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1ELEMENTSOFCAMDESIGNHOWTOPLANANDPRODUCESIMPLEBUTEFFICIENTCAMSFORPETROLENGINESANDOTHERMECHANISMSCAMSAREAMONGTHEMOSTVERSATILEMECHANISMSAVAILABLE.ACAMISASIMPLETWOMEMBERDEVICE.THEINPUTMEMBERISTHECAMITSELF,WHILETHEOUTPUTMEMBERISCALLEDTHEFOLLOWER.THROUGHTHEUSEOFCAMS,ASIMPLEINPUTMOTIONCANBEMODIFIEDINTOALMOSTANYCONCEIVABLEOUTPUTMOTIONTHATISDESIRED.SOMEOFTHECOMMONAPPLICATIONSOFCAMSARECAMSHAFTANDDISTRIBUTORSHAFTOFAUTOMOTIVEENGINEPRODUCTIONMACHINETOOLSAUTOMATICRECORDPLAYERSPRINTINGMACHINESAUTOMATICWASHINGMACHINESAUTOMATICDISHWASHERSTHECONTOUROFHIGHSPEEDCAMSCAMSPEEDINEXCESSOF1000RPMMUSTBEDETERMINEDMATHEMATICALLY.HOWEVER,THEVASTMAJORITYOFCAMSOPERATEATLOWSPEEDSLESSTHAN500RPMORMEDIUMSPEEDCAMSCANBEDETERMINEDGRAPHICALLYUSINGALARGESCALELAYOUT.INGENERAL,THEGREATERTHECAMSPEEDANDOUTPUTLOAD,THEGREATERMUSTBETHEPRECISIONWITHWHICHTHECAMCONTOURISMACHINED.CAMSINSOMEFORMOROTHERAREESSENTIALTOTHEOPERATIONOFMANYKINDSOFMECHANICALDEVICESTHEIRBESTKNOWNAPPLICATIONISINTHEVALVEOPERATINGGEAROFINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES,BUTTHEYPLAYANEQUALLYIMPORTANTPARTININDUSTRIALMACHINERY,FROMPRINTINGPRESSESTOREAPINGMACHINESINGENERAL,ACAMCANBEDEFINEDASAPROJECTIONONTHEFACEOFADISCORTHESURFACEOFACYLINDERFORTHEPURPOSEOFPRODUCINGINTERMITTENTRECIPROCATINGMOTIONOFACONTACTINGMEMBERORFOLLOWERMOSTCAMSOPERATEBYROTARYMOTION,BUTTHISISNOTANESSENTIALCONDITIONANDINSPECIALCASESTHEMOTIONMAYBESEMIROTARY,OSCILLATORYORSWINGINGEVENSTRAIGHTLINEMOTIONOFTHEOPERATINGMEMBERISPOSSIBLE,THOUGHTHETERMCAMMAYNOTBECONSIDEREDPROPERLYAPPLICABLEINSUCHCIRCUMSTANCESMOSTTEXTBOOKSONMECHANICSGIVESOMEINFORMATIONONTHEDESIGNOFCAMSANDSHOWEXAMPLESOFCAMFORMSPLOTTEDTOPRODUCEVARIOUSORDERSOFMOTIONWHERENEITHERTHEOPERATINGSPEEDNORTHEMECHANICALDUTYISVERYHIGH,THEREISAGOODDEALOFLATITUDEINTHENERMISSIBLEDESIGNOFTHECAMANDITISONLYNECESSARYTOAVOIDEXCESSIVELYSTEEPCONTOURSORABRUPTCHANGESWHICHWOULDRESULTINNOISE,IMPACTSHOCK,ANDSIDEPRESSUREONTHEFOLLOWERBUT,WITHINCREASEOFEITHERSPEEDORLOAD,MUCHMOREEXACTINGDEMANDSAREMADEONTHECAM,CALLINGFORTHEMOSTCAREFULDESIGNAND,ATVERYHIGHSPEED,THEEFFECTOFINERTIAONTHEMOVINGPARTSISMOSTPRONOUNCED,SOTHATTHEFURTHERFACTORSOFACCELERATIONANDRATEOFLIFTHAVETOBETAKENINTOACCOUNTANDTHESEARERARELYDEALTWITHINANYDETAILINTHESTANDARDTEXTBOOKSTHEDESIGNOFTHECAMFOLLOWERISALSOOFGREATIMPORTANCEANDBEARSADEFINITERELATIONTOTHESHAPEOFTHECAMITSELFTHISISBECAUSETHECAMCANNOTMAKECONTACTWITHTHEFOLLOWERATASINGLEFIXEDPOINTSURFACECONTACTISNECESSARYTODISTRIBUTELOADANDAVOIDEXCESSWEAR,THUSTHECAMTRANSMITSITSMOTIONTHROUGHVARIOUSPOINTSOFLOCATIONONTHEFOLLOWER,DEPENDINGONTHESHAPEOF2THETWOCOMPLEMENTARYMEMBERSTHECAMSFOROPERATINGICENGINEVALVESPRESENTSPECIALLYDIFFICULTPROBLEMSINDESIGNINTHECASEOFRACINGENGINES,BOTHTHELOADANDSPEEDMAYBEREGARDEDASEXTREME,BECAUSEINMANYENGINESTHERATEATWHICHTHEVALVESCANBEEFFECTIVELYCONTROLLEDISTHELIMITINGFACTORINENGINEPERFORMANCEINSOMERESPECTS,CAMDESIGNOFMINIATUREENGINESISSIMPLIFIEDBYREASONOFTHEIRLIGHTERWORKINGPARTSANDCONSEQUENTLESSINERTIABUTONTHEOTHERHAND,WORKINGFRICTIONISUSUALLYGREATERANDROTATIONALSPEEDSAREGENERALLYCONSIDERABLYHIGHERTHANINFULLSIZEPRACTICEINTHEMANYDESIGNSFORSMALLFOURSTROKEENGINESWHICHIHAVEPUBLISHED,IHAVESOUGHTTOSIMPLIFYVALVEOPERATIONANDTOPROVIDEDESIGNSFORCAMSWHICHCANBESIMPLYANDACCURATELYPRODUCEDWITHTHEFACILITIESOFTHEAMATEURWORKSHOPNUMEROUSENGINEDESIGNSWHICHHAVEBEENSUBMITTEDTOMEBYREADERSHAVECONTAINEDERRORSINTHEVALVEGEARANDPARTICULARLYINTHECAMSANDINVIEWOFPREVALENTMISCONCEPTIONSINTHEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFTHESEITEMS,IAMGIVINGSOMEADVICEONTHEMATTERWHICHITRUSTWILLHELPINDIVIDUALDESIGNERSTOOBTAINTHEBESTRESULTSFROMTHEIRENGINESTHEREHAVEBEENMANYENGINESBUILTWITHCAMSOFTHOROUGHLYBADDESIGNBUTWHICH,INSPITEOFTHIS,HAVEPRODUCEDRESULTSMOREORLESSSATISFACTORYTOTHEIRCONSTRUCTORSITMAYBESAIDTHATWITHINCERTAINLIMITSOFSPEEDONECANGETAWAYWITHMURDERBUTINNOCASECANANENGINEPERFORMEFFICIENTLYWITHBADLYDESIGNEDCAMS,ORINDEEDERRORSINANYOFITSWORKINGDETAILSTHISARTICLEISCONCERNEDMAINLYWITHTHEDESIGNOFCAMSFOROPERATINGTHEVALVESOFICENGINESAND,INORDERTOAVOIDANYCONFUSIONOFTERMS,FIG1SHOWSTHEVARIOUSPARTSOFACAMOFTHISTYPEANDEXPLAINSTHEIRFUNCTIONSTHECIRCULAR,CONCENTRICPORTIONOFTHECAM,WHICHHASNOOPERATIVEEFFECT,ISKNOWNASTHEBASECIRCLETHEHUMYOFTHECAMSHOWNSHADEDISKNOWNASTHELOBE,ANDTHEFLANKSONEITHERSIDERISEFROMTHEBASECIRCLETOTHENOSE,WHICHISUSUALLYROUNDEDLIFTMAYBEDEFINEDASTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHERADIUSOFTHEBASECIRCLEANDTHATOFTHENOSETHEANELEENCLOSEDBETWEENTHEPOINTSWHERETHEFLANKSJOINTHEBASECIRCLEISTERMEDTHEANGULAR‘PERIOD,REPRESENTINGTHEPROPORTIONOFTHEFULLCYCLEDURINGWHICHTHECAMOPERATESTHEVALVEGEARINFIG2,TYPICALEXAMPLESOFCAMSUSEDINICENGINESAREILLUSTRATEDTHETANGENTCAM,A,HASDEADSTRAIGHTFLANKSWHICHASTHENAMEIMPLIESFORMTANGENTSTOTHEBASECIRCLETHISTYPEOFCAMISEASYTODESIGNANDPRODUCE,THESIMPLESTMETHODOFMACHININGBEINGBYACIRCULARMILLINGPROCESSFORMINGACONCENTRICSURFACEONTHEBASECIRCLEANDRUNNINGSTRAIGHTOUTTANGENTIALLYWHERETHEFLANKSSTARTANDFINISHITCANALSOBEPRODUCEDBYFILINGANDIHAVEINTHEPASTDESCRIBEDHOWTOMAKEITWITHTHEAIDOFAROLLERFILINGRESTINTHELATHE,INCONJUNCTIONWITHINDEXINGGEARTOLOCATETHEFLANKANGLESTANGENTCAMSCANONLYWORKEFFICIENTLYINCONJUNCTIONWITHACONVEXCURVEDFOLLOWER,ASTHISIST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