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___________________________ReceivedDateSeptember29,2010BiographyPHYOWaiLin1978,male,borninShwebo,Myanmar.Ph.Dcandidate,mainresearchfieldisindependentknowledgebaseddesign.kophyobuaagmail.com1IntroductionProductdesignproceduredependsondesignersexperienceseriously.Byusingdesignersknowledgeandexperience,productmanufacturerscanreduceproductcostandproducehighqualityproducts.Designermust,however,drawuponexperientialengineeringknowledgesuchaspastexperiences,specificdesignrulesandprocedures.Mostdesignersneedtogetthecorrectgeometricinformation,parametersandfindnongeometricfeatureinformationfromthemechanicaldesignhandbookmanuallywhichareprettytimeconsuming.ParametricmodelingCADsystemsarebasedonthegeometricalrelationshipsbetweenparts.Partscanbetransformedbyvaryingdimensionseasily.However,nongeometricalknowledgeabouttheproductdesigncannotbemanagedeasily1.SomecommercialCADsystemsignorethisissue.ThereforeKnowledgebasedengineeringKBEhasbeenpresentedtomeetthedemandsofengineeringdesignmethodssincethelastof1980s.KBEisasubsetofknowledgeBaseSystemKBSwhichisaspinofffromartificialintelligenceAI.KBEisthemethodologyforTheResearchofIndependentKnowledgeBasedMechanicalDesignPHYOWaiLin,XIPing,ZHANGBaoyuan,CHENRuizhiSchoolofMechanicalEngineeringandAutomation,BeijingUniversityofAeronauticsandAstronautics,Beijing100191,ChinaAbstractMostofKBEsystemsappliedbypreviousresearchersaredependentonsomeCADsoftware,whichmakesknowledgehardtobereusedtootherCADsoftware.IndependentknowledgebasedsystemisindependentofCADsoftwarethereforeknowledgecanbereusedfreely.Thispaperdescribesindependentknowledgebasedsystemformechanicaldesign.Adetaileddiscussionabouttypicaldesignisputforwardincludingdesignprocessimplementationbasedonknowledgeengineering,independentknowledgebaseddesignarchitecture.Themainprincipalofknowledgedrivenengineeringisexplained.TheimplementationofKBEonthedesignofwormreducerisstudiedasacase.Independentknowledgebasedreducerdesignsystemisrealized.TheusageofindependentknowledgebasedsystemmakesKBEsystemworkindependentofCADsoftware,whichenhancestheirportabilityandfertilizesthecollaborativeworkofheterogeneousCADsystems.KeywordsknowledgebasedengineeringindependentknowledgebasereducerKnowledgeInterpreterKICLCNumberTP391DocumentCodeAArticleID10034951201002000107Vol.20No.2CADDMDecember2010capturingandstructuringknowledgewhichisusedtodefineengineeringmethodsandprocedures2.Typicalknowledgebasedsystemisbasedonobjectorientedprogramminglanguageandistightlyintegratedwithageometricmodelingtool,AI,designersexperience,databaseandsoon.Fig.1isthetypicalKBEdesignarchitecture.Fig.1KBEdesignarchitectureInrecentyears,theapplicationofCAx,AIandKBEtechnologieshavebeendevelopingfordesignandmanufacturingsystems.RichardCurran,WimJ.C.Verhagen,TonH.vanderLaanandMJTvanTorrenincorporatedtheKnowledgeOptimizedManufactureanddesignKNOMADmethodologywithinKBE3fortheanalyticalutilizationofmanufacturingknowledge.C.B.Chapman,MartynPinfolddescribesaknowledgebasedengineeringsystemKBEStoextendthecurrentcapabilitiesofautomotivebodyinwhiteBIWengineer4.PabloBermellGarciaandIpShingFanappliedKBEsystemforthedesignandmanufacturingofawindtunneltestingmodelofaircraftnacellesbyadoptionandcombinationoftheproductionrulesandtheobjectorientedknowledgerepresentation5.MostoftheKBEsystemsappliedbypreviousresearchersaredependentonsomeCADsoftware,whichmakesthemquiteinconvenientfortheknowledgetobereusedtootherCADsoftware.IndependentknowledgebasedsystemisindependentofCADsoftwarethereforeknowledgecanbereusedfreelyinvariousCADsoftwaresuchasUG,CATIA,Solidworksetc.2GoalofKnowledgeModelingGoalofthisresearchistogetknowledgedrivenparametricmodelbyusingindependentknowledgebasedsystem.Thereforetherelationshipbetweengeometricalandnongeometricalattributeisbasicconceptfortheframeworkofknowledgemodel.TheGeometricdescriptionisonlyonepieceofinformationaboutthetotalproductmodel6.Fig.2istherelationofgeometricandnongeometricattribute.Intheparametricmodelingoftheproduct,entitiesareassociatedwithgeometricparametersuchasabooleanprimitive,alineorarcinawireframe,orafilletingoperation.Theseparameterscontrolandplaythevariousgeometricattributessuchasheight,width,length,volumeandareaofthemodel.Theyalsocontrolthelocationsoftheseentitieswithinthemodel.KnowledgemodelDesignparameterNongeometricGeometricparameterGeometricKnowledgedrivenParameterdrivenFig.2GeometricandnongeometricattributesPower,weight,material,life,speedratio,loadandmanufacturabilityareincludedinthenongeometricattributesthatmeantheyaredesignparameter.Geometricandnongeometricattributesareinterrelated.Forexample,thepitchlinevelocityofthewormisVwπdwnw/12.GeometricpropertiesdwpitchdiameterandnongeometricpropertiesVwpitchlinevelocityaredependenttoeachother.TheinputstotheKBEmodelcontaingeometricandnongeometricattributeswhichcanincludedesignspecifications,designpractices,engineerexpertise,materialpropertiesandstructuralanalysis.Thekey2PHYOWaiLin,XIPing,ZHANGBaoyuan,CHENRuizhiCADDMresearchcontentofKBEistogetgeometricparametersoutfromnongeometricparameters.Theoutputisknowledgemodelwhichmeetscustomersdemands.3KnowledgeAcquisitionandRepresentationKnowledgeAcquisitionKAisthetransformationofknowledgefromtheforminwhichitexistsbetacitorexplicitintoformsthatcanbeusedinaknowledgebasedsystem.TheprocessofcollectingdomainknowledgeandtransformingtheknowledgeintoacomputerizedrepresentationKAincludestheelicitation,collection,analysis,modelingandvalidationofknowledgeforknowledgeengineeringandknowledgemanagementprojects3andinvolvesbreakingdown,grouping,structuring,chainingupandcontrollingtheknowledge.Animportantproblemishowtoextractknowledgefromanexpertandhowtorepresenttheelicitedknowledgeinaknowledgebasedsystem.KAcansolvethatproblembyconsideringthepurposeandfunctionofthedesiredinformation.KBEsystemsuseacombinationoftheproductionrulesandtheobjectorientedknowledgerepresentationastherepresentationparadigms.Fig.3istheknowledgerepresentationchartofresearchworktocontrolandmodifyknowledgethatneedsacollectionofvariousformsofknowledge,includingMathematicalformulas,Rules,experience,parametricmodel,formandchartformechanicaldesignparametricmodel.Knowledgeimplementationfortypicaldesignmodel,designknowledgecanbecategorizedasfollows1MathematicalformulaInthemechanicaldesign,therearemanyareasofmathematicalformsofknowledge.Manydesignpartssuchassize,material,strengthandsoonneedthecomplexmathematicalcalculationsandderivationtogettheirappropriatevalues.Mathematicalformulasincludingexpressionsarithmeticexpressions,logicalexpression,etc.,differentialequationsandintegralequationandsoonthatisusedforthedesignMathematicalCalculationChartTableParametricModelExpertiseRuleIFTHENFig.3Knowledgerepresentationofthetransmissionpartstogetacertainconstraintrelations.ForexamplethemathematicalformulaofwormallowablecontactstressissHPHPvNZZσσandstresscyclesequationis160LhNntγ.2ClassrulesTheknowledgedrivenmodelbehindknowledgebasedengineeringKBEisbasedonalanguagetailoredforcapturingengineeringrules.Ifthewormheadisequalto1,theestimatedrangeofefficiencyis0.65to0.75whenthewormheadisequalto2,theefficiencyoftherangeof0.75085whenthewormheadisgreaterthan2,theeffectiverange0.85.Iftheconditionpartissatisfied,thentheconclusionpartDecember2010TheResearchofIndependentKnowledgeBasedMechanicalDesign3isexecuted.ThesampleofwormgearclassruleexpressionisasfollowsIfworm_z1{Efficiency0.650.75}Ifworm_z2{Efficiency0.750.85}Ifworm_z2{Efficiency0.85}3DesigntablesTherearemanyengineeringknowledgeofstandardpartsoftenexistsintableform,Fig.4isatableoftherelationshipofmodule,wormdiameterandwormdiameterfactorwhichisusedtodeterminedimensionalfamiliesofproduct.Fig.4TherelationshipofmoduleanddiameterTabledataarediscretebinarymappingthatcanbestoreinarelationaldatabaseaccordingtocertainrulesusingascriptinglanguage.Thisscriptinglanguagerelatedtosyntaxandlanguageinterpretertoexplainthemappingtable,representtousetheform.4ExpertiseExpertiseplaystheroletofilltheknowledgegapbetweenthedetailstageandtheconceptualstage,assistthedesignerstomakedecision.Forexample,expertisetellswhichworkingtemperaturerangeshouldbemoreeligible,higherthan95℃orlessthan95℃.5ParametricmodelParametricmodelfilessuchasUG.Prtfilestorethehistoryofproductmodeling,modelingprocesscontainthecarrierofexpertiseandknowledge.Parametricmodelprovidestheknowledgemodelingprocess.Thereforegeometricmodelcanbechangequickly,canbeviewedasaninstanceofaclassofgeometricmodelsObjectorientedmethodcanbeusedtoorganizeandexpressthisknowledge.Forexample,thedesignofthewormgeometricmodelhasseveralgeometricparametersasshowninTable1.Table1WormmodelinggeometryModulemPitchcirclediameterdAddendumcirclediameterd1Toothrootdiameterd2PressureangleaLengthL6ChartChartisacommonengineeringknowledgeexpresswithtwodimensionalcoordinatedsysteminwhichthedataisrepresentedbysymbols,suchasbarsinabarchart,linesinalinechartandsoon.Thereforeknowledgeisimplementedinvariousformsincludingengineeringrules,formulas,geometricmodels,designtablesandchartstoconstructindependentknowledgebasedsystem.Italsodescribestherepresentationofgeometricpropertiesincludingpartcomplexityandtheautomationofthedesignprocesses.4IndependentKnowledgeBasedDesignArchitectureMechanicaldesignengineersarealwaysfacedwiththeproblemtogetthecorrectgeometricinformation,parametersandneedtofindnongeometricfeatureinformationfromthemechanicaldesignhandbookmanually.Informationisdifficulttocommunicateverballyandformalizeforthepurposeofdesigningaknowledgebase7.Knowledgeinterpretercanbesolvedtheseproblems.KnowledgeInterpreterKIisconstructedbasedonknowledgerepresentationexplainedinsection3togetparametricmodelthatmeanknowledgedrivenparametricmodel.TheprinciplestructureofknowledgeinterpreterKIisshowninFig.5.Knowledgeinterpretercanparse4PHYOWaiLin,XIPing,ZHANGBaoyuan,CHENRuizhiCADDM
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