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ThehistoryofRFIDWhetherwerealizeitornot,radiofrequencyidentificationRFIDisanintegralpartofourlife.RFIDincreasesproductivityandconvenience.RFIDisusedforhundreds,ifnotthousands,ofapplicationssuchaspreventingtheftofautomobilesandmerchandisecollectingtollswithoutstoppingmanagingtrafficgainingentrancetobuildingsautomatingparkingcontrollingaccessofvehiclestogatedcommunities,corporatecampusesandairportsdispensinggoodsprovidingskiliftaccesstrackinglibrarybooksbuyinghamburgersandthegrowingopportunitytotrackawealthofassetsinsupplychainmanagement.RFIDtechnologiesisalsobeingpressedintoserviceforuseinU.S.HomelandSecuritywithapplicationssuchassecuringbordercrossingsandintermodalcontainershipmentswhileexpeditinglowriskactivities.RFIDisatermcoinedforshortrangeradiotechnologyusedtocommunicatemainlydigitalinformationbetweenastationarylocationandamovableobjectorbetweenmovableobjects.AvarietyofradiofrequenciesandtechniquesareusedinRFIDsystems.RFIDisgenerallycharacterizedbyuseofsimpledevicesononeendofthelinkandmorecomplexdevicesontheotherendofthelink.Thesimpledevicesoftencalledtagsortranspondersaresmallandinexpensive,canbedeployedeconomicallyinverylargenumbers,areattachedtotheobjectstobemanaged,andoperateautomatically.Themorecomplexdevicesoftencalledreaders,interrogators,beaconsaremorecapableandareusuallyconnectedtoahostcomputerornetwork.Radiofrequenciesfrom100kHzto10GHzhavebeenused.ThetagsareusuallybuiltusingCMOScircuitrywhileothertechnologiescanbeusedsuchassurfaceacousticwaveSAWdevicesortunedresonators.Tagscanbepoweredbyabatteryorbyrectificationoftheradiosignalsentbythereader.Tagscansenddatatothereaderbychangingtheloadingofthetagantennainacodedmannerorbygenerating,modulating,andtransmittingaradiosignal.Avarietyofmodulationandcodingtechniqueshavebeenused.RFIDsystemscanbereadonlydataistransferredonlyinonedirection,fromthetagtothereaderorreadandwritetwowaycommunication.AtypicalRFIDsystemcanusetheprincipleofmodulatedbackscatterseeFig.1.InthistypeofRFIDsystem,totransferdatafromthetagtothereader,thereadersendsanunmodulatedsignaltothetag.Thetagreadsitsinternalmemoryofstoreddataandchangestheloadingonthetagantennainacodedmannercorrespondingtothestoreddata.Thesignalreflectedfromthetagisthusmodulatedwiththiscodedinformation.Thismodulatedsignalisreceivedbythereader,demodulatedusingahomodynereceiver,anddecodedandoutputasdigitalinformationthatcontainsthedatastoredinthetag.Tosenddatafromthereadertothetag,thereaderamplitudemodulatesitstransmittedradiosignal.Thismodulatedsignalisreceivedbythetaganddetectedwithadiode.Thedatacanbeusedtocontroloperationofthetag,orthetagcanstorethedata.Asimplediodedetectorallowsthedetectioncircuitryinthetagtobesimpleandconsumelittlepower.Mankindsuseandunderstandingofelectricity,magnetism,andelectromagneticinveryearlytimeswaslimitedtohiseyesight,observationofelectrostaticdischargedontstandunderalargetreeduringalightningstorm,andthemagneticpropertiesoflodestones.Earlyapplicationsprobablyincludedmakinglightwithfire,useofmirrorsforsignaling,anduseoflodestonesfornavigation.Scientificunderstandingprogressedveryslowlyuntilaboutthe1600s.Fromthe1600sto1800stherewasanexplosionofobservationalknowledgeofelectricity,magnetism,andopticsaccompaniedbyagrowingbaseofmathematicallyrelatedobservations.The1800smarkedthebeginningofthefundamentalunderstandingofelectromagneticenergy.In1846,EnglishexperimentalistMichaelFaradayproposedthatbothlightandradiowavesareaformofelectromagneticenergy.In1864,ScottishphysicistJamesClerkMaxwellpublishedhistheoryonelectromagnetic.In1887,GermanphysicistHeinrichRudolfHertzconfirmedMaxwellselectromagnetictheoryandproducedandstudiedelectromagneticwavesradiowaves.Hertziscreditedasthefirsttotransmitandreceiveradiowaves,andhisdemonstrationswerefollowedquicklybyAleksandrPopovinRussia.In1896,GuglielmoMarconidemonstratedthefirstsuccessfultransmissionofradiotelegraphyacrosstheAtlantic,andtheworldwouldneverbethesame.Forwardto20thcenturyIn1906,ErnstF.W.AlexandersondemonstratedthefirstcontinuouswaveCWradiogenerationandtransmissionofradiosignals.Thisachievementmarksthebeginningofmodernradiocommunication,whereallaspectsofradiowavesarecontrolled.Theearly20thcenturywasconsideredthebirthofradar.TheworkinradarduringWorldWarIIwasassignificantatechnicaldevelopmentastheManhattanProject.Radarsendsoutradiowavesfordetectingandlocatinganobjectbythereflectionoftheradiowaves.Thisreflectioncandeterminethepositionandspeedofanobject.Radarssignificancewasquicklyunderstoodbythemilitary,somanyoftheearlydevelopmentswereshroudedinsecrecy.SinceoneformofRFIDisthecombinationofradiobroadcasttechnologyandradar,itisnotunexpectedthattheconvergenceofthesetworadiodisciplinesandthethoughtsofRFIDoccurredontheheelsofthedevelopmentofradar.GenesisofanideaAnearly,ifnotthefirst,workexploringRFIDisthelandmarkpaperbyHarryStockman,CommunicationbyMeansofReflectedPower,publishedin1948.StockmanstatedEvidently,considerableresearchanddevelopmentworkhastobedonebeforetheremainingbasicproblemsinreflectedpowercommunicationaresolved,andbeforethefieldofusefulapplicationsisexplored.ThirtyyearswouldpassbeforeStockmansvisionwouldreachfruition.Otherdevelopmentswereneededthetransistor,theintegratedcircuit,themicroprocessor,developmentofcommunicationnetworks,andchangesinwaysofdoingbusiness.ThesuccessofRFIDwouldhavetowaitawhile.Muchhashappenedinthe57yearssinceStockmanswork.The1950swereaneraofexplorationofRFIDtechniquesfollowingtechnicaldevelopmentsinradioandradarinthe1930sand1940s.SeveraltechnologiesrelatedtoRFIDwerebeingexploredsuchasthelongrangetranspondersystemsofidentification,friend,orfoeIFFforaircraft.Developmentsofthe1950sincludesuchworksasD.B.HarrissRadiotransmissionsystemswithmodulatablepassiveresponder.ThewheelsofRFIDdevelopmentwereturning.RFIDbecomesrealityThe1960swerethepreludetotheRFIDexplosionofthe1970s.R.F.HarringtonstudiedtheelectromagnetictheoryrelatedtoRFIDinhispapersincludingTheoryofLoadedScatterersin1964.InventorswerebusywithRFIDrelatedinventionssuchasRobertRichardsonsRemotelyactivatedradiofrequencypowereddevices,andJ.H.VogelmansPassivedatatransmissiontechniquesutilizingradarechoes.Commercialactivitieswerebeginninginthe1960s.SensormaticandCheckpointwerefoundedinthelate1960s.Thesecompanies,withotherssuchasKnogo,developedelectronicarticlesurveillanceEASequipmenttocounterthetheftofmerchandise.Thesetypesofsystemsareoftenuse1btagsonlythepresenceorabsenceofatagcouldbedetected,butthetagscouldbemadeinexpensivelyandprovidedeffectiveantitheftmeasures.Thesetypesofsystemsusedeithermicrowavegenerationofharmonicsusingasemiconductororinductiveresonantcircuitstechnology.EASisarguablythefirstandmostwidespreadcommercialuseofRFID.Tagscontainingmultiplebitsweregenerallyexperimentalinnatureandwerebuiltwithdiscretecomponents.WhilesinglebitEAStagsweresmall,multibittagswerethesizeofaloafofbread,constrainedinsizebythedictatesofthecircuitry.Inthe1970sdevelopers,inventors,companies,academicinstitutions,andgovernmentlaboratorieswereactivelyworkingonRFID,andnotableadvanceswerebeingrealizedatresearchlaboratoriesandacademicinstitutionssuchasLosAlamosScientificLaboratory,NorthwesternUniversity,andtheMicrowaveInstituteFoundationinSweden.AnearlyandimportantdevelopmentwastheLosAlamosworkthatwaspresentedbyAlfredKoelle,StevenDepp,andRobertFreyman,ShortRangeRadioTelemetryforElectronicIdentificationUsingModulatedBackscatter,in1975.Thisdevelopmentsignaledthebeginningofpractical,completelypassivetagswithanoperationalrangeoftensofmeters.LargecompanieswerealsodevelopingRFIDtechnology,suchasRaytheonsRaytagin1973andRichardKlenschofRCAdevelopinganelectronicidentificationsystemin1975.ThePortAuthorityofNewYorkandNewJerseywasalsotestingsystemsbuiltbyGeneralElectric,Westinghouse,Philips,andGlenayre.Resultswerefavorable,butthefirstcommerciallysuccessfultransportationapplicationofRFID,electronictollcollection,wasnotyetreadyforprimetime.The1970swerecharacterizedprimarilybydevelopmentalwork.Intendedapplicationswereforanimaltracking,vehicletracking,andfactoryautomation.ExamplesofanimaltaggingeffortswerethemicrowavesystemsatLosAlamosandIdentronixandtheinductivesystemsinEurope.InterestinanimaltaggingwashighinEurope.AlfaLaval,Nedap,andothersweredevelopingRFIDsystems.TransportationeffortsincludedworkatLosAlamosandbytheInternationalBridgeTurnpikeandTunnelAssociationIBTTAandtheUnitedStatesFederalHighwayAdministration.Thelattertwosponsoredaconferencein1973thatconcludedtherewasnonationalinterestindevelopingastandardforelectronicvehicleidentification.Thisisanimportantdecisionsinceitwouldpermitavarietyofsystemstodevelop,whichwasgood,becauseRFIDtechnologywasinitsinfancy.Researcheffortscontinuedaswell.R.J.Kingauthoredabookaboutmicrowavehomodynetechniquesin1978.ThisbookisanearlycompendiumoftheoryandpracticeusedinbackscatterRFIDsystems.Tagtechnologyhadimprovedwithreductionsinsizeandimprovementsinfunctionality.Thekeytotheseadvancementswastheuseoflowvoltage,lowpowerCMOSlogiccircuits.Tagmemoryutilizedswitchesorwirebondsandhadimprovedwithuseoffusiblelinkdiodearraysbytheendofthedecade.The1980sbecamethedecadeforfullimplementationofRFIDtechnology,thoughinterestsdevelopedsomewhatdifferentlyinvariouspartsoftheworld.ThegreatestinterestsintheUnitedStateswerefortransportation,personnelaccess,and,toalesserextent,animals.InEurope,thegreatestinterestswereforshortrangesystemsforanimalsandindustrialandbusinessapplications,thoughtollroadsinItaly,France,Spain,Portugal,andNorwaywereequippedwithRFID.AkeytotherapidexpansionofRFIDapplicationswasthedevelopmentofthepersonalcomputerPCthatallowedconvenientandeconomicalcollectionandmanagementofdatafromRFIDsystems.IntheAmericas,theAssociationofAmericanRailroadsandtheContainerHandlingCooperativeProgramwereactivewithRFIDinitiatives.TestsofRFIDforcollectingtollshadbeengoingonformanyyears,andthefirstcommercialapplicationbeganinEuropein1987inNorwayandwasfollowedquicklyintheUnitedStatesbytheDallasNorthTurnpikein1989.Alsoduringthistime,thePortAuthorityofNewYorkandNewJerseybegancommercialoperationofRFIDforbusesgoingthroughtheLincolnTunnel.RFIDwasfindingahomewithelectronictollcollection,andnewplayerswerearrivingdaily.TagswerenowbeingbuiltusingcustomCMOSintegratedcircuitscombinedwithdiscretecomponentsformicrowavetags.EEPROMbecamethenonvolatilememoryofchoice,permittingthelargescalemanufactureofidenticaltagsthatcouldbeindividualizedthroughprogramming.TheseadvancementsleadtofurtherreductionsinthesizeoftagsandincreaseinfunctionalityseeFig.2.Theconstraintofrequiredantennasizewasnowbecomingimportantindeterminingthesizeoftags.The1990sThe1990swereasignificantdecadeforRFIDsinceitsawthewidescaledeploymentofelectronictollcollectionintheUnitedStatesandtheinstallationofover3millionRFIDtagsonrailcarsinNorthAmerica.Importantdeploymentsincludedseveralinnovationsinelectronictolling.TheworldsfirstopenhighwayelectronictollingsystemopenedinOklahomain1991,wherevehiclescouldpasstollcollectionpointsathighwayspeeds,unimpededbyatollplazaorbarriersandwithvideocamerasforenforcement.ThefirstcombinedtollcollectionandtrafficmanagementsystemwasinstalledintheHoustonareabytheHarrisCountyTollRoadAuthorityin1992.AlsoafirstwasthesysteminstalledontheKansasturnpikeusingreadersthatcouldalsooperatewiththedifferentprotocoltagsoftheirneighbortothesouth,Oklahoma.Georgiawouldfollow,upgradingtheirequipmentwithreadersthatcouldcommunicatewithtagsusinganew
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