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ORIGINALARTICLERheologicalandnutritionalqualityofselecteddehulledlegumesblendedriceextrudatesS.BalasubramanianAnjanBorahK.K.SinghR.T.PatilRevised3November2010/Accepted18December2010AssociationofFoodScientistsTechnologistsIndia2011AbstractRheologicalandnutritionalqualityofreadytoeatriceOryzasativalegumeviz.blackgramVignamungo,greengramVignaradiata,lentilLensculinarisandpeasPisumsativumbasedextrudateswerestudiedusinglowcostcolletextruder.Extrudateswerepreparedkeepingconstantfeedrate25kg/handmoisturecontent14wbat0,5,10and15legumeincorporationlevels.RheologicalpropertiesofporridgemadeofextrudateflourwereevaluatedusingRapidViscoAnalyserRVA.Maximumandminimumpeakviscosityforriceextrudatesaloneandriceextrudatesblendedwith15peaswere697cpand523cp,respectively.Therewasadecreasingtrendindegreeofgelatinizationwithincreaseinlegumeincorporationlevel.OtherRVArheologicalparametersliketroughbreakdownandfinalviscositywereintherangeof266226cp,431297cpand452375cprespectively.Maximumvaluesofprotein,fat,fibreandashcontentswerefoundinriceextrudatesat15legumesblendlevels.Therewasanincreasingtrendinnutrientcontentswithlegumecontentinriceextrudates.Degreeofgelatinizationforricealoneextrudatewas29.4andshowedadecreaseingelatinizationwithincreaseinlegumesextrudateandwasminimum22.4forriceblendedwith15dehulledgreengram.Sensoryevaluationscoresforallextrudatesshowedthemostacceptablerangeof6to8.Thus,legumeblendlevelupto15ofdehulledlegumesfetchedgoodscoresandshowedpromisingtrendfortheproductionoflowcostexpandedextrudatesanditsinstantflour.KeywordsRice.Dehulledlegumes.Extrudates.Sensoryquality.NutritionIntroductionExtrusioncookingisoneoftheusefulprocessesfortheproductionofexpandedsnacksandinstantflours.Duringextrusioncooking,rawmaterialsundergohighshear,thusallowingpartialstarchhydrolysisColonnaetal.1984.Theexistingextrusionsystemsinvolvehigherfinancialinvestment,productioncapacityandtechnicalknowledgeandarenotsuitablefordevelopingcountries.Singlecolletextruders/dryextrudersthatweredevelopedforcomplementaryfoodsproductionduringearly1980sbytheUniversityofColoradoHarper1995,HarperandJansen1985,Said2000aretoocostlybesideshighproductioncapacityaboutRs2.5millionand1t/h.Adoptionofextrusioncookingprocessingforinstantflourproductionindevelopingcountrieshasnotstillpickedup.Thus,applicationofsimplemachinehavingsmallproductioncapacityisthereforeofgreatpotentialinterest.Thepossibilitiesofalowcostcolletextruderabout25–35kg/hneedtobestudiedfortheproductionofsnackfoodsandinstantflours.RiceOryzasativa,isoneofthemostfrequentlyusedcerealsformakingglutenfreefoodproductsSivaramakrishnanetal.2004.Legumesareaprimesourceofplantproteins,caloriesandothernutrients.Extrusioncookingoflegumesincreasesthedigestibilityoflegumeprotein.Inproductdevelopment,peakandfinalviscositiesareimportantparameters,tohaveanunderstandingofproductbehaviourduringandS.BalasubramanianK.K.SinghR.T.PatilCentralInstituteofPostHarvestEngineeringandTechnology,PAUCampus,Ludhiana141004Punjab,Indiaemailbalaciphetyahoo.comA.BorahTezpurUniversity,Tezpur784028Assam,IndiaJFoodSciTechnolDOI10.1007/s131970100206yafterprocessing.RapidviscoanalysercanbeusedtoinvestigatethepastingeffectsoflipidsandaminoacidsonricestarchandflourLiangetal.2002,LiangandKing2003.ThecompactstructureresultingfromextrusionprocesscanleadtoadenseproteinnetworkreducingtheavailabilityofstarchgranulestoattackbyalphaamylaseFardetetal.1999.Moreover,thephysicalbarriercreatedbytheproteinnetworklimitstheaccessibilityofstarchtoamylaseanddelaysinvitrostarchhydrolysisHoebleretal.1999.VariousreportssuggestedthatpastingcharacteristicsWiesenbornetal.1994,Lai2001,rheologicalpropertiesofpasteandgelsWiesenbornetal.1994,Kimetal.1995andotherfunctionalpropertiesWottonandBamunuarachchi1978,Zobel1984ofstarchesvarywithspeciesandvariants.Gelatinizationpropertiesofstarchesdependonthetype,granularstructure,botanicaloriginandamylose/amylopectinratioSajilataetal.2006.Waxyandnormalricegelatinizebetween60and78°CThorburnetal.1987,Jenkinsetal.1994.Manyfactorsaffectpreferenceandacceptabilityoffoods.Somefactorsareintrinsictotheproduct,suchasappearance,tasteandflavourotherfactorsareextrinsic,suchassocialandFig.2ParametersofthetypicalrapidviscoanalyzerviscosityprofileforlegumesblendedriceextrudatesFig.1LowcostcolletextruderJFoodSciTechnolculturalfactorsDelizaetal.1996.Keepingabovepointsinview,thepresentworkwasundertakentostudyrheologicalandnutritionalqualityofselecteddehulledlegumesblendedriceextrudates.MaterialsandmethodsDifferentdehulledlegumesviz.blackgramVignamungo,greengramVignaradiata,lentilLensculinarisandpeasPisumsativumandpolishedricewerepurchasedfromlocalmarket.Aftercleaningandgrading,therawmaterialswerecoarsegroundinplatemilltomakegritsintheparticlesizerangeof1.65–2.36mm.Differentlegumegritswereblendedat0,5,10and15levelswithricegrits.Formakingextrudates,about2kgofblendedmaterialsconditionedto14wbmoisturewereused.LowcostcolletextruderItisasimplesinglescrewautogenousextruder,drivenbya7.5kWelectricmotor.Thebarrellengthis250mmwithalengthtodiameterratioof61andhasacentralcylindricaldieof4mmdiamand5mmlength.Therotatingspeedofthescrewishigh500rpmtoallowhighshear.Thescrewconfigurationhasconstantpitchandflightdepthtoallowaprogressiveincreaseinfrictionforcesandtemperatureinsidethebarrel.Thescrewdiamis42.5mmandtherootdiamis32.5mmFig.1.Themoisturecontentwaskeptat14.Theextruderbarrelwallhashelicalgroovestoenhancefrictionandcookingoftheproduct.Toensurearegularfeedingrate,theextruderisequippedwithamotorisedfeedingscrew,butitwaskeptconstant25kg/hforthisstudy.Afterextrusion,extrudatesweregroundparticlesize0.85mmandsubjectedforrheologicalandnutritionalanalysis.RheologicalpropertiesPastingpropertiesofextrudatepowdersweredeterminedusingaRapidViscoAnalyserRVAModel3DNewportScientificPvt.Ltd,AustraliawithThermoclinesoftware3.0versionbytheMethodNo.162ICC1995.Samplesuspensionwaspreparedbyplacingextrudatepowder3ginanaluminiumcanistercontaining30gdistilledwater.Aprogrammedheatingandcoolingcyclewasused.Eachsamplewasstirred960rpm,10swhileheatedat50°C,andthenconstantshearrate160rpmwasmaintainedfortherestoftheprocess.Temperaturewasheldat50°Cupto1min.Thenthesampleswereheated50–95°C,3min42sandheldatTable1ParametersofviscosityprofileTraitsabbreviationDescriptionreferenceofterminologyPVPeakviscosity6102,BaoandXia1999TTrough6102BDBreakdownBaoandXia1999,6102,decreaseinviscosityduringcookingat95°CFVFinalpasteviscosityattheendoffinalholdingperiodat50°C6102istheICC1995methods010020030040050060070080002004006008001000TimesecViscosity,cpvGreengram010020030040050060070080002004006008001000TimesecViscosity,cp010020030040050060070080002004006008001000TimesecViscosity,cp051015Pea010020030040050060070080002004006008001000TimesecViscosity,cpLentilFig.3TypicalrapidviscoanalyzerplotfordifferentdehulledblendedriceextrudatesJFoodSciTechnol95°Cfor2min30s.Subsequentlysampleswerecooleddown9550°C,3min48sandthenheldat50°Cfor2min.ARVAplotofviscositycPversustimeswasusedtodeterminepeakviscosityPV,troughT,breakdownviscosityBDandfinalviscosityFVFig.2,Table1.Eachanalysiswasdoneinduplicate.NutritionalanalysisProteincontentKjeldahlmethod,fatandashHartandFischer1971,andfibreSadasivamandManickam1992fordifferentlegumesblendedriceextrudatesweredetermined.DegreeofgelatinizationofextrudateswasdoneaccordingtoWoottonetal.1971.SensoryevaluationAsemitrainedpanelconsistingof11membersevaluatedtheextrudates.Thesensoryattributessuchascolor,flavour,surfacefinish,taste,crispinessandoverallacceptabilityofextrudateswereevaluatedusinga9pointHedonicscale1–4dislikeextremelytoslightly,5neitherlikenordislike,6–9liketoslightlyextremely.Sampleswereservedtopanelistsimmediatelyafterconditioningtheextrudates105°C,3min.StatisticalanalysisThedatareportedaremeanoftenobservationsandsubjectedtoMSEXCEL2000.ResultsanddiscussionEffectoflowcostcolletextruderonviscosityprofileofextrudatesAllviscosityparametersdetermineddecreasedwithincreasedlegumelevelsinblendascomparedtoriceextrudatesaloneFig.3.Butthedecreasewasnotmuchpronouncedingreengrambasedextrudate.Thebreakdownviscositywasmaximuminpeaswhereasitvariedintherangeof288–297cpandwaslowerinallthecases.Thefinalviscositydeclinedinallcasesbutthedecreasewasmuchhigheringreengramwhereitvariedfrom437to404cp.Similarobservationswererecordedforpeakviscosityalso.Whenextrudatespowdersuspensionswereheatedaboveacertaintemperature,waterpenetratedintothegranulesandweakenedthehydrogenbondsinstarchsegmentsandreflectedadegradativeRVAprofileascomparedtoitscorrespondingrawmaterialduetomechanicalinput.Theviscosityincreasedduringheatingatconstanttemperature95°C,continuedtodecreaseduringcoolingandtheprofilefinalizedwithaplateaufordifferentlegumesandincorporationlevels,butshowedaslightlyincreasingtrendattheendoftheprocess.Alltheviscositytemperatureprofilesofthestudiedsystemsshowedasimilarpattern.Themaximumviscositywas151719212325272931051015Legumesincorporationslevels,DegreeofgelatinizationBlackgramGreengramLentilPeasFig.4DegreeofgelatinizationofdifferentdehulledblendedriceextrudatesLegumesLegumes,Protein,Fat,Fibre,Ash,Blackgram08.60.860.190.5659.20.900.250.62109.80.960.270.781510.51.030.290.96Greengram08.60.860.190.5659.70.900.240.741010.10.960.260.881510.91.020.280.98Lentil08.60.860.190.5659.70.900.230.661010.10.960.250.761511.21.030.270.88Peas08.60.860.190.5659.00.900.320.66109.60.960.390.781510.21.030.500.86Table2NutritionalanalysisofdifferentdehulledlegumesblendedriceextrudatesJFoodSciTechnol
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