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附录2AnIntegratedSystemforCommandandControlofCooperativeRoboticSystemsChristopherM.Clark,EricW.Frew,HenryL.Jones,StephenM.RockAerospaceRoboticsLabDepartmentofAeronauticsAstronauticsStanfordUniversity{chrisc,ewf,hlj,rock}sunvalley.stanford.eduAbstractPresentedisanexperimentalinvestigationintothreeissuesthatenableincreasedautonomousfunctionalitywhenusingmobilerobots.Theseissuesare1interfacingasingleuserwithmultiplerobots,2motionplanningformultiplerobots,and3robottrajectorygenerationfortargettracking.Forthisresearch,theMicroAutonomousRoverSMARStestplatformwasdevelopedthatprovidesameansforimplementingthistechnologyonlaboratoryrobotstocarryouttasksincludingcollisionfreewhichasingleuserisabletocommandagroupofrobots.Experimentalresultsarepresentedinmotionandtargettracking.KeywordmultirobotsroverMARStestplatformtargettrackingtrajectorymonitorMaintext1.IntroductionCurrently,remoteroboticsystemsrequiremanyhumanstooperateasinglerobot.Thegoalforfuturesystemsistorequireonlyoneoperatorformanyrobots.Forexample,futurespacestructureconstructionwouldbenefitfromtheavailabilityofalargegroupofrobotsthatcanbeoperatedbyaFigure1RoversfromtheMARStestplatform.Smallgroupsofhumans.Whiletherehasbeenasignificantamountofresearchtowardstheoperationofsingleremoterobots,moreworkisstillrequiredtowardstheoperationofgroupsofrobots.Inparticular,anincreaseddegreeofautonomymustbegiventotherobots.Torealizethisautonomy,avarietyoffundamentalcapabilitiesmustbeenabledthatinclude1Providinganinterfacefromwhichadequateinformationfordecisionmakingisavailabletothehuman,andcommandstooneorseveraloftherobotscanbeexecuted.2Providingautonomous,realtimeconstructionofcollisionfreetrajectoriesforallrobotsinthegroup.3Providingrobottrajectorygenerationthatenablestrackingofmovingobjects.Inpreviouswork,weaddressedeachoftheseissuesJones6developedaninterfacethatallowsasinglehumantooperatemanyrobotsClark2designedamultirobotmotionplannerandFrew4designedatrajectorygeneratorthatprovidesnearoptimalsolutionsforobjectmotionestimation.Figure1RoversfromtheMARStestplantformInthispaper,wepresentanintegratedsystemdemonstrationofthesetechnologies.Thepaperisorganizedasfollows.Section2providesabriefdescriptionofeachofthethreeresearchprojects.InSection3,theMicroAutonomousRoverSMARStestplatformanditsapplicationtothisresearchisdescribed.Section4detailsafinaldemonstrationthatsummarizesthepreviousresearchasanintegratedsystem.ConclusionsarepresentedinSection5.2.TechnologicalIssues2.1.HumanInterfaceForasinglehumantooperateamultirobotsystem,thehumanmusthaveaccesstoallrelevantinformationabouttheremoteenvironmentsothatappropriatecommandscanbeexecuted.Also,thehumanmustbeprovidedwithameansofexecutingthesecommandstooneorseveraloftherobots.In6,Jonesdevelopedaninterfacebasedondialoguesbetweenthehumanandtherobotsasaneffectivemethodforoperatingmultiplerobots.Inparticular,JonesaddressedthefollowingissuesEstablishingthestructureandscopeofthedialogueCreatingarobotinfrastructurecapableofconductinganeffectivedialogueDeterminingmethodsfordealingwiththesocialconventionsofdialoguesDevelopinganinterfacethatallowstheoperatortocarryoutthedialoguewiththeroboticsystem.HisresultisanimplementationofadialogueinteractionpatternedafterthetaskorientedDialoguescommoninhumanteams.Thehypothesisisthatsimilardialoguescanplayausefulrolewithinhumanrobotteams.TheinterfacewasimplementedusingOpenGLtoprovideathreedimensionalviewoftherobotenvironment.AnexamplescreenshotisshowninFigure2.Dialoguethroughtheinterfacetakesplaceelectronicallyratherthanthroughvoice.Thedialoguebeginswhenobjectsareselectedbyclickingonthemonthescreen.Theinterfacethenresolvestheidentityoftheobjectandtherobotthatsensedtheobject.Theinterfacewaitsuntilaresponsefromthecorrectrobothasbeenreturnedintheformofalistoftasksthattherobotcanaccomplishonthatobject.Thislististhendisplayedinadialogthatpopsupnexttotheobject.Theusercanselectfromthislistoftasks,andthecompletecommandofrobot/task/objectissenttotherobotforexecution.Figure2Screenshotofthehumanrobotinterface.ThescreenshotinFigure2providesanexampleoftheinterfaceinuse.Tworobotsdenotedbywhitecylindersand3objectsarelocatedonthetestbedworkspace.Theoperatorhasqueriedtherobotagentstodeterminewhattaskscanbeperformedontheobjectattheleftsideofthescreen.Apopupmenuhasappearedwithalistofthequeryresults.Jonesshowedthatitispossibletobuildadialoguebasedinteractionthatenablesthecontrolofmultiplerobots.Thisinteraction,asimplementedinavirtualthreedimensionalworld,providedanintuitivepointandclickmethodfordeterminingthecapabilitiesoftherobotintheappropriatecontext,andenabledtheoperatortoparticipateintheresourcemanagementandtaskplanningfortherobots.2.2MotionPlanningWhenlargegroupsofrobotsandmovingobstaclesareworkingtogetherwithinadesignatedarea,highlevelmotionplanningisrequiredtoavoidcollisions.Continuouscommunicationbetweenallrobotsmaynotbefeasible,andnosystemofsensorscanprovideglobalknowledge.Also,tofunctioninadynamicenvironmentwithmovingobstacles,thesystemmustbeabletoreactquickly.Forthistypeofmultirobotsystem,amotionplannerthatdoesnotneedglobalknowledgeorhighbandwidthcommunication,butthatcanstillplaninrealtime,isrequired.AmotionplanningsystemthatmeetsthisrequirementwasdevelopedbyClark2.ThealgorithmpresentedwasbasedontheplannerdevelopedbyHsuandKindel5.TheirworkdemonstratestheuseofaKinodynamicRandomizedMotionPlannerforasinglerobotmaneuveringaroundstationaryandmovingobstacles.Tohandlemorethanonerobot,theKinodynamicRandomizedMotionPlannerwasextended.Intheextendedplanner,whenrobotsdetectoneanotherusinglocalsensors,theycommunicatewitheachOther,usingaprioritysystem,therobotscoordinatetheirmotionplanstoavoidcollisions.Eachrobotcreatesaplanwithknowledgeofonlythefewobstaclessurroundingit.Byplanningaroundonlythoseobjectswithintherobotslocalarea,themotionplanningproblemisgreatlysimplifiedleadingtodecreasedplanningtimes.Whennewobjectsentertherobotsfieldofview,areplaniscalledfortoensurethattherobotstrajectoryiscollisionfree.Anexampleofasimulationinvolving10rovers,and5stationaryobstaclesisprovidedifFigure3.Smallercirclesrepresentthemicroroversasviewedfromabove,whilecrossesrepresentgoallocationsandlargercirclesrepresentobstacles.Trajectoriesconstructedbyeachrobotsmotionplannerareindicatedwithlinesthatleadtogoallocations.Themotionplannerdemonstrateditseffectivenessinplanningforalargenumberofrobotswithinaboundedworkspace.Itplannedwithahighprobabilityofsuccess,eveninclutteredenvironmentsinvolving5to15robots,Stationaryobstaclesandmovingobstacles.Planningtimesontheorderof0.1sallowedtherobotstoreplaninrealtimeandreactquicklytochangesintheenvironment.Althoughthemotionplannerwasappliedtoa2Dworkspace,itshouldbenotedthattheplannerisextendibleto3Dworkspaces.Figure3MotionplanningsimulationexampleInvolvingin10robotsand5obstacles.Figureaillustratesrovers,theirgoals,andobstaclesbeforethesimulation.Inb,thesimulationhasjustbegunandallrovershaveconstructedtheirfirstplan.Examplesofrealtimeplanningontheflyareshownincandd.Notethatsomeinitialtrajectoriespassthroughobstacles,butastherobotscomecloseenoughtosensethem,theyreplanttoavoidthem.Finally,inetherovershaveconstructedtheirlasttrajectoryandareheadedtowardstheirrespectivegoallocation.Figurefshowsallbutoneroverhavingreachedtheirgoallocation.2.3TrajectoryDesignforObjectStateEstimationObjectmotionestimationisacorecapabilityofautonomousrobots.Onesolutiontothisproblemcanbeachievedwithasinglecamerabyfusingimagetrackdatafromasinglefeaturewithcameramotionmeasurements.Suchasystemtakesadvantageofsensorsalreadyexpectedonahumanguidedrobotmotionsensorsthatenablenavigationandcamerasthatprovidesituationalawarenessandthereforerequireslittleadditionalpayload.Furthermore,asinglecamerasolutionaddsredundancyandfaulttolerancetocurrentsystemsthatusemultiplecameras,combinationsofcamerasandscanninglasers,orstoredenvironmentmodels37.Objectmotionestimationusingbearingsensorssuchasmonocularvisionhasbeenwell
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