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附录ManualTransmissionsMarshallBrainTheearliestformofamanualtransmissionisthoughttohavebeeninventedbyLouisRenéPanhardandEmileLevassorinthelate19thcentury.Amanualtransmission,alsoknownasamanualgearboxorstandardtransmission,itisatypeoftransmissionusedinmotorvehicleapplications.Itgenerallyusesadriveroperatedclutch,typicallyoperatedbyapedalorlever,forregulatingtorquetransferfromtheinternalcombustionenginetothetransmission.Aconventionalmanualtransmissionisfrequentlythebaseequipmentinacar,otheroptionsincludeautomatedtransmissionssuchasanautomatictransmission,asemiautomatictransmission,oracontinuouslyvariabletransmissionCVT.Manualtransmissionsoftenfeatureadriveroperatedclutchandamovablegearstick.Mostautomobilemanualtransmissionsallowthedrivertoselectanyforwardgearratioatanytime,butsome,suchasthosecommonlymountedonmotorcyclesandsometypesofracingcars,onlyallowthedrivertoselectthenexthigherornextlowergear.Thistypeoftransmissionissometimescalledasequentialmanualtransmission.Sequentialtransmissionsarecommonlyusedinautoracingfortheirabilitytomakequickshifts.Manualtransmissionsarecharacterizedbygearratiosthatareselectablebylockingselectedgearpairstotheoutputshaftinsidethetransmission.Conversely,mostautomatictransmissionsfeatureisplanetarygearingcontrolledbybrakebandsand/orclutchpackstoselectgearratio.AutomatictransmissionsthatallowthedrivertomanuallyselectthecurrentgeararecalledManumatics.Amanualstyletransmissionoperatedbycomputerisoftencalledanautomatedtransmissionratherthananautomatic.Contemporaryautomobilemanualtransmissionstypicallyusefourtosixforwardgearsandonereversegear,althoughautomobilemanualtransmissionshavebeenbuiltwithasfewastwoandasmanyaseightgears.Transmissionforheavytrucksandotherheavyequipmentusuallyhaveatleast9gearssothetransmissioncanofferbothawiderangeofgearsandclosegearratiostokeeptheenginerunninginthepowerband.Anyenginehasaredlineamaximumrpmvalueabovewhichtheenginecannotgowithoutexploding.Engineshavenarrowrpmrangeswherehorsepowerandtorqueareattheirmaximum.Forexample,anenginemightproduceitsmaximumhorsepowerat5,500rpm.Thetransmissionallowsthegearratiobetweentheengineandthedrivewheelstochangeasthecarspeedsupandslowsdown.YoushiftgearssotheenginecanstaybelowtheredlineandneartheRPMbandofitsbestperformance.MercedesBenzActros,manualtransmissionIdeally,thetransmissionwouldbesoflexibleinitsratiosthattheenginecouldalwaysrunatitssingle,bestperformancerpmvalue.ThatistheideabehindthecontinuouslyvariabletransmissionCVT.ContinuouslyVariableTransmissionsACVThasanearlyinfiniterangeofgearratios.Inthepast,cvtscouldnotcompetewithfourspeedandfivespeedtransmissionsintermsofcost,sizeandreliability,soyoudidntseetheminproductionautomobiles,Thesedays,improvementsindesignhavemadecvtsmorecommon.TheToyotaPriusisahybridcarthatusesaCVT.Thetransmissionisconnectedtotheenginethroughtheclutch.Theinputshaftofthetransmissionthereforeturnsatthesamerpmastheengine.MercedesBenz,sixspeedmanualtransmission,graphicillustrationAfivespeedtransmissionappliesoneoffivedifferentgearratiostotheinputshafttoproduceadifferentrpmvalueattheoutputshaft.HerearesometypicalgearratiosGearRatioRPMatTransmissionOutputShaftwithEngineat3,000rpm1st2..31511,2952nd1.56811,9133rd1.19512,5104th1.00013,0005th0.91513,278AVerySimpleTransmissionTounderstandthebasicideabehindastandardtransmission,thediagrambelowshowsaverysimpletwospeedtransmissioninneutralLetslookateachofthepartsinthisdiagramtounderstandhowtheyfittogether●Thegreenshaftcomesfromtheenginethroughtheclutch.Thegreenshaftandgreengearareconnectedasasingleunit.Theclutchisadevicethatletsyouconnectanddisconnecttheengineandthetransmission.Whenyoupushintheclutchpedal,theengineandthetransmissionaredisconnectedsotheenginecanrunevenifthecarisstandingstill.Whenyoureleasetheclutchpedal,theengineandthegreenshaftaredirectlyconnectedtooneanother.Thegreenshaftandgearturnatthesamerpmastheengine.●Theredshaftandgearsarecalledthelayshaft.Thesearealsoconnectedasasinglepiece,soallofthegearsonthelayshaftandthelayshaftitselfspinasoneunit.Thegreenshaftandtheredshaftaredirectlyconnectedthroughtheirmeshedgearssothatifthegreenshaftisspinning,soistheredshaft.Inthisway,thelayshaftreceivesitspowerdirectlyfromtheenginewhenevertheclutchisengaged.●Theyellowshaftisasplinedshaftthatconnectsdirectlytothedriveshaftthroughthedifferentialtothedrivewheelsofthecar.Ifthewheelsarespinning,theyellowshaftisspinning.●Thebluegearsrideonbearings,sotheyspinontheyellowshaft.Iftheengineisoffbutthecariscoasting,theyellowshaftcanturninsidethebluegearswhilethebluegearsandthelayshaftaremotionless.●Thepurposeofthecollaristoconnectoneofthetwobluegearstotheyellowdriveshaft.Thecollarisconnected,throughthesplines,directlytotheyellowshaftandspinswiththeyellowshaft.However,thecollarcanslideleftorrightalongtheyellowshafttoengageeitherofthebluegears.Teethonthecollar,calleddogteeth,fitintoholesonthesidesofthebluegearstoengagethem.
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