatreliftingatbothendsbeforeyouattempttoremovethechip,otherwiseyouwillbendandpossiblybreakthepins.5,BipolarIntegratedCircuitsMOSIntegratedCircuitsHistorically,bipolarIntegratedCircuitsusedtobemuchmorepopularthanMOSIntegratedCircuits,particularlyforsmallsacelogicCircuits.Thereweretwomajorreasonsforthisfirst,bipolarjunctiontransistorsoriginallycouldbemanufacturedmorereliablythanMOStransistors,andsecond,theywerefaster,AsthereliabitityofMOStransistorsimproved,andasintegratedCircuitsbecamemorecomplex,whichmadethelowerpowerandsmallsizeofMOSlogicmoreimportant,thepopularityofBJTlogicdecreased,however,BJTtechnologyisstillpopularforthehighestfrequencylogiccircuits.WhenthePCoffline,underthecontrolofthenextcrew,theentiresystemcanoperatenormally.2.2PCSystemcentralmanagementworkstation2.2.1PCPCthatisbycontrolcentre,mainlybythePCandlaserprintercomponents,SIMATICWINCCsoftwareplatformusedbytheentireChineseuserinterface,friendlymanmachinedialogue.Managementandoperation,canbeobservedbyPCdisplayallkindsofinformationtounderstandthecurrentandpreviouscontrolledtheentireicestoragesystemandtheoperationofallparameters,andequipmentthroughthemouseprintmanagementandtheimplementationoftasks.2.2.2WINCCsoftwareplatformWINCCsoftwareinthefieldofautomationcanbeusedforalloperatorcontrolandmonitoringtasks.Processcontrolcanbeintheeventsclearlyshow,canshowthatthecurrentstaterecordsinaccordancewiththeorder,alltherecordeddatacanbedisplayedorselectsummaryform,ormayberequiredforediting,andoutputprintstatementsandtrends.WINCCabletocontroltheprocessofthecriticalearlystagesofthereport,andthesignalcanbedisplayedonthescreen,andcanalsousevoicedemonstrated.Itsupporttheuseofonlinehelpandoperationalguidelinestoeliminatefault.WINCCaspecializedworkstationscanbeusedtocontroltheprocesssothattheimportantprocessinformationisnotshielded.Aidedsoftwarestrategyassuranceprocessisnotillegalaccess,andprovidefortheindustrialenvironmentnowrongintheoperation.WINCCisMICRSOFTWINDOWS98orWINDOWSNT4.0operatingsystem,runningonaPCobjectorientedclass32applications,throughWindowsOLEandODBCstandardmechanism,asanidealcommunicationspartnerstoenterWINDOWSworld,andthereforecanbeeasilyWINCCtointegrateacompanywidedataprocessingsystem.3Icestoragesystemcontrol3.1Controlobjectives,scopeandmainlycontrolledequipmentStorageControlSystemcontrolpurposesThroughtherefrigerationhost,icestoragedevices,plateheatexchanger,thesystempumps,coolingtowers,pipingsystemregulatingvalvecontrol,icestoragesystemadjustmentofthestatusoftheoperationmode,inthemosteconomicalcircumstancestotheterminaltoprovideastablewatersupplytemperature.Atthesametime,improvethelevelofautomation,improvethemanagementefficiencyandreducelaborintensitymanagement.Controloftheicestoragesystem,includingtheentirestateoftheparameters,equipmentstatusandcontrol,themaincontrolequipmentduplexstatusconsole,electricvalves,coolingtowers,coolingwaterpumps,icestoragedevices,theprimaryglycolpump,plateheatexchanger,subglycolpumps.3.2ControlControlfunctionsincludetheicestoragesystemstability,andeconomicoperationofthe
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