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THEHISTORYOFRFIDWHETHERWEREALIZEITORNOT,RADIOFREQUENCYIDENTIFICATIONRFIDISANINTEGRALPARTOFOURLIFERFIDINCREASESPRODUCTIVITYANDCONVENIENCERFIDISUSEDFORHUNDREDS,IFNOTTHOUSANDS,OFAPPLICATIONSSUCHASPREVENTINGTHEFTOFAUTOMOBILESANDMERCHANDISE;COLLECTINGTOLLSWITHOUTSTOPPING;MANAGINGTRAFFIC;GAININGENTRANCETOBUILDINGS;AUTOMATINGPARKING;CONTROLLINGACCESSOFVEHICLESTOGATEDCOMMUNITIES,CORPORATECAMPUSESANDAIRPORTS;DISPENSINGGOODS;PROVIDINGSKILIFTACCESS;TRACKINGLIBRARYBOOKS;BUYINGHAMBURGERS;ANDTHEGROWINGOPPORTUNITYTOTRACKAWEALTHOFASSETSINSUPPLYCHAINMANAGEMENTRFIDTECHNOLOGIESISALSOBEINGPRESSEDINTOSERVICEFORUSEINUSHOMELANDSECURITYWITHAPPLICATIONSSUCHASSECURINGBORDERCROSSINGSANDINTERMODALCONTAINERSHIPMENTSWHILEEXPEDITINGLOWRISKACTIVITIESRFIDISATERMCOINEDFORSHORTRANGERADIOTECHNOLOGYUSEDTOCOMMUNICATEMAINLYDIGITALINFORMATIONBETWEENASTATIONARYLOCATIONANDAMOVABLEOBJECTORBETWEENMOVABLEOBJECTSAVARIETYOFRADIOFREQUENCIESANDTECHNIQUESAREUSEDINRFIDSYSTEMSRFIDISGENERALLYCHARACTERIZEDBYUSEOFSIMPLEDEVICESONONEENDOFTHELINKANDMORECOMPLEXDEVICESONTHEOTHERENDOFTHELINKTHESIMPLEDEVICESOFTENCALLEDTAGSORTRANSPONDERSARESMALLANDINEXPENSIVE,CANBEDEPLOYEDECONOMICALLYINVERYLARGENUMBERS,AREATTACHEDTOTHEOBJECTSTOBEMANAGED,ANDOPERATEAUTOMATICALLYTHEMORECOMPLEXDEVICESOFTENCALLEDREADERS,INTERROGATORS,BEACONSAREMORECAPABLEANDAREUSUALLYCONNECTEDTOAHOSTCOMPUTERORNETWORKRADIOFREQUENCIESFROM100KHZTO10GHZHAVEBEENUSEDTHETAGSAREUSUALLYBUILTUSINGCMOSCIRCUITRYWHILEOTHERTECHNOLOGIESCANBEUSEDSUCHASSURFACEACOUSTICWAVESAWDEVICESORTUNEDRESONATORSTAGSCANBEPOWEREDBYABATTERYORBYRECTIFICATIONOFTHERADIOSIGNALSENTBYTHEREADERTAGSCANSENDDATATOTHEREADERBYCHANGINGTHELOADINGOFTHETAGANTENNAINACODEDMANNERORBYGENERATING,MODULATING,ANDTRANSMITTINGARADIOSIGNALAVARIETYOFMODULATIONANDCODINGTECHNIQUESHAVEBEENUSEDRFIDSYSTEMSCANBEREADONLYDATAISTRANSFERREDONLYINONEDIRECTION,FROMTHETAGTOTHEREADERORREADANDWRITETWOWAYCOMMUNICATIONATYPICALRFIDSYSTEMCANUSETHEPRINCIPLEOFMODULATEDBACKSCATTERSEEFIG1INTHISTYPEOFRFIDSYSTEM,TOTRANSFERDATAFROMTHETAGTOTHEREADER,THEREADERSENDSANUNMODULATEDSIGNALTOTHETAGTHETAGREADSITSINTERNALMEMORYOFSTOREDDATAANDCHANGESTHELOADINGONTHETAGANTENNAINACODEDMANNERCORRESPONDINGTOTHESTOREDDATATHESIGNALREFLECTEDFROMTHETAGISTHUSMODULATEDWITHTHISCODEDINFORMATIONTHISMODULATEDSIGNALISRECEIVEDBYTHEREADER,DEMODULATEDUSINGAHOMODYNERECEIVER,ANDDECODEDANDOUTPUTASDIGITALINFORMATIONTHATCONTAINSTHEDATASTOREDINTHETAGTOSENDDATAFROMTHEREADERTOTHETAG,THEREADERAMPLITUDEMODULATESITSTRANSMITTEDRADIOSIGNALTHISMODULATEDSIGNALISRECEIVEDBYTHETAGANDDETECTEDWITHADIODETHEDATACANBEUSEDTOCONTROLOPERATIONOFTHETAG,ORTHETAGCANSTORETHEDATAASIMPLEDIODEDETECTORALLOWSTHEDETECTIONCIRCUITRYINTHETAGTOBESIMPLEANDCONSUMELITTLEPOWERMANKIND’SUSEANDUNDERSTANDINGOFELECTRICITY,MAGNETISM,ANDELECTROMAGNETICINVERYEARLYTIMESWASLIMITEDTOHISEYESIGHT,OBSERVATIONOFELECTROSTATICDISCHARGEDON’TSTANDUNDERALARGETREEDURINGALIGHTNINGSTORM,ANDTHEMAGNETICPROPERTIESOFLODESTONESEARLYAPPLICATIONSPROBABLYINCLUDEDMAKINGLIGHTWITHFIRE,USEOFMIRRORSFORSIGNALING,ANDUSEOFLODESTONESFORNAVIGATIONSCIENTIFICUNDERSTANDINGPROGRESSEDVERYSLOWLYUNTILABOUTTHE1600SFROMTHE1600STO1800STHEREWASANEXPLOSIONOFOBSERVATIONALKNOWLEDGEOFELECTRICITY,MAGNETISM,ANDOPTICSACCOMPANIEDBYAGROWINGBASEOFMATHEMATICALLYRELATEDOBSERVATIONSTHE1800SMARKEDTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEFUNDAMENTALUNDERSTANDINGOFELECTROMAGNETICENERGYIN1846,ENGLISHEXPERIMENTALISTMICHAELFARADAYPROPOSEDTHATBOTHLIGHTANDRADIOWAVESAREAFORMOFELECTROMAGNETICENERGYIN1864,SCOTTISHPHYSICISTJAMESCLERKMAXWELLPUBLISHEDHISTHEORYONELECTROMAGNETICIN1887,GERMANPHYSICISTHEINRICHRUDOLFHERTZCONFIRMEDMAXWELL’SELECTROMAGNETICTHEORYANDPRODUCEDANDSTUDIEDELECTROMAGNETICWAVESRADIOWAVESHERTZISCREDITEDASTHEFIRSTTOTRANSMITANDRECEIVERADIOWAVES,ANDHISDEMONSTRATIONSWEREFOLLOWEDQUICKLYBYALEKSANDRPOPOVINRUSSIAIN1896,GUGLIELMOMARCONIDEMONSTRATEDTHEFIRSTSUCCESSFULTRANSMISSIONOFRADIOTELEGRAPHYACROSSTHEATLANTIC,ANDTHEWORLDWOULDNEVERBETHESAMEFORWARDTO20THCENTURYIN1906,ERNSTFWALEXANDERSONDEMONSTRATEDTHEFIRSTCONTINUOUSWAVECWRADIOGENERATIONANDTRANSMISSIONOFRADIOSIGNALSTHISACHIEVEMENTMARKSTHEBEGINNINGOFMODERNRADIOCOMMUNICATION,WHEREALLASPECTSOFRADIOWAVESARECONTROLLEDTHEEARLY20THCENTURYWASCONSIDEREDTHEBIRTHOFRADARTHEWORKINRADARDURINGWORLDWARIIWASASSIGNIFICANTATECHNICALDEVELOPMENTASTHEMANHATTANPROJECTRADARSENDSOUTRADIOWAVESFORDETECTINGANDLOCATINGANOBJECTBYTHEREFLECTIONOFTHERADIOWAVESTHISREFLECTIONCANDETERMINETHEPOSITIONANDSPEEDOFANOBJECTRADAR’SSIGNIFICANCEWASQUICKLYUNDERSTOODBYTHEMILITARY,SOMANYOFTHEEARLYDEVELOPMENTSWERESHROUDEDINSECRECYSINCEONEFORMOFRFIDISTHECOMBINATIONOFRADIOBROADCASTTECHNOLOGYANDRADAR,ITISNOTUNEXPECTEDTHATTHECONVERGENCEOFTHESETWORADIODISCIPLINESANDTHETHOUGHTSOFRFIDOCCURREDONTHEHEELSOFTHEDEVELOPMENTOFRADARGENESISOFANIDEAANEARLY,IFNOTTHEFIRST,WORKEXPLORINGRFIDISTHELANDMARKPAPERBYHARRYSTOCKMAN,“COMMUNICATIONBYMEANSOFREFLECTEDPOWER,”PUBLISHEDIN1948STOCKMANSTATED“EVIDENTLY,CONSIDERABLERESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTWORKHASTOBEDONEBEFORETHEREMAININGBASICPROBLEMSINREFLECTEDPOWERCOMMUNICATIONARESOLVED,ANDBEFORETHEFIELDOFUSEFULAPPLICATIONSISEXPLORED”THIRTYYEARSWOULDPASSBEFORESTOCKMAN’SVISIONWOULDREACHFRUITIONOTHERDEVELOPMENTSWERENEEDEDTHETRANSISTOR,THEINTEGRATEDCIRCUIT,THEMICROPROCESSOR,DEVELOPMENTOFCOMMUNICATIONNETWORKS,ANDCHANGESINWAYSOFDOINGBUSINESSTHESUCCESSOFRFIDWOULDHAVETOWAITAWHILEMUCHHASHAPPENEDINTHE57YEARSSINCESTOCKMAN’SWORKTHE1950SWEREANERAOFEXPLORATIONOFRFIDTECHNIQUESFOLLOWINGTECHNICALDEVELOPMENTSINRADIOANDRADARINTHE1930SAND1940SSEVERALTECHNOLOGIESRELATEDTORFIDWEREBEINGEXPLOREDSUCHASTHELONGRANGETRANSPONDERSYSTEMSOF“IDENTIFICATION,FRIEND,ORFOE”IFFFORAIRCRAFTDEVELOPMENTSOFTHE1950SINCLUDESUCHWORKSASDBHARRIS’S“RADIOTRANSMISSIONSYSTEMSWITHMODULATABLEPASSIVERESPONDER”THEWHEELSOFRFIDDEVELOPMENTWERETURNINGRFIDBECOMESREALITYTHE1960SWERETHEPRELUDETOTHERFIDEXPLOSIONOFTHE1970SRFHARRINGTONSTUDIEDTHEELECTROMAGNETICTHEORYRELATEDTORFIDINHISPAPERSINCLUDING“THEORYOFLOADEDSCATTERERS”IN1964INVENTORSWEREBUSYWITHRFIDRELATEDINVENTIONSSUCHASROBERTRICHARDSON’S“REMOTELYACTIVATEDRADIOFREQUENCYPOWEREDDEVICES,”ANDJHVOGELMAN’S“PASSIVEDATATRANSMISSIONTECHNIQUESUTILIZINGRADARECHOES”COMMERCIALACTIVITIESWEREBEGINNINGINTHE1960SSENSORMATICANDCHECKPOINTWEREFOUNDEDINTHELATE1960STHESECOMPANIES,WITHOTHERSSUCHASKNOGO,DEVELOPEDELECTRONICARTICLESURVEILLANCEEASEQUIPMENTTOCOUNTERTHETHEFTOFMERCHANDISETHESETYPESOFSYSTEMSAREOFTENUSE1BTAGS;ONLYTHEPRESENCEORABSENCEOFATAGCOULDBEDETECTED,BUTTHETAGSCOULDBEMADEINEXPENSIVELYANDPROVIDEDEFFECTIVEANTITHEFTMEASURESTHESETYPESOFSYSTEMSUSEDEITHERMICROWAVEGENERATIONOFHARMONICSUSINGASEMICONDUCTORORINDUCTIVERESONANTCIRCUITSTECHNOLOGYEASISARGUABLYTHEFIRSTANDMOSTWIDESPREADCOMMERCIALUSEOFRFIDTAGSCONTAININGMULTIPLEBITSWEREGENERALLYEXPERIMENTALINNATUREANDWEREBUILTWITHDISCRETECOMPONENTSWHILESINGLEBITEASTAGSWERESMALL,MULTIBITTAGSWERETHESIZEOFALOAFOFBREAD,CONSTRAINEDINSIZEBYTHEDICTATESOFTHECIRCUITRYINTHE1970SDEVELOPERS,INVENTORS,COMPANIES,ACADEMICINSTITUTIONS,ANDGOVERNMENTLABORATORIESWEREACTIVELYWORKINGONRFID,ANDNOTABLEADVANCESWEREBEINGREALIZEDATRESEARCHLABORATORIESANDACADEMICINSTITUTIONSSUCHASLOSALAMOSSCIENTIFICLABORATORY,NORTHWESTERNUNIVERSITY,ANDTHEMICROWAVEINSTITUTEFOUNDATIONINSWEDENANEARLYANDIMPORTANTDEVELOPMENTWASTHELOSALAMOSWORKTHATWASPRESENTEDBYALFREDKOELLE,STEVENDEPP,ANDROBERTFREYMAN,“SHORTRANGERADIOTELEMETRYFORELECTRONICIDENTIFICATIONUSINGMODULATEDBACKSCATTER,”IN1975THISDEVELOPMENTSIGNALEDTHEBEGINNINGOFPRACTICAL,COMPLETELYPASSIVETAGSWITHANOPERATIONALRANGEOFTENSOFMETERSLARGECOMPANIESWEREALSODEVELOPINGRFIDTECHNOLOGY,SUCHASRAYTHEON’SRAYTAGIN1973ANDRICHARDKLENSCHOFRCADEVELOPINGANELECTRONICIDENTIFICATIONSYSTEMIN1975THEPORTAUTHORITYOFNEWYORKANDNEWJERSEYWASALSOTESTINGSYSTEMSBUILTBYGENERALELECTRIC,WESTINGHOUSE,PHILIPS,ANDGLENAYRERESULTSWEREFAVORABLE,BUTTHEFIRSTCOMMERCIALLYSUCCESSFULTRANSPORTATIONAPPLICATIONOFRFID,ELECTRONICTOLLCOLLECTION,WASNOTYETREADYFORPRIMETIMETHE1970SWERECHARACTERIZEDPRIMARILYBYDEVELOPMENTALWORKINTENDEDAPPLICATIONSWEREFORANIMALTRACKING,VEHICLETRACKING,ANDFACTORYAUTOMATIONEXAMPLESOFANIMALTAGGINGEFFORTSWERETHEMICROWAVESYSTEMSATLOSALAMOSANDIDENTRONIXANDTHEINDUCTIVESYSTEMSINEUROPEINTERESTINANIMALTAGGINGWASHIGHINEUROPEALFALAVAL,NEDAP,ANDOTHERSWEREDEVELOPINGRFIDSYSTEMSTRANSPORTATIONEFFORTSINCLUDEDWORKATLOSALAMOSANDBYTHEINTERNATIONALBRIDGETURNPIKEANDTUNNELASSOCIATIONIBTTAANDTHEUNITEDSTATESFEDERALHIGHWAYADMINISTRATIONTHELATTERTWOSPONSOREDACONFERENCEIN1973THATCONCLUDEDTHEREWASNONATIONALINTERESTINDEVELOPINGASTANDARDFORELECTRONICVEHICLEIDENTIFICATIONTHISISANIMPORTANTDECISIONSINCEITWOULDPERMITAVARIETYOFSYSTEMSTODEVELOP,WHICHWASGOOD,BECAUSERFIDTECHNOLOGYWASINITSINFANCYRESEARCHEFFORTSCONTINUEDASWELLRJKINGAUTHOREDABOOKABOUTMICROWAVEHOMODYNETECHNIQUESIN1978THISBOOKISANEARLYCOMPENDIUMOFTHEORYANDPRACTICEUSEDINBACKSCATTERRFIDSYSTEMSTAGTECHNOLOGYHADIMPROVEDWITHREDUCTIONSINSIZEANDIMPROVEMENTSINFUNCTIONALITYTHEKEYTOTHESEADVANCEMENTSWASTHEUSEOFLOWVOLTAGE,LOWPOWERCMOSLOGICCIRCUITSTAGMEMORYUTILIZEDSWITCHESORWIREBONDSANDHADIMPROVEDWITHUSEOFFUSIBLELINKDIODEARRAYSBYTHEENDOFTHEDECADETHE1980SBECAMETHEDECADEFORFULLIMPLEMENTATIONOFRFIDTECHNOLOGY,THOUGHINTERESTSDEVELOPEDSOMEWHATDIFFERENTLYINVARIOUSPARTSOFTHEWORLDTHEGREATESTINTERESTSINTHEUNITEDSTATESWEREFORTRANSPORTATION,PERSONNELACCESS,AND,TOALESSEREXTENT,ANIMALSINEUROPE,THEGREATESTINTERESTSWEREFORSHORTRANGESYSTEMSFORANIMALSANDINDUSTRIALANDBUSINESSAPPLICATIONS,THOUGHTOLLROADSINITALY,FRANCE,SPAIN,PORTUGAL,ANDNORWAYWEREEQUIPPEDWITHRFIDAKEYTOTHERAPIDEXPANSIONOFRFIDAPPLICATIONSWASTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEPERSONALCOMPUTERPCTHATALLOWEDCONVENIENTANDECONOMICALCOLLECTIONANDMANAGEMENTOFDATAFROMRFIDSYSTEMSINTHEAMERICAS,THEASSOCIATIONOFAMERICANRAILROADSANDTHECONTAINERHANDLINGCOOPERATIVEPROGRAMWEREACTIVEWITHRFIDINITIATIVESTESTSOFRFIDFORCOLLECTINGTOLLSHADBEENGOINGONFORMANYYEARS,ANDTHEFIRSTCOMMERCIALAPPLICATIONBEGANINEUROPEIN1987INNORWAYANDWASFOLLOWEDQUICKLYINTHEUNITEDSTATESBYTHEDALLASNORTHTURNPIKEIN1989ALSODURINGTHISTIME,THEPORTAUTHORITYOFNEWYORKANDNEWJERSEYBEGANCOMMERCIALOPERATIONOFRFIDFORBUSESGOINGTHROUGHTHELINCOLNTUNNELRFIDWASFINDINGAHOMEWITHELECTRONICTOLLCOLLECTION,ANDNEWPLAYERSWEREARRIVINGDAILYTAGSWERENOWBEINGBUILTUSINGCUSTOMCMOSINTEGRATEDCIRCUITSCOMBIN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