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附录SolarSolarSolargenerallyreferstothesunsradiationenergy.CarriedoutinthesolarinteriorfromHtogetherintoaheliumthenuclearreaction,keptahugereleaseofenergy,andcontinuetothespaceradiationenergy,whichissolarenergy.Thissolarnuclearfusionreactioninsidethecantomaintainthehundredsofmillionsyearsfirsttime.Solarradiationtospacelaunch3.8x1023kWpoweroftheradiation,ofwhich20billionthoftheEarthsatmospheretoreach.SolarenergyreachingtheEarthsatmosphere,30oftheatmospherereflectance,23ofatmosphericabsorption,andtheresttoreachtheEarthssurface.Itspowerof80trillionkW,thatistosayasecondexposuretothesunsenergyonEarthisequivalenttofivemilliontonsofcoalcombustionheatrelease.Theaveragepersquaremeterintheatmosphereoutsidetheareaofenergyperminutetoreceiveabout1367w.Abroadsenseofthesolarenergyonearthmanysources,suchaswindenergy,chemicalenergy,potentialenergyofwaterandsoon.Thenarrowsenseislimitedtosolarradiationofsolarlightthermal,photovoltaicandphotochemicalconversionofthedirectly.Atthisstage,theworldssolarenergyisstillthefocusofthestudyofsolarenergypowerplant,butthediversificationoftheuseofthecondenser,andtheintroductionofflatplatecollectorandalowboilingpointworkingfluid,thedevicegraduallyexpandeduptomaximumoutputpower73.64kW,ObjectiveTocomparetheclearandpractical,costremainshigh.Theconstructionofatypicaldeviceareasfollows1901,Californiabuiltasolarpoweredpumpingdevices,theuseoftruncatedconecondenserpower7.36kW19021908years,builtintheUnitedStatesfivesetsofdoublecyclesolarpoweredengines,theuseofflatpanelcollectorandalowboilingpointworkingfluidin1913.Humanuseofsolarenergyhasalonghistory.Chinamorethan2000yearsago,backintheWarringStatesperiod,onewillfindthattheuseoffoursteelmirrortofocussunlightignitionuseofsolarenergytodryagriculturalproducts.Thedevelopmentofmodern,solarenergyhasbecomeincreasinglywidespreaduse,itincludestheuseofsolarenergysolarthermal,solarphotovoltaicandsolarenergyuse,suchasthephotochemicaluse.Theuseofsolarphotochemicalreaction,apassiveusephotothermalconversionandthephotoelectricconversionintwoways.Anewsolarpowerandrenewablesourcesofenergyuse.SiliconphotovoltaiccellsmainlyintheabsorptionofsolarlightenergyemittedbysiliconphotocellismainlyextractedfromthesandbythedevelopmentofBellLabs.Solarenergyistheinternalorthesurfaceofthesunsunspotcontinuousprocessofnuclearfusionreactionsproduceenergy.Earthsorbitontheaveragesolarradiationintensityforthe1367w/㎡.CircumferenceoftheEarthsequatorto40000km,andthuscalculatedtheEarthsenergycanbeobtained173000TW.Atsealevelstandardforpeakintensity1kw/m2,apointontheEarthssurface24hoftheannualaverageradiationintensity0.20kw/㎡,whichisequivalenttohave102000TWenergy.Humandependenceontheseenergytosurvive,includingallotherformsofrenewableenergyexceptforgeothermalenergyresources,althoughthetotalamountofsolarenergyresourcesisthehumanequivalentoftheenergyusedbytenthousandtimes,butlowenergydensityofsolarenergy,anditvaryfromplacetoplace,fromtimetotimechange,thedevelopmentandutilizationofsolarenergywhichisfacingamajorproblem.Thesefeatureswillmakesolarenergyintheintegratedenergysystemoftheroleofsubjecttocertainrestrictions.Theuseofsolarcells,throughthephotoelectricconversiontosolarenergyconversionisincludedinelectricity,theuseofsolarwaterheaters,theuseofsolarheathotwaterandusewaterforpowergeneration,usingsolarenergyfordesalination.Now,theuseofsolarenergyisnotverypopular,theuseofsolarpowercostsarehighthere,theproblemoflowconversionefficiency,butforsatellitesolarcellstoprovideenergyhasbeenapplied.AlthoughtheEarthsatmospheresolarradiationtothetotalenergyonly22billionthsofaradiationenergy,ithasbeenashighas173,000TW,thatistosayasecondexposuretothesunsenergyonEarthisequivalenttofivemilliontonsofcoal.Earthwindenergy,hydropower,oceanthermalenergy,waveenergyandtidalenergyaswellassomecomesfromthesuneveninthefaceoftheearthsfossilfuelssuchascoal,oil,naturalgas,etc.thatisfundamentallySinceancienttimesthestorageofsolarenergydown,sobyincludingabroadrangeofsolarenergyisverylarge,Thenarrowsenseislimitedtosolarradiationofsolarlightthermal,photovoltaicandphotochemicalconversionofthedirectly.Solarenergyisthefirsttime,butalsorenewableenergy.Itisrichinresources,canusefreeofcharge,andwithouttransportation,withoutanypollutiontotheenvironment.Formankindtocreateanewlife,sothatsocialandhumanenergyintoaeraofreducingpollution.Solarcellshavetorespondtoalightandconvertsolarenergytopowerthedevice.Photovoltaiceffectcanproducemanykindsofmaterials,suchassinglecrystalsilicon,polycrystallinesilicon,amorphoussilicon,galliumarsenide,copperindiumselenium.Theyarebasicallythesameprincipleofpowergenerationisnowcrystalasanexampletodescribetheprocessoflightgeneration.PtypecrystallinesiliconavailableafterphosphorusdopedNtypesilicon,theformationofPNjunction.Whenthesurfaceofsolarlight,thesiliconmaterialtobepartofphotonabsorptionphotonenergytransfertothesiliconatom,electronictransitionshavetakenplace,asafreeelectronconcentrationinthePNjunctionformedonbothsidesofthepotentialdifference,whentheexternalcircuitconnectedwhentheeffectsofthevoltage,therewillbeacurrentflowingthroughtheexternalcircuithaveacertainamountofoutputpower.Thesubstanceofthisprocessarephotonenergyintoelectricalenergyconversionprocess.Siisourplanetsabundanceofstoragematerials.Sincethe19thcentury,scientistsdiscoveredthepropertiesofcrystallinesiliconsemiconductor,italmostchangedeverything,evenhumanthought,endofthe20thcentury.Ourlivescanbeseeneverywhere,siliconfigureandroleofcrystallinesiliconsolarcellsistheformationofthepast15yearsthefastestgrowingindustry.Productionprocesscanbedividedintofivestepsa,purificationprocessb,theprocessofpullingrodc,slicingtheprocessofd,theprocessofsystembatterye,thecoursepackage.SolarphotovoltaicIsacomponentofphotovoltaicpanelsinthesunexposurewillgeneratedirectcurrentpowergenerationdevices,fromvirtuallyallsemiconductormaterialsegsiliconaremadeofthinphotovoltaiccellscomposedofsolid.Becausethereisnopartofactivity,andwouldthusbealongtimeoperationwouldnotleadtoanyloss.Simplephotovoltaiccellsforwatchesandcomputerstoprovideenergy,andmorecomplexPVsystemstoprovidelightingforthehousingandpowersupply.Photovoltaicpanelscanbemadeintocomponentsofdifferentshapes,andcomponentscanbeconnectedtogeneratemorepower.Inrecentyears,thesurfaceoftheroofandbuildingwillbetheuseofphotovoltaicpanelscomponents,Evenbeusedaswindows,skylightsorshelteredpartofdevices,whichareoftencalledphotovoltaicfacilitieswithPVsystemsinbuildings.SolarthermalModerntechnologysolarthermalpolymerizationsunlightanduseitsenergyproducedhotwater,steamandelectricity.Inadditiontotheuseofappropriatetechnologytocollectsolarenergy,thebuildingcanalsomakeuseofthesunslightandheatenergyisaddedinthedesignofappropriateequipment,suchaslargewindowsoruseofthesouthcanabsorbandslowlyreleasethesunheatthebuildingmaterials.Accordingtorecords,humanuseofsolarenergyhasmorethan3,000yearsofhistory.Tosolarenergyasanenergyandpoweruse,only300yearsofhistory.Therealsolarasthenearfuturetoaddmuchneededenergy,thebasisofthefutureenergymixisthelatestthing.Sincethe20thcentury,70s,solartechnologyhasmaderapidadvances,solarenergyusewitheachpassingday.SolarenergyutilizationinmodernhistoryfromtheFrenchengineersin1615intheSolomonandGermanyCoxinventedtheworldsfirstsolarpoweredenginesrun.Theinventionisauseofsolarenergyheatingtheairtotheexpansionandpumpingmachinesacting.In16151900,betweenthedevelopedworldandmorethanonesolarpowerplantandanumberofothersolarenergydevices.Almostallofthesepowerplantscollectthesunmeanstheuseofcondenser,enginepowerisnot,theworkingfluidiswatervapor,whichisveryexpensive,notpracticalvalue,themajorityofindividualstudiesformanufacturingsolarenthusiasts.100yearsofthe20thcentury,thehistoryofthedevelopmentofsolarenergytechnologyingeneralcanbedividedintosevenstages.太阳能太阳能(Solar)一般指太阳光的辐射能量。在太阳内部进行的由氢聚变成氦的原子核反应,不停地释放出巨大的能量,并不断向宇宙空间辐射能量,这种能量就是太阳能。太阳内部的这种核聚变反应,可以维持几十亿至上百亿年的时间。太阳向宇宙空间发射的辐射功率为3.8x1023kW的辐射值,其中20亿分之一到达地球大气层。到达地球大气层的太阳能,30被大气层反射,23被大气层吸收,其余的到达地球表面,其功率为800000亿kW,也就是说太阳每秒钟照射到地球上的能量就相当于燃烧500万吨煤释放的热量。平均在大气外每平米面积每分钟接受的能量大约1367w。广义上的太阳能是地球上许多能量的来源,如风能,化学能,水的势能等等。狭义的太阳能则限于太阳辐射能的光热、光电和光化学的直接转换。人类对太阳能的利用有着悠久的历史。我国早在两千多年前的战国时期,就知道利用钢制四面镜聚焦太阳光来点火利用太阳能来干燥农副产品。发展到现代,太阳能的利用已日益广泛,它包括太阳能的光热利用,太阳能的光电利用和太阳能的光化学利用等。太阳能的利用有光化学反应,被动式利用(光热转换)和光电转换两种方式。太阳能发电一种新兴的可再生能源利用方式。使用太阳电池,通过光电转换把太阳光中包含的能量转化为电能,使用太阳能热水器,利用太阳光的热量加热水,并利用热水发电,利用太阳能进行海水淡化。现在,太阳能的利用还不很普及,利用太阳能发电还存在成本高、转换效率低的问题,但是太阳电池在为人造卫星提供能源方面得到了应用。主要是硅光电池在吸收太阳所发射出来的光能,硅光电池主要是从沙子里提炼出来的,由贝尔实验室开发。太阳能是太阳内部或者表面的黑子连续不断的核聚变反应过程产生的能量。地球轨道上的平均太阳辐射强度为1367w/㎡。地球赤道的周长为40000km,从而可计算出,地球获得的能量可达173000TW。在海平面上的标准峰值强度为1kw/m2,地球表面某一点24h的年平均辐射强度为0.20kw/㎡,相当于有102000TW的能量,人类依赖这些能量维持生存,其中包括所有其他形式的可再生能源(地热能资源除外),虽然太阳能资源总量相当于现在人类所利用的能源的一万多倍,但太阳能的能量密度低,而且它因地而异,因时而变,这是开发利用太阳能面临的主要问题。太阳能的这些特点会使它在整个综合能源体系中的作用受到一定的限制。尽管太阳辐射到地球大气层的能量仅为其总辐射能量的22亿分之一,但已高达173,000TW,也就是说太阳每秒钟照射到地球上的能量就相当于500万吨煤。地球上的风能、水能、海洋温差能、波浪能和生物质能以及部分潮汐能都是来源于太阳即使是地球上的化石燃料(如煤、石油、天然气等)从根本上说也是远古以来贮存下来的太阳能,所以广义的太阳能所包括的范围非常大,狭义的太阳能则限于太阳辐射能的光热、光电和光化学的直接转换。太阳能既是一次能源,又是可再生能源。它资源丰富,既可免费使用,又无需运输,对环境无任何污染。为人类创造了一种新的生活形态,使社会及人类进入一个节约能源减少污染的时代。
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