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英文原文THEMACHINABILITYOFAMATERIAL1THEMACHINABILITYOFAMATERIALUSUALLYDEFINEDINTERMSOFFOURFACTORS1、SURFACEFINISHANDINTEGRITYOFTHEMACHINEDPART;2、TOOLLIFEOBTAINED;3、FORCEANDPOWERREQUIREMENTS;4、CHIPCONTROLTHUS,GOODMACHINABILITYGOODSURFACEFINISHANDINTEGRITY,LONGTOOLLIFE,ANDLOWFORCEANDPOWERREQUIREMENTSASFORCHIPCONTROL,LONGANDTHINSTRINGYCUREDCHIPS,IFNOTBROKENUP,CANSEVERELYINTERFEREWITHTHECUTTINGOPERATIONBYBECOMINGENTANGLEDINTHECUTTINGZONEBECAUSEOFTHECOMPLEXNATUREOFCUTTINGOPERATIONS,ITISDIFFICULTTOESTABLISHRELATIONSHIPSTHATQUANTITATIVELYDEFINETHEMACHINABILITYOFAMATERIALINMANUFACTURINGPLANTS,TOOLLIFEANDSURFACEROUGHNESSAREGENERALLYCONSIDEREDTOBETHEMOSTIMPORTANTFACTORSINMACHINABILITYALTHOUGHNOTUSEDMUCHANYMORE,APPROXIMATEMACHINABILITYRATINGSAREAVAILABLEINTHEEXAMPLEBELOW2MACHINABILITYOFSTEELSBECAUSESTEELSAREAMONGTHEMOSTIMPORTANTENGINEERINGMATERIALSASNOTEDINCHAPTER5,THEIRMACHINABILITYHASBEENSTUDIEDEXTENSIVELYTHEMACHINABILITYOFSTEELSHASBEENMAINLYIMPROVEDBYADDINGLEADANDSULFURTOOBTAINSOCALLEDFREEMACHININGSTEELSRESULFURIZEDANDREPHOSPHORIZEDSTEELSSULFURINSTEELSFORMSMANGANESESULFIDEINCLUSIONSSECONDPHASEPARTICLES,WHICHACTASSTRESSRAISERSINTHEPRIMARYSHEARZONEASARESULT,THECHIPSPRODUCEDBREAKUPEASILYANDARESMALL;THISIMPROVESMACHINABILITYTHESIZE,SHAPE,DISTRIBUTION,ANDCONCENTRATIONOFTHESEINCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANTLYINFLUENCEMACHINABILITYELEMENTSSUCHASTELLURIUMANDSELENIUM,WHICHAREBOTHCHEMICALLYSIMILARTOSULFUR,ACTASINCLUSIONMODIFIERSINRESULFURIZEDSTEELSPHOSPHORUSINSTEELSHASTWOMAJOREFFECTSITSTRENGTHENSTHEFERRITE,CAUSINGINCREASEDHARDNESSHARDERSTEELSRESULTINBETTERCHIPFORMATIONANDSURFACEFINISHNOTETHATSOFTSTEELSCANBEDIFFICULTTOMACHINE,WITHBUILTUPEDGEFORMATIONANDPOORSURFACEFINISHTHESECONDEFFECTISTHATINCREASEDHARDNESSCAUSESTHEFORMATIONOFSHORTCHIPSINSTEADOFCONTINUOUSSTRINGYONES,THEREBYIMPROVINGMACHINABILITYLEADEDSTEELSAHIGHPERCENTAGEOFLEADINSTEELSSOLIDIFIESATTHETIPOFMANGANESESULFIDEINCLUSIONSINNONRESULFURIZEDGRADESOFSTEEL,LEADTAKESTHEFORMOFDISPERSEDFINEPARTICLESLEADISINSOLUBLEINIRON,COPPER,ANDALUMINUMANDTHEIRALLOYSBECAUSEOFITSLOWSHEARSTRENGTH,THEREFORE,LEADACTSASASOLIDLUBRICANTANDISSMEAREDOVERTHETOOLCHIPINTERFACEDURINGCUTTINGTHISBEHAVIORHASBEENVERIFIEDBYTHEPRESENCEOFHIGHCONCENTRATIONSOFLEADONTHETOOLSIDEFACEOFCHIPSWHENMACHININGLEADEDSTEELSWHENTHETEMPERATUREISSUFFICIENTLYHIGHFORINSTANCE,ATHIGHCUTTINGSPEEDSANDFEEDSTHELEADMELTSDIRECTLYINFRONTOFTHETOOL,ACTINGASALIQUIDLUBRICANTINADDITIONTOTHISEFFECT,LEADLOWERSTHESHEARSTRESSINTHEPRIMARYSHEARZONE,REDUCINGCUTTINGFORCESANDPOWERCONSUMPTIONLEADCANBEUSEDINEVERYGRADEOFSTEEL,SUCHAS10XX,11XX,12XX,41XX,ETCLEADEDSTEELSAREIDENTIFIEDBYTHELETTERLBETWEENTHESECONDANDTHIRDNUMERALSFOREXAMPLE,10L45NOTETHATINSTAINLESSSTEELS,SIMILARUSEOFTHELETTERLMEANS“LOWCARBON,”ACONDITIONTHATIMPROVESTHEIRCORROSIONRESISTANCEHOWEVER,BECAUSELEADISAWELLKNOWNTOXINANDAPOLLUTANT,THEREARESERIOUSENVIRONMENTALCONCERNSABOUTITSUSEINSTEELSESTIMATEDAT4500TONSOFLEADCONSUMPTIONEVERYYEARINTHEPRODUCTIONOFSTEELSCONSEQUENTLY,THEREISACONTINUINGTRENDTOWARDELIMINATINGTHEUSEOFLEADINSTEELSLEADFREESTEELSBISMUTHANDTINARENOWBEINGINVESTIGATEDASPOSSIBLESUBSTITUTESFORLEADINSTEELSCALCIUMDEOXIDIZEDSTEELSANIMPORTANTDEVELOPMENTISCALCIUMDEOXIDIZEDSTEELS,INWHICHOXIDEFLAKESOFCALCIUMSILICATESCASOAREFORMEDTHESEFLAKES,INTURN,REDUCETHESTRENGTHOFTHESECONDARYSHEARZONE,DECREASINGTOOLCHIPINTERFACEANDWEARTEMPERATUREISCORRESPONDINGLYREDUCEDCONSEQUENTLY,THESESTEELSPRODUCELESSCRATERWEAR,ESPECIALLYATHIGHCUTTINGSPEEDSSTAINLESSSTEELSAUSTENITIC300SERIESSTEELSAREGENERALLYDIFFICULTTOMACHINECHATTERCANBEAPROBLEM,NECESSITATINGMACHINETOOLSWITHHIGHSTIFFNESSHOWEVER,FERRITICSTAINLESSSTEELSALSO300SERIESHAVEGOODMACHINABILITYMARTENSITIC400SERIESSTEELSAREABRASIVE,TENDTOFORMABUILTUPEDGE,ANDREQUIRETOOLMATERIALSWITHHIGHHOTHARDNESSANDCRATERWEARRESISTANCEPRECIPITATIONHARDENINGSTAINLESSSTEELSARESTRONGANDABRASIVE,REQUIRINGHARDANDABRASIONRESISTANTTOOLMATERIALSTHEEFFECTSOFOTHERELEMENTSINSTEELSONMACHINABILITYTHEPRESENCEOFALUMINUMANDSILICONINSTEELSISALWAYSHARMFULBECAUSETHESEELEMENTSCOMBINEWITHOXYGENTOFORMALUMINUMOXIDEANDSILICATES,WHICHAREHARDANDABRASIVETHESECOMPOUNDSINCREASETOOLWEARANDREDUCEMACHINABILITYITISESSENTIALTOPRODUCEANDUSECLEANSTEELSCARBONANDMANGANESEHAVEVARIOUSEFFECTSONTHEMACHINABILITYOFSTEELS,DEPENDINGONTHEIRCOMPOSITIONPLAINLOWCARBONSTEELSLESSTHAN015CCANPRODUCEPOORSURFACEFINISHBYFORMINGABUILTUPEDGECASTSTEELSAREMOREABRASIVE,ALTHOUGHTHEIRMACHINABILITYISSIMILARTOTHATOFWROUGHTSTEELSTOOLANDDIESTEELSAREVERYDIFFICULTTOMACHINEANDUSUALLYREQUIREANNEALINGPRIORTOMACHININGMACHINABILITYOFMOSTSTEELSISIMPROVEDBYCOLDWORKING,WHICHHARDENSTHEMATERIALANDREDUCESTHETENDENCYFORBUILTUPEDGEFORMATIONOTHERALLOYINGELEMENTS,SUCHASNICKEL,CHROMIUM,MOLYBDENUM,ANDVANADIUM,WHICHIMPROVETHEPROPERTIESOFSTEELS,GENERALLYREDUCEMACHINABILITYTHEEFFECTOFBORONISNEGLIGIBLEGASEOUSELEMENTSSUCHASHYDROGENANDNITROGENCANHAVEPARTICULARLYDETRIMENTALEFFECTSONTHEPROPERTIESOFSTEELOXYGENHASBEENSHOWNTOHAVEASTRONGEFFECTONTHEASPECTRATIOOFTHEMANGANESESULFIDEINCLUSIONS;THEHIGHERTHEOXYGENCONTENT,THELOWERTHEASPECTRATIOANDTHEHIGHERTHEMACHINABILITYINSELECTINGVARIOUSELEMENTSTOIMPROVEMACHINABILITY,WESHOULDCONSIDERTHEPOSSIBLEDETRIMENTALEFFECTSOFTHESEELEMENTSONTHEPROPERTIESANDSTRENGTHOFTHEMACHINEDPARTINSERVICEATELEVATEDTEMPERATURES,FOREXAMPLE,LEADCAUSESEMBRITTLEMENTOFSTEELSLIQUIDMETALEMBRITTLEMENT,HOTSHORTNESS;SEESECTION143,ALTHOUGHATROOMTEMPERATUREITHASNOEFFECTONMECHANICALPROPERTIESSULFURCANSEVERELYREDUCETHEHOTWORKABILITYOFSTEELS,BECAUSEOFTHEFORMATIONOFIRONSULFIDE,UNLESSSUFFICIENTMANGANESEISPRESENTTOPREVENTSUCHFORMATIONATROOMTEMPERATURE,THEMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFRESULFURIZEDSTEELSDEPENDONTHEORIENTATIONOFTHEDEFORMEDMANGANESESULFIDEINCLUSIONSANISOTROPYREPHOSPHORIZEDSTEELSARESIGNIFICANTLYLESSDUCTILE,ANDAREPRODUCEDSOLELYTOIMPROVEMACHINABILITY3MACHINABILITYOFVARIOUSOTHERMETALSALUMINUMISGENERALLYVERYEASYTOMACHINE,ALTHOUGHTHESOFTERGRADESTENDTOFORMABUILTUPEDGE,RESULTINGINPOORSURFACEFINISHHIGHCUTTINGSPEEDS,HIGHRAKEANGLES,ANDHIGHRELIEFANGLESARERECOMMENDEDWROUGHTALUMINUMALLOYSWITHHIGHSILICONCONTENTANDCASTALUMINUMALLOYSMAYBEABRASIVE;THEYREQUIREHARDERTOOLMATERIALSDIMENSIONALTOLERANCECONTROLMAYBEAPROBLEMINMACHININGALUMINUM,SINCEITHASAHIGHTHERMALCOEFFICIENTOFEXPANSIONANDARELATIVELYLOWELASTICMODULUSBERYLLIUMISSIMILARTOCASTIRONSBECAUSEITISMOREABRASIVEANDTOXIC,THOUGH,ITREQUIRESMACHININGINACONTROLLEDENVIRONMENTCASTGRAYIRONSAREGENERALLYMACHINABLEBUTAREFREECARBIDESINCASTINGSREDUCETHEIRMACHINABILITYANDCAUSETOOLCHIPPINGORFRACTURE,NECESSITATINGTOOLSWITHHIGHTOUGHNESSNODULARANDMALLEABLEIRONSAREMACHINABLEWITHHARDTOOLMATERIALSCOBALTBASEDALLOYSAREABRASIVEANDHIGHLYWORKHARDENINGTHEYREQUIRESHARP,ABRASIONRESISTANTTOOLMATERIALSANDLOWFEEDSANDSPEEDSWROUGHTCOPPERCANBEDIFFICULTTOMACHINEBECAUSEOFBUILTUPEDGEFORMATION,ALTHOUGHCASTCOPPERALLOYSAREEASYTOMACHINEBRASSESAREEASYTOMACHINE,ESPECIALLYWITHTHEADDITIONLEADLEADEDFREEMACHININGBRASSBRONZESAREMOREDIFFICULTTOMACHINETHANBRASSMAGNESIUMISVERYEASYTOMACHINE,WITHGOODSURFACEFINISHANDPROLONGEDTOOLLIFEHOWEVERCARESHOULDBEEXERCISEDBECAUSEOFITSHIGHRATEOFOXIDATIONANDTHEDANGEROFFIRETHEELEMENTISPYROPHORICMOLYBDENUMISDUCTILEANDWORKHARDENING,SOITCANPRODUCEPOORSURFACEFINISHSHARPTOOLSARENECESSARYNICKELBASEDALLOYSAREWORKHARDENING,ABRASIVE,ANDSTRONGATHIGHTEMPERATURESTHEIRMACHINABILITYISSIMILARTOTHATOFSTAINLESSSTEELSTANTALUMISVERYWORKHARDENING,DUCTILE,ANDSOFTITPRODUCESAPOORSURFACEFINISH;TOOLWEARISHIGHTITANIUMANDITSALLOYSHAVEPOORTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYINDEED,THELOWESTOFALLMETALS,CAUSINGSIGNIFICANTTEMPERATURERISEANDBUILTUPEDGE;THEYCANBEDIFFICULTTOMACHINETUNGSTENISBRITTLE,STRONG,ANDVERYABRASIVE,SOITSMACHINABILITYISLOW,ALTHOUGHITGREATLYIMPROVESATELEVATEDTEMPERATURESZIRCONIUMHASGOODMACHINABILITYITREQUIRESACOOLANTTYPECUTTINGFLUID,HOWEVER,BECAUSEOFTHEEXPLOSIONANDFIRE4MACHINABILITYOFVARIOUSMATERIALSGRAPHITEISABRASIVE;ITREQUIRESHARD,ABRASIONRESISTANT,SHARPTOOLSTHERMOPLASTICSGENERALLYHAVELOWTHERMALCONDUCTIVITY,LOWELASTICMODULUS,ANDLOWSOFTENINGTEMPERATURECONSEQUENTLY,MACHININGTHEMREQUIRESTOOLSWITHPOSITIVERAKEANGLESTOREDUCECUTTINGFORCES,LARGERELIEFANGLES,SMALLDEPTHSOFCUTANDFEED,RELATIVELYHIGHSPEEDS,ANDPROPERSUPPORTOFTHEWORKPIECETOOLSSHOULDBESHARPEXTERNALCOOLINGOFTHECUTTINGZONEMAYBENECESSARYTOKEEPTHECHIPSFROMBECOMING“GUMMY”ANDSTICKINGTOTHETOOLSCOOLINGCANUSUALLYBEACHIEVEDWITHAJETOFAIR,VAPORMIST,ORWATERSOLUBLEOILSRESIDUALSTRESSESMAYDEVELOPDURINGMACHININGTORELIEVETHESESTRESSES,MACHINEDPARTSCANBEANNEALEDFORAPERIODOFTIMEATTEMPERATURESRANGINGFROMTOTO,ANDTHENCOOLEDSLOWLYANDUNIFORMLYTOROOMTEMPERATURETHERMOSETTINGPLASTICSAREBRITTLEANDSENSITIVETOTHERMALGRADIENTSDURINGCUTTINGTHEIRMACHINABILITYISGENERALLYSIMILARTOTHATOFTHERMOPLASTICSBECAUSEOFTHEFIBERSPRESENT,REINFORCEDPLASTICSAREVERYABRASIVEANDAREDIFFICULTTOMACHINEFIBERTEARING,PULLING,ANDEDGEDELAMINATIONARESIGNIFICANTPROBLEMS;THEYCANLEADTOSEVEREREDUCTIONINTHELOADCARRYINGCAPACITYOFTHECOMPONENTFURTHERMORE,MACHININGOFTHESEMATERIALSREQUIRESCAREFULREMOVALOFMACHININGDEBRISTOAVOIDCONTACTWITHANDINHALINGOFTHEFIBERSTHEMACHINABILITYOFCERAMICSHASIMPROVEDSTEADILYWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFNANOCERAMICSANDWITHTHESELECTIONOFAPPROPRIATEPROCESSINGPARAMETERS,SUCHASDUCTILEREGIMECUTTINGMETALMATRIXANDCERAMICMATRIXCOMPOSITESCANBEDIFFICULTTOMACHINE,DEPENDINGONTHEPROPERTIESOFTHEINDIVIDUALCOMPONENTS,IE,REINFORCINGORWHISKERS,ASWELLASTHEMATRIXMATERIAL5THERMALLYASSISTEDMACHININGMETALSANDALLOYSTHATAREDIFFICULTTOMACHINEATROOMTEMPERATURECANBEMACHINEDMOREEASILYATELEVATEDTEMPERATURESINTHERMALLYASSISTEDMACHININGHOTMACHINING,THESOURCEOFHEATATORCH,INDUCTIONCOIL,HIGHENERGYBEAMSUCHASLASERORELECTRONBEAM,ORPLASMAARCISFORCES,BINCREASEDTOOLLIFE,CUSEOFINEXPENSIVECUTTINGTOOLMATERIALS,DHIGHERMATERIALREMOVALRATES,ANDEREDUCEDTENDENCYFORVIBRATIONANDCHATTERITMAYBEDIFFICULTTOHEATANDMAINTAINAUNIFORMTEMPERATUREDISTRIBUTIONWITHINTHEWORKPIECEALSO,THEORIGINALMICROSTRUCTUREOFTHEWORKPIECEMAYBEADVERSELYAFFECTEDBYELEVATEDTEMPERATURESMOSTAPPLICATIONSOFHOTMACHININGAREINTHETURNINGOFHIGHSTRENGTHMETALSANDALLOYS,ALTHOUGHEXPERIMENTSAREINPROGRESSTOMACHINECERAMICSSUCHASSILICONNITRIDE6SUMMARYMACHINABILITYISUSUALLYDEFINEDINTERMSOFSURFACEFINISH,TOOLLIFE,FORCEANDPOWERREQUIREMENTS,ANDCHIPCONTROLMACHINABILITYOFMATERIALSDEPENDSNOTONLYONTHEIRINTRINSICPROPE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