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英文原文TheAchievementsontheTechnologyofthePressureVesselsAbstractRecentlyEuropeanandU.Shaveissuedtheirpressureequipmentcodes.Especiallyinthepressurevesselcode,TheEN13445fromEuropeanandtheASMEVIII22007fromU.Ssignificantlychangedthetechnicalcontentsandhandoutthenewdesignmodelandthemethodsonthefoundationofagrandscaleresearch.KeyWordsPressureVesselsTechnologyProgressA.IntroductionNowthewholeworldhasenteredaperiodofeconomyglobalization.Standardinternationalizationisaninexorabletrendofeconomicglobalization.Thecharacteristicsofdevelopmenttrendofcurrentstandardtechnologyareasfollows1.Designmethodagainstfailuremode2.Widelyapplicationofcomputertechnology3.Moreeconomicconstructionmethods4.Technicalspecificationwhichreflectedcomprehensiveconstructiontechnology5.Morewideapplicationrangeofproductspecification.6.Toseeknationalcompetitivecapacityininternationaltrade.B.DevelopmentinPressureVesselDesignTechnology1.TechnologyDevelopmentinMaterialsUsedforPressureVesselsInrecentyears,Itisobvious,thatthepressurevesselproductsaregettinglargerandlargerandwithhightechnicalreferences.Nowadays,themainresearchachievementandtechnicalprogressinpressurevesselmaterialsareasfollows2.DevelopmentinDesignTechnologyModernstructuredesignforpressurevesselisgettingridofthetraditionalconceptstepbystep,toreflectthedesignconceptwithcansatisfytechnologyrequirement.Intheviewoffailuremode,undertheprerequisiteofsafety,actualresult,safetyandeconomicbenefitarecombinedharmoniously.1DesignMethodinAccordanceWithFailureModeSynthesizingthetechnicalstandardofmainindustrialcountriesintheworld,consultingthecontentofEuropeanstandards,theinternationalstandardISO16528classifiesthecommonfailuremodesofboilersandpressurevesselsinto3classesand14kinds,thatclearlydefinesthedesigntechnicalapplicationconceptagainstfailuremodesShorttermfailuremodesBrittlefractureDuctileruptureLeakageatjointsduetoexcessivedeformationsCrackformationorductiletearingduetoexcessivelocalstrainsInstability–elastic,plasticorelasticplasticLongtermfailuremodesCreepRuptureCreepexcessivedeformationsatmechanicaljointsorresultinginunacceptabletransferofloadCreepinstabilityErosion,corrosionEnvironmentallyassistedcrackinge.g.stresscorrosioncracking,hydrogeninducedcracking,etcCyclicfailuremodesProgressiveplasticdeformationAlternatingplasticityFatigueunderelasticstrainsmediumandhighcyclefatigueorunderelasticplasticstrainslowcyclefatigueForpressureequipmentstandard,atleastthefollowingfailuremodesmustbeconsideredindefinitionofdesigncriterionandmethodsBrittlefractureDuctileruptureLeakageatjointsElasticorplasticinstability2ComplicateConstitutiveRelationshipandStructureAlongwiththerapiddevelopmentofcomputercapacity,nowthepressurevesseldesigntechnologyalreadycansolvetheproblemsaboutverycomplicateconstitutiverelationshiporengineeringwithcomplicatestructure.suchasMaterialswithdifferentspecificationindifferentdirectioncompositematerials,fiberwindingpressureequipmentCombinedstructureanalysisdesignclosedstructurecombinedbyflanges,gasketsandbolts,contactofmultilaminateshellsBucklingandbackbucklingofcomplicatestructurestabilityanalysisoflargepolesandcombinedstructureofshellDynamicresponseofcombinedstructureearthquakeresponse,pipingvibrationfluidinductingvibration,etc.3LargeScaleNumericalValueAnalysisTraditionalcomputeraideddesignCADhasalreadytransitedintoComputeraidedengineeringCAEstepbystep.4AnalysisofMultiPhysicalFieldCouplingFormodernpressureequipment,theinteractionbetweenfluidandsolidmustbesolvedexactly,atthesametime,thermalanalysisandimpactanalysisareindispensabletechnicalmethods.Therefore,thefollowingproblemsmustbesolvedtooCouplingoffluidandsolidlargevessels,transportationtanks,flowinginsidepipingMultiphaseflowingboilercombustion,combustionandreflectionoffluidizedbedHeattransferandmediumplateheatexchanger,efficiencyofcolumnplate,efficiencyofdistributor.Impactloadwaterhammerphenomenon,impact5MethodtoChangeSafetyCoefficientInordertoincreasethecompetitionofhomemadeproducts,itisauniversaltrendforcountriesandregionsallovertheworldtodecreasethesafetycoefficient.TheUSstandardASMEandEuropeanunifiedstandardforpressurevesselsundermakingalsodecreasedrelativesafetycoefficient.InASMECodeSec.VIIIDiv.12007editionnbhasbeendecreasedto3.5from4.0.AndinASMECodeSec.VIIIDiv.22007editionnbhasbeendecreasedto2.4from3.04.WhiletheminimumvalueofnbinEuropeanunifiedstandardforpressurevesselsis1.875.InChineseneweditionofSafetyTechnologySupervisionRulesforPressureVessel,safetycoefficienthasbeendecreasedto2.7.from3.05,safetycoefficientnbdesignedinaccordancewithanalysisdesignmethodhasbeendecreasedto2.4from2.6,therelativetechnicalstandardGB150andJB4732willbeadjustedtoo.6StructureChangeDuetoSafetyConceptInmodernpressurevesseldesign,thedesignershavetoconsidernotonlysafetyandtechnologyrequirementbutalsoenvironmentprotectionandsavingresources.C.DevelopingTrendofInternationalPressureEquipmentStandardTechnologyThedevelopingtrendofinternationalpressureequipmentstandardtechnologyhasthefollowingfeathers1.CoordinationbetweenTechnicalRulesandTechnicalStandardsStatetechnicalrulesaremandatoryrulesestablishedbythegovernmenttoguaranteethesafetyofpressurevesselsproducts,productswithinitsjurisdictionhavetoobeyitssafetyprinciples,whiletechnicalstandardsarerecommended,theystipulaterelativetechnicalindexforproductsqualitytoguaranteethesafetyofpressurevesselsproducts.butthetechnicalindexstipulatedbythestandardsmustbeinaccordancewithsafetyprinciplesoftherules.Technicalstandardsmaybeusedtoguidedesign,construction,inspectionandacceptanceofpressurevessels,theyaretheplatformoftechnicalassessmentbetweenpressurevesselproductconstructionandtrade.2.ResearchforBasicPropertiesofPressureVesselMaterials1LowTemperatureImpactPropertiestoresearchthelawsofmaterialslowtemperatureimpactpropertiesinfluencedbymaterialssize,conditions,thicknessandstressstate,toarisethedeterminingmethodofallowedlowestdesignmetaltemperatureMDMTforChinesetechnicalstandardinaccordancewiththeperformanceofChinesematerialsandrulesofbreakingmechanics2ChartforDeterminingShellThicknessofComponentsunderExternalPressuretostudystressstainrelationshipofpressurevesselmaterialsincommonuse.,toestablishcalculatingmethodtangentialelasticmodulusofmaterialsinplasticphase,toarisechartsfordeterminingshellthicknessofcomponentsunderexternalpressure3TestingTechnologyforMaterialsPropertiesofMicroSamplestoestablishtestingcenterformicrosamples,tostudyvisualtechnologyforsmallpunchtest,microsampletestaswellastestprocess,toprovidetechnicalsupportforsafetyevaluationandlifeanalysisofpressurevessels3.StudyforDesignMethodofPressureVessels1FailureModetostudythepressuretypicalfailuremodeofpressurevesselsaswellasitsmechanismandcriteriontoestablishdesignrulesinthebaseoffailuremodetoguaranteeintrinsicsafetyofpressurevessels2DesignMethodbasedonFailureModetoarisecalculationmethodforplasticcollapseloadofpressurevesselswithcomplexstructureagainstfivemainfailuremodeasgeneralplastic
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