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致谢7附录(英文资料翻译)BalerAbalerisapieceoffarmmachineryusedtocompressacutandrakedcropsuchashay,straw,orsilageintocompactbalesthatareeasytohandle,transportandstoreSeveraldifferenttypesofbalersarecommonlyused,eachproducingadifferenttypeofbales–rectangularorcylindrical,ofvarioussizes,boundwithtwine,netting,orwire.Industrialbalersarealsousedinmaterialrecyclingfacilities,primarilyforbalingmetal,plastic,orpaperfortransport.RoundbalerThemostfrequentlyusedtypeofbalerinindustrializedcountriesisthelargeroundbaler.Itproducescylindershapedroundorrolledbales.Grassisrolledupinsidethebalerusingrubberizedbelts,fixedrollers,oracombinationofthetwo.Whenthebalereachesapredeterminedsize,eithernettingortwineiswrappedaroundittoholditsshape.Thebackofthebalerswingsopen,andthebaleisdischarged.Thebalesarecompleteatthisstage,buttheymayalsobewrappedinplasticsheetingbyabalewrapper,eithertokeephaydrywhenstoredoutsideorconvertdampgrassintosilage.Variablechamberbalerstypicallyproducebalesfrom48to72inches120to180cmindiameterandupto60inches150cminwidth.Thebalescanweighanywherefrom1,100to2,200pounds500to1,000kg,dependinguponsize,material,andmoisturecontent.OriginallyconceivedbyUmmoLuebbenscirca1910,thefirstroundbalerdidnotseeproductionuntil1947,whenAllisChalmersintroducedtheRotoBaler.Marketedforthewatersheddingandlightweightpropertiesofitshaybales,AChadsoldnearly70,000unitsbytheendofproductionin1960.Thenextmajorinnovationcamein1972,whentheVermeerCompanybegansellingitsmodel605thefirstmodernroundbaler.Previously,roundhaybaleshadbeenlittlemorethanlumpsofgrasstiedtogether,buttheVermeerdesignusedbeltstocompacthayintoacylindricalshapeasisseentoday.LargerectangularbalerAnothertypeofbalerincommonuseproduceslargerectangularbales,eachboundwithahalfdozenorsostringsoftwinewhicharethenknotted.Suchbalesarehighlycompactedandgenerallyweighsomewhatmorethanroundbales.IntheprairiesofCanadatheyarecalledprairieraptors.SmallrectangularbalerAtypeofbalerwhichislesscommontodayinsomeplacesbutwhichisstillprevalentinmanycountriessuchasNewZealandandAustraliatotheexclusionoflargebalesproducessmallrectangularoftencalledsquarebales.Eachbaleisabout15inx18inx40in40x45x100cm.Thebalesarewrappedwithtwo,three,orsometimesfourstrandsofknottedtwine.Thebalesarelightenoughforonepersontohandle,about45to60inches1.1to1.5m.Toformthebale,thematerialtobebaled,whichisoftenhayorstrawinthewindrowisliftedbytinesinthebalerspickup.Thismaterialisthendraggedoraugeredintoachamberthatrunsthelengthofonesideofthebaler.Acombinationplungerandknifemovesbackandforthin附录thefrontendofthischamber.Theknife,positionedjustaheadoftheplunger,cutsoffthematerialatthespotwhereitentersthechamberfromthepickup.Theplungerramsthematerialrearwards,compressingitintothebales.Ameasuringdevicemeasurestheamountofmaterialthatisbeingcompressedand,attheappropriatelengthittriggersthemechanismtheknotterthatwrapsthetwinearoundthebaleandtiesitoff.Asthenextbaleisformedthetiedoneisdrivenoutoftherearofthebalingchamberontothegroundorontoaspecialwagonhookedtotherearofthebaler.Thisprocesscontinuesaslongasthereismaterialtobebaled,andtwinetotieitwith.Thisformofbaleisnotmuchusedinlargescalecommercialagriculture,becauseofthecostsinvolvedinhandlingmanysmallbales.However,itenjoyssomepopularityinsmallscale,lowmechanizationagricultureandhorsekeeping.Besidesusingsimplermachineryandbeingeasytohandle,thesesmallbalescanalsobeusedforinsulationandbuildingmaterialsinstrawbaleconstruction.Squarebaleswillalsogenerallyweatherbetterthanroundbalesbecauseamoremuchdensestackcanbeputup.Convenienceisalsoamajorfactorinfarmersdecidingtocontinueputtingupsquarebales,astheymakefeedingandbeddinginconfinedareasstables,barns,etc.mucheasier.Manyoftheseolderbalersarestilltobefoundonfarmstoday,particularlyindryareas,wherebalescanbeleftoutsideforlongperiods.Theautomaticbalerforsmallsquarebalestookonmostofitspresentformin1940.ItwasfirstmanufacturedbytheNewHollandAganditusedasmallpetrolenginetoprovideoperatingpower.Itisbasedona1937inventionforatwinetiebalerwithautomaticpickup.WirebalersBalespriorto1937weremanuallywiretiedwithtwobalingwires.Evenearlier,thebalerwasastationaryimplement,drivenbypowertakeoffPTOandbelt,withthehaybeingbroughttothebalerandfedinbyhand.Thebiggestchangetothistypeofbalersince1940isbeingpoweredbythetractorthroughitsPTO,insteadofbyabuiltininternalcombustionengine.Inpresentdayproduction,smallsquarebalerscanbeorderedwithtwineknottersorwiretieknotters.PickupandhandlingmethodsInthe1940smostfarmerswouldbalehayinthefieldwithasmalltractorwith20orlesshorsepower,andthetiedbaleswouldbedroppedontothegroundasthebalermovedthroughthefield.Anotherteamofworkerswithhorsesandaflatbedwagonwithwouldcomebyanduseasharpmetalhooktograbthebaleandthrowitupontothewagonwhileanassistantstacksthebale,fortransporttothebarn.Alatertimesavinginnovationwastotowtheflatbedwagondirectlybehindthebaler,andthebalewouldbepusheduparamptoawaitingattendantonthewagon.Theattendanthooksthebaleofftherampandstacksitonthewagon,whilewaitingforthenextbaletobeproduced.Eventually,astractorhorsepowerincreased,thethrowerbalerbecamepossible,whicheliminatedtheneedforsomeonetostandonthewagonandpickupthefinishedbales.Thefirstthrowermechanismusedtwofastmovingfrictionbeltstograbfinishedbalesandthrowthematanangleupintheairontothebalewagon.Thebalewagonwasmodifiedfromaflatbedintoa3sidedskeletonframeopenatthefront,toactasacatchersnetforthethrownbales.Astractorhorsepowerfurtherincreased,thenextinnovationofthethrowerbalerwasthehydraulictossingbaler.Thisemploysaflatpanbehindthebaleknotter.Asbalesadvanceoutthebackofthebaler,theyarepushedontothepanoneatatime.Whenthebalehasmovedfullyontothepan,thepansuddenlypopsup,pushedbyalargehydrauliccylinder,andtossesthebaleupintothewagonlikeacatapult.Thepanthrowermethodputsmuchlessstressonthebalescomparedtothebeltthrower.Thefrictionbeltsofthebeltthrowerstressthetwineandknotsastheygripthebale,andwouldoccasionallycausebalestobreakapartinthethrowerorwhenthebaleslandedinthewagon.NewHollandhasinventedamachinenamedtheStackcruiser,orastacker.Smallsquarebalesaredroppedbythebalerwiththestringsfacingoutward,thestackerwilldriveuptothebalesanditwillpickitupandsetitonathreebalewidetablethestringsarenowfacingupwards.Oncethreebalesareonthetable,thetableliftsupandback,causingthethreebalestofacestringstothesideagainthishappens3moretimesuntilthereare16balesonthemaintable.Thistablewillliftlikethesmallerone,andthebaleswillbeupagainstaverticaltable.Themachinewillhold160balestentiers,usuallytherewillbecrosstiersnearthecentertokeepthestackfromswayingorcollapsingifanyweightisappliedtothetopofthestack.Thefullloadwillbetransportedtoabarn,thewholerearofthestackerwilltiltupwardsuntilitisvertical.Therewillbetwopushersthatwillextendthroughthemachineandholdthebottomofthestackfrombeingpulledoutfromthestackerwhileitisdrivenoutofthebarn.InBritainifsmallsquarebalesarestilltobeused,theyareusuallycollectedastheyfalloutofthebalerinabalesledgedraggedbehindthebaler.Thishasfourchannels,controlledbyautomaticmechanicalbalances,catchesandsprings,whichsorteachbaleintoitsplaceinasquareeight.Whenthesledgeisfull,acatchistrippedautomatically,andadoorattherearopenstoleavetheeightlyingneatlytogetherontheground.Thesemaybepickedupindividuallyandloadedbyhand,ortheymaybepickedupalleighttogetherbyabalegrabonatractor,aspecialfrontloaderconsistingofmanyhydraulicallypowereddownwardpointingcurvedspikes.Thesquareeightwillthenbestacked,eitheronatrailerfortransport,orinaroughlycubicfieldstackeightortenlayershigh.Thiscubemaythenbetransportedbyalargemachineattachedtothethreepointhitchbehindatractor,whichclampsthesidesofthecubeandliftsitbodily.附录打包机打包机是一种农业机械,它用于压缩已切割和倾斜的作物(如草、稻草或青贮饲料)成易于处理、运输和储存的小包。常用的打包机有几个不同类型,分别生产不同类型的包矩形的、圆柱形的,大小各不相同,用麻绳、网或金属丝缠绕起来。工业打包机还可以用在材料回收设备上,主要用于包装需要运输的金属、塑料或纸。圆形打包机在工业化国家最常用的打包机是这种又大又圆的打包机。它生产圆柱状的圆或筒状的包。草在打包机内被捲起,使用橡胶带、固定滚筒,或两者的组合。当包达到规定尺寸时,用网或麻绳裹住它,以保持其固有的形状。打包机的后面打开,包被排出。包在这个阶段完成,但也可以用塑料薄膜包裹,当在室外储存时能保持干草的干燥或者将潮湿的草变成青贮饲料。可变仓打包机通常生产直径为48至72英寸(120180厘米)、宽达60英寸(150厘米)的包。无论在任何地区,这些包可以重达1100至2200磅(5001000公斤),包的重量取决于大小,材料,和水分含量。最初,圆形打包机的构思由UmmoLuebbens于大约1910年提出,第一台圆形打包机才生产出来,一直到1947年AllisChalmers引进了旋转打包机之后。由于它的干草包脱水干燥和重量轻的特点从而得以推向市场,到1960年生产结束时,AC已经销售了近70000台接下来的一个重大创新是在1972年,当时Vermeer公司开始出售其型号为605的第一台现代圆形打包机。以前,圆的干草包仅仅是干草缚在一起的肿块,但Vermeer设计使用皮带将干草紧密结合起来形成一个圆柱体,正如今天所看到的样子。大型矩形打包机另一种常用类型的打包机生产大型的矩形包,每个包缠绕半打左右的麻绳,然后再打结。这样的包非常紧凑,重量又普遍比圆形的包大几分。在加拿大的草原,它们被称为草原猛禽。小型矩形打包机这种打包机现今是不常见的,但在许多国家却是相当流行,如新西兰和澳大利亚,除了大型包的生产,还生产小型矩形通常被称为正方形的包。每个包大约是15英寸x18英寸x40英寸40x45x100厘米。这种包是用二股、三股、或有时四股麻绳捆绑。这种包非常的轻,一人就能举起,大小约45至60英寸1.1到1.5米。为了形成捆包,料堆中需要打包的原料经常干草或稻草被打包机捡拾器的齿举起。然后这些原料被拖进或钻进一个长达打包机一个边长的打捆室内。活塞和刀在打捆室的前端来回地移动。刀恰好在活塞的前面,它可以当场切断从捡拾器进入打捆室内的原料。活塞将这些原料向后推移,压缩成捆包。一个测量装置测量被压缩的原料的数量,并在适当的长度,触发捆绑麻绳并且将其打结的机械装置(打结器)来捆绑包装并将其打结。当下一个捆包加工成型时,这个打结完的捆包就从打捆室的后面排出到地上或推送到一个用钩固定在打包机后部的特殊的货车上。只要有原料需要打包,并且有麻绳来捆绑包装,这一过程就会一直连续进行。这种形状的捆包不太适用于大规模商业性农业,因为处理许多小捆的成本比较高。然而在一些小规模,低机械化的农业和养马业享有一些名气。除了使用简单的机械设备及容易处理外,这些小包也可用来绝缘和当作草捆建筑中的建筑材料。正方形捆包一般也会比圆捆包要好,因为他们可以更密集地堆放在一起。便利也是农民决定继续使用正方形包的一个主要因素,因为它们使得饲养和在狭窄的地方(马厩,仓库等)堆放容易得多。
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