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963IndustrialRob42.IndustrialRoboticsMartinHägele,KlasNilsson,J.NorbertoPiresMostrobotstodaycantracetheirorigintoearlyindustrialrobotdesigns.Muchofthetechnologythatmakesrobotsmorehumanfriendlyandadaptablefordifferentapplicationshasemergedfrommanufacturersofindustrialrobots.Industrialrobotsarebyfarthelargestcommercialapplicationofroboticstechnologytoday.Alltheimportantfoundationsforrobotcontrolwereinitiallydevelopedwithindustrialapplicationsinmind.Theseapplicationsdeservespecialattentioninordertounderstandtheoriginofroboticsscienceandtoappreciatemanyunsolvedproblemsthatstillpreventthewideruseofrobotsinmanufacturing.Inthischapterwepresentabriefhistoryanddescriptionsoftypicalindustrialroboticsapplications.Weshowhowrobotswithdifferentmechanismsfitdifferentapplications.Eventhoughrobotsarewellestablishedinlargescalemanufacturing,particularlyinautomobileandrelatedcomponentassembly,therearestillmanychallengingproblemstosolve.Therangeoffeasibleapplicationscouldsignificantlyincreaseifrobotswereeasiertoinstall,tointegratewithothermanufacturingprocesses,42.1AShortHistoryofIndustrialRobots........96442.2TypicalApplicationsandRobotConfigurations......................96942.2.1Welding.....................................96942.2.2CarBodyAssembly......................96942.2.3Painting.....................................97142.2.4MaterialTransferAutomation.......97142.2.5Machining..................................97442.2.6Human–RobotCooperationforHandlingTasks.......................97442.3KinematicsandMechanisms..................97542.4TaskDescriptions–TeachingandProgramming..................97642.5EndEffectorsandSystemIntegration....98042.6ConclusionsandLongTermChallenges..983References..................................................985andtoprogram,particularlywithadaptivesensingandautomaticerrorrecovery.Weoutlinesomeoftheseremainingchallengesforresearchers.Industrialrobotsareconsideredasacornerstoneofcompetitivemanufacturing,whichaimstocombinehighproductivity,quality,andadaptabilityatminimalcost.In2007morethanonemillionindustrialrobotinstallationswerereported,withautomotiveindustriesasthepredominantuserswithashareofmorethan6042.1.However,highgrowthindustriesinlifesciences,electronics,solarcells,food,andlogisticsandemergingmanufacturingprocessesgluing,coating,laserbasedprocesses,precisionassemblyetc.willincreasinglydependonadvancedrobottechnology.Theseindustriesshareofthenumberofrobotinstallationshasbeengrowingsteadily.Theproductionofindustrialrobotsontheonehand,andtheplanning,integration,andoperationofrobotworkcellsontheotherhand,arelargelyindependentengineeringtasks.Inordertobeproducedinsufficientlylargequantities,arobotdesignshouldmeettherequirementsforthewidestsetofpotentialapplications.Asthisisdifficulttoachieveinpractice,variousclassesofrobotdesignsregardingpayloadcapacity,numberofrobotaxes,andworkspacevolumehaveemergedforapplicationcategoriessuchasassembly,palletizing,painting,welding,machining,andgeneralhandlingtasks.Generally,arobotworkcellconsistsofoneormorerobotswithcontrollersandrobotperipheralsgrippersPartF42964PartFFieldandServiceRoboticsortools,safetydevices,sensors,andmaterialtransfercomponentsformovingandpresentingparts.Typically,thecostofacompleterobotworkcellisfourtimesthecostoftherobotsalone.Arobotworkcellisusuallytheresultofcustomizedplanning,integration,programming,andconfiguration,requiringsignificantengineeringexpertise.Standardizedengineeringmethods,tools,andbestpracticeexampleshavebecomeavailabletoreducecostsandprovidemorepredictableperformance42.2.Todaysindustrialrobotsaremainlytheresultoftherequirementsofcapitalintensivelargevolumemanufacturing,mainlydefinedbytheautomotive,electronics,andelectricalgoodsindustries.Futureindustrialrobotswillnotbeamereextrapolationoftodaysdesignswithrespecttofeaturesandperformancedata,butwillratherfollownewdesignprinciplesaddressingawiderrangeofapplicationareasandindustries.Atthesametime,newtechnologies,particularlyfromtheinformationtechnologyITworld,willhaveanincreasingimpactonthedesign,performance,andcostoffutureindustrialrobots.Internationalandnationalstandardsnowhelptoquantifyrobotperformanceanddefinesafetyprecautions,geometry,andmediainterfaces.Mostrobotsoperatebehindsecurebarrierstokeeppeopleatasafedistance42.3.Recently,improvedsafetystandardshavealloweddirecthuman–robotcollaboration,permittingrobotsandhumanfactoryworkerstosharethesameworkspace42.4.Wewillfirstpresentahistoricalintroductiontoindustrialroboticswithaselectionofcontemporaryapplicationexamples,thenthebasicprinciplesthatareusedinindustrialroboticsandareviewofprogrammingmethodswillbepresented.Wewillalsodiscusstoolsendeffectorsandsystemintegrationrequirements.Thechapterwillbeclosedwiththepresentationofselected,unsolvedproblemsthatcurrentlyinhibitthewiderapplicationofindustrialrobots.42.1AShortHistoryofIndustrialRobotsTheinventionoftheindustrialrobotdatesbackto1954whenGeorgeDevolfiledapatentonaprogrammedarticletransferFig.42.1.AfterteamingupwithJosephEngelberger,thefirstrobotcompany,Unimation,wasfoundedandputthefirstrobotintoserviceataGeneralMotorsplantin1961forextractingpartsabFig.42.1a,bTheinventionoftheindustrialrobotaThispatentwasthestartofajointeffortofG.DevolandJ.Engelbergertoformthefirstrobotcompany,Unimation,afusionofthewordsuniversalandautomation.ThecompanywasacquiredbyWestinghouseinthelate1980s.bThefirstUnimationperformedarathersimplehandlingtaskin1961ataGeneralMotorsplant.Othercarmanufacturersfollowed.ThephotoshowsthefirstrobotinstalledatFordfromtheirMuseuminDearbornfromadiecastingmachine.MostofthehydraulicallyactuatedUnimatesweresoldthroughthefollowingyearsforworkpiecehandlingandforspotweldingofcarbodies42.5.Bothapplicationsweresuccessful,whichmeansthattherobotsworkedreliablyandensureduniformquality.Soon,manyothercompaniesPartF42.1IndustrialRobotics42.1AShortHistoryofIndustrialRobots965abFig.42.2a,bTheallelectricaIRB6andbaSCARAtypekinematicaFirstintroducedin1973,theIRB6hasbeenabreakthroughdevelopmentasitwasthefirstseriallyproducedrobotproduct,whichcombinedallelectricdrivestechnologyandamicrocomputerforprogrammingandmotioncontrol.Therobotprovedveryrobust.Lifetimesofmorethan20yearsinharshproductionswerereportedbycourtesyABBAutomation,FriedbergbTheselectivecomplianceassemblyrobotarmSCARAisparticularlysuitedforassemblytasksasitcombinesrigidityintheverticalaxisandcomplianceinthehorizontalaxis.In1978,thefirstHirataAR300wasputtogether.Depictedisthesuccessordesign,theARi350.TheSCARAdesigncombinesthreeorfourrotationalandonetranslationalaxisbycourtesyHIRATARobotics,MainzabFig.42.3a,bCincinnatiMilacronT3andtheUnimationPUMA560aIn1974,CincinnatiMilacronintroducedthefirstmicrocomputercontrolledrobot.ThefirstT3TheTomorrowToolmodelsusedhydraulicdrives,latertheywerereplacedbyelectricmotorsasshowninthephoto.TheCMroboticsdivisionwasacquiredbyABBinthelate1970sbThis6axisPUMAprogrammableuniversalmachineforassemblycameclosetothedexterityofahumanarm.Afteritslaunchin1979byUnimationitbecameoneofthemostpopulararmsandwasusedasareferenceinroboticsresearchformanyyearsPartF42.1966PartFFieldandServiceRoboticsabFig.42.4a,bSpotweldinglineandvideocassetterecorderVCRassemblyaspioneeringapplicationsforindustrialrobotapplications.aSpotweldingquicklybecameaprimaryapplicationforrobotsasthesejobswereparticularlyexhaustingandhazardousforworkers.Atypicalcarbodyweldinglinefrom1985isdisplayed.ThecarmodelshownisaFrenchCitroënCXbAnautomatedVCRassemblylineca.1989withSCARAscarryingaturretwithmultigrippertools.TypicallyfivepartsareaddedbyonerobotbeforetheVCRismovedtothenextstationofthefullyautomatedassemblylineabFig.42.5a,bTheABBFlexPickerparallelrobotforhighspeedpickingandtheKUKAlightweightrobotarmaParallelkinematicmachinesPKMrepresentaninterestingapproachtoachievehighstiffnessatlowinertia,thusallowingaccurate,highspeedmotions.InitiallysuggestedbyClavelthis4axisrobotcalledDeltaisusedforhighspeedpickandplacetasks.Therobotreachesaccelerationsofupto10gbTheKUKAlightweightrobotistheresultofalongresearchanddevelopmentprocessbyDLR,towardsanarmdesignwithaweighttopayloadratioof11.The7axisarmwhichissuitedforhumanrobotcooperationimitatesthedexterityofahumanarmstartedtodevelopandmanufactureindustrialrobots.Aninnovationdrivenindustrywasborn.However,ittookmanyyearsuntilthisindustrybecameprofitable.ThebreakthroughStanfordArmwasdesignedasaresearchprototypein1969byVictorScheinmanseeChap.3,atthattimeamechanicalengineeringstuPartF42.1
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