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ProceedingsoftheSeventhInternationalConferenceonMachineLearningandCybernetics,Kunming,1215July20089781424420964/08/25.00©2008IEEE3800ANOVELSPHERICALWHEELDRIVENBYOMNIWHEELSCHIAWENWU1,CHIKUANGHWANG21InstituteofEngineeringandScience,ChungHuaUniversity,HsingChu,Taiwan,R.O.C.2Dept.ofElectricalEngineering,ChungHuaUniversity,HsingChu,Taiwan,R.O.C.EMAILm9101013chu.edu.tw,simonchu.edu.twAbstractAnovelcombinationofOmniwheelandsphericalwheelunitCWWUispresentedinthispaper,anditsoperatingprincipleisbasicallyasphericalwheeldrivenbytwoperpendicularpairsofOmniwheels.Thus,aCWWUbaserobotcanperformthestaticanddynamicbalancingfunctionthatasinglewheelwithinversemouseballdrivedevelopedbyCarnegieMellonUniversityCMUcanachieve.Thepreviousrolling/balancingmachinescannotimmediatelydriveinagivendirectionwithoutfirstreorientingthedrivemechanism.ThemajorfeatureofthepresentedCWWUbaserobotandtheCMUrobotisthatbothofthemcanmovedirectlyinanydirection.AscomparedtheOmniwheelbaserobotwiththeproposedone,themaindrawbackoftheOmniwheelrobotisthecancellationofoppositeportionofthedrivingforces.Moreover,theCWWUbaserobothasseveralexclusivefeatureswhichcanresolvesomeproblemsinheritedintheCMUrobot.Especially,thesimultaneousdemandofbothahighfrictionandlowfrictionmaterialforthesphericalballisacompromiseneededtomakefortheCMUrobot,butnotfortheproposedCWWUbaserobot.KeywordsCWWUOmniwheelSphericalwheel1.IntroductionIn1994,atwowheeledrobotusingtheinversependulumcontroltoeliminatethethirdcastorwheelhasbeendevelopedinJapan1.Theyalsopresentedaonewheeledbalancerobotinwhichtheellipsoidshapewheelisadoptedanddrivenwithanaxlealongthemajoraxis2.Recently,thetwowheelRMProboticplatformsbasedontheSegwayaretheinterestingresearchtopicinroboticlocomotion3.Thereafter,asinglewheelwithinversemouseballdrivecanachievethestaticanddynamicstabilityhasbeendevelopedbyCarnegieMellonUniversityCMU45.Theoveralldesignofthesystem,suchasactuatormechanismandcontrolsystemispresented.Thensomeinitialresultsincludingdynamicbalancing,stationkeeping,andpointtopointmotionarealsodiscussed.Mostofall,theirpaperspointedoutthatunlikebalancing2wheelplatformswhichmustturnbeforedrivinginanydirection,andthesinglewheelcanmovedirectlyinanydirection.Therefore,theyarethefirstgrouptoproposeabalancingrollingmachinewhosebodyissupportedbyasingleOmnidirectionalsphericalwheel.However,fortheCMUrobot,theconflictdemandofbothahighfrictionandlowfrictionmaterialatthesametimeforthesphericalballbecomesthemajorconcerntobecompromised.TheworkingprincipleofthepresentedCWWUinthepapercanbevirtuallyexpressedasasphericalwheeldrivenbytwoperpendicularpairsofOmniwheels.EachpairhastoparallelOmniwheelslinkedtothesameactuator.ItindicatesthattheCWWUneedstwoactuators.ThemotivationofthepresentedoneisinitiallyinspiredbythesinglewheelwithinversemouseballdrivedevelopedbyCMU,sotheirstaticanddynamicbalancingabilityisalsooneofimportantcharacteristicsofthepresentedone.However,forthepresentedone,theweightorloadofrobotcanbedirectlytransferredtothecontactsurfacewhichisthecrucialpointrelatedtothenormalcontactforcebetweenthedrivingpartandthesphericalwheelinthesimilarscheme.Thereby,theapplicabilityandrobustnessoftheinventedonecanbegreatlyenrichedbythisdistinctandparticulartrait.Thepresentedoneisalsoinsensitivetothedust,andthesphericalwheelcanbemadebytherubberwhichissamematerialasthecartire.Theabovetwoimportantfeaturessuggestthatthepresentedoneassembledwitharubbersphericalwheelcanbepromisinglyadoptedintotheautomobileindustry.Moreover,thehighefficiencyandbetterbalanceofdrivingforceassociatedwiththepresentedonecanimproveitsquality.2.SystemDescriptionSingleOmniwheel,asshowninFigure1,hasoneseriousnobrakingability.Therefore,multiOmniwheeledrobotsarepopularlyadoptedanddeveloped.Usually,therobotformedbythemultiOmniwheelhasonemajordisadvantage,thatis,thelowefficiencyofdrivingforce.IfastraightlinepathisplannedforathreeOmniwheelbaseProceedingsoftheSeventhInternationalConferenceonMachineLearningandCybernetics,Kunming,1215July20083801robottofollow,thenonlyonehalfofthedrivingforcecanbeusedowingtoanequiangulartrianglearrangementofthesethreeOmniwheels.Thiskindofarrangementwillcreateundesiredcancellationofthedrivingforce,sothelowefficiencyofthedrivingforceisincurredbythecancellation.Furthermore,forthecaseoffourOmniwheelbaserobot,itislikelyunsuitablefornonsmoothfloororobstacles.BecausethesuspensionofoneofthesefourOmniwheelsincidentallyoccursduetounevenfloor,itcanresultinmalfunctionoftherobot.Figure1.Omniwheelhttp//www.phxhs.k12.az.us/education/club/club.phpsectiondetailid27681andhttp//www.team229.org/photo/39/DrivemechanismoftheCMUisbasicallytheinverseofamouseballdrive45,thatis,rollersdrivetheballtoproducemotion,asshowninFigure2.Theballisactuatedbyapairsmoothstainlesssteelrollersplacedorthogonallyatthespheresequator.TheserollersarelinkedtotwohightorqueDCservomotorsthroughtimingbelts.Therearetwospringloadedpassiveidlerrollerswhichareoppositethedriverollers,andidlerrollerscanapplyforceattheballsequatortomaintaincontactbetweenthedriverollersandtheball.Thisarrangementcanreducetheundersideeffectcausedbyunavoidedslippage.Forexample,ifonerollerisbeingdriven,theorthogonalrollermustbeslipping.Thisunwantedsimultaneousdemandofbothahighfrictionandlowfrictionmaterialfortheballbecomesacompromisetobemade.Becauseitisalwaysdesirabletohavehighfrictionbetweentheballandthefloor,thehighfrictioncanavoidtheseriousslippageonthefloortocausethedifficultytobalancetherobot,orevenworsethemalfunctionoftherobot.Therefore,theypointedoutthatthedriveworkswellbuttheinitialballeventuallyworeout.Threecommerciallowfriction,omnidirectionalballtransferdevicesareadoptedtosupporttheentireBallbotbodyrestsontopoftheball.Thisdesignissmoothlytotransfertheweightorloadofrobotthroughtheballintothefloor.Figure2.CMU_BallbotEricAndAnishhttp//www.msl.ri.cmu.edu/projects/ballbot/TheCWWUistheabbreviationofthecombinationofOmniwheelandsphericalwheelunit.BasicallytheCWWUisanovelsphericalwheeldrivenbyOmniwheels,soitcombinestheadvantagesofbothtypesofwheels.Figure3depictsthedrivemechanismoftheCWWUbaserobot.TherearetwopairsofOmniwheelsAandB,CandD,andeachpairofOmniwheelsisdesignedtobedrivenbyanactuator,suchasahightorqueDCmotororStepmotorwithanencoder.ThesetwopairsofOmniwheelsarearrangedperpendicularlyeachother.ThesphericalwheelisactuatedbythesetwopairofOmniwheels.ItcanbemadesimilartotheCMUrobotinwhichtheballisa200mmdiameterhydroformedsteelshellcoveredwitha3.2mmthickurethaneouterlayer.However,thepreferredoneismadebyrubberlikesthetireofcars.Thus,theproposedCWWUbaserobotcanbeeasilyappliedintheroboticlocomotion,anditcanworkwellintheautomobileenvironmentinthefuture.ApredetermineddistancebetweentwoOmniwheelsinthesamepaircanaffectthenormalforceexertedonthesphericalwheelbythepairofOmniwheels.Inotherwords,itreliesonwhetherthefrictionforcebetweenthesphericalwheelandthepairofOmniwheelsislargeenoughtoavoidtheundesiredslippage.TheadvantagesoftheCWWUbaserobotaresummarizedasfollows.zTherearenoidlerollersworkingintheoppositemovingdirectionlikestheCMUrobot,sotheproposedonedoesnotencountertheseriousworeoutproblemoftheball.zDemandsofbothahighfrictionandlowfrictionmaterialfortheballisnotrequiredfortheproposedone.zFortheCMUrobot,threecommerciallowfriction,omnidirectionalballtransferdevicesareadoptedtosupporttheentireBallbotbodyrestsontopoftheball.TheadditionalthelowfrictionmaysometimesbecomeProceedingsoftheSeventhInternationalConferenceonMachineLearningandCybernetics,Kunming,1215July20083802seriouswhentheweightorloadoftherobotisincreasingsignificantly.zBothOmniwheelsinthesamepairaredesignedtodrivethesphericalballsimultaneouslyunliketheCMUrobotwhichonlyonedriveroller.SotheefficiencyandbalanceofdrivingforceoftheCWWUrobotisbetterthanthatoftheCMUone.zThedrivingforcealwaysexertsonthesphericalwheelalongthetangentdirection,sothemaximumtorquecanbeattainedbytheproposedone.zThecontactsurfacebetweensphericalwheelanddrivingpairofOmniwheelsislargerthanthatoftheCMUrobot.Sotheundesiredslippagecanbemigratedeasilybytheproposedone.zThesmallidlewheelsoftheOmniwheeltaketurntocontactthesphericalwheel,sotheproposedoneiscapableofreducingtheunwantedeffectofdustascomparedwiththeCMUrobot.Inotherwords,theproposedonecanbeappliedtodustyenvironments.zTheweightofrobotcanbeeffectivelytransferredintothenormalcontactforcebetweenthesphericalwheelandthedrivingOmniwheelpairs.Thiscontactforceisessentialtoreducethepossibilityofundesiredslippage.zDifferentloadingscanbeeasilyadoptedbytheproposedone.Iftheloadingisincreasing,thenthecontactforceisalsoproportionallyincreasing.zAsmentionedabove,apredetermineddistancebetweentwoOmniwheelsinthesamepaircanaffectthenormalforceexertedonthesphericalwheelbythepairofOmniwheels.Itnotesthattheshorterpredetermineddistanceis,thehigherthenormalforceis.Therefore,differentapplicationscanbedesignedflexiblybasedonvariousloadingoftherobotwithasuitabledistance.zThesphericalcanbemadebyrubberlikesthematerialoftireusingbycars.Itimpliesthattheproposedonecannotonlybeeasilyappliedintheroboticlocomotion,butalsoworkwellintheautomobileenvironmentinthenearfuture.However,theCMUrobotissosensitivetothedeformationofitsballwhichmayshiftthetightcontactsurfacebetweenrollerandtheballtobenontightone.Moreover,intheworstcase,aseriousdeformationcancausethemalfunctionoftherobot.zTheproposedonehasgoodbrakingability,anditabilitycanbeenhancedbythepredetermineddistance.Incaseofincreasingtheweightorloadofrobot,therequirementbrakingabilityisalsoincreasing.Fortunately,thebrakingabilityisalsoupgradedproportionallytoweightorloadfortheproposedone.Figure3.ThemechanismofaCWWU3.ConclusionsAnovelcombinationofOmniwheelandsphericalwheelunitCWWUispresentedinthispaper,anditsworkingprinciplebasicallycanbedescribedasasphericalwheeldrivenbytwopairsofOmniwheels.ThemotivationoftheinventionisinspiredbythesinglewheelwithinversemouseballdrivedevelopedbyCMU,sotheproposedonealsopossessesthestaticanddynamicbalancingability.Previousrolling/balancingmachinescannotimmediatelydriveinagivendirectionwithoutfirstreorientingthedrivemechanism.ThemajorfeatureofthepresentedCWWUbaserobotandtheCMUrobotisthatbothofthemcanmovedirectlyinanydirection.However,fortheproposedone,theweightorloadofrobotcanbedirectlyutilizedastheimportantnormalcontactforcebetweenthedrivingpartandthesphericalwheel.Thisfeaturecangreatlyenrichtheapplicabilityandrobustnessoftheinventedone.Forexample,thesphericalwheelcanbemadebythesamematerialasthecartire.Additionally,itisalsoinsensitivetothedust,sotheCWWUcanbepromisinglyappliedtotheautomobileindustryinnearfuture.Therearenoidlewheelsworkingintheoppositemovingdirection,sotheconflictfrictionrequirementscanbediminishedbytheproposedone.Therefore,needlessworeoutproblemoftheballcanbeminimizedextraordinarily.Thehighefficiencyandbetterbalanceofdrivingforcecanupliftitsapplicationstoahigherqualitylevel.ProceedingsoftheSeventhInternationalConferenceonMachineLearningandCybernetics,Kunming,1215July20083803AcknowledgementsThisworkissupportedbyNSC952221E216063,andNSC962221E216035.References1Y.S.HaandS.Yuta,Trajectorytrackingcontrolfornavigationofselfcontainedmobileinversependulum,Proc.IEEE/RSJIntl.Conf.onIntelligentRobotsandSystems,pages1875–1882,19942R.Nakajima,T.Tsubouchi,S.Yuta,andE.Koyanagi,Adevelopmentofanewmechanismofanautonomousunicycle,Proc.IEEE/RSJIntl.Conf.onIntelligentRobotsandSystems,pages906–12,Grenoble,France,September71119973H.G.Nguyen,J.Morrell,K.Mullens,A.Burmeister,S.Miles,N.Farrington,K.Thomas,andD.Gage,Segwayroboticmobilityplatform,SPIEProc.5609MobileRobotsXVII,Philadelphia,PA,October2004.4T.Lauwers,G.Kantor,andR.Hollis,Oneisenough,12thIntlSymp.onRoboticsResearchSanFrancisco,October1215,20055T.B.Lauwers,G.A.Kantor,andR.L.Hollis,Adynamicallystablesinglewheeledmobilerobotwithinversemouseballdrive,Proc.IEEEIntl.Conf.onRoboticsandAutomation,Orlando,FL,May1519,2006
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