会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

外文翻译--数控机床更加开放可互操作和智能技术 英文版.pdf外文翻译--数控机床更加开放可互操作和智能技术 英文版.pdf -- 5 元

宽屏显示 收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

moreS.TAuc,University10CNCSTEPNCmachinetools.ThedatamodelrepresentsacommonstandardspecificallyaimedattheintelligentCNCmanufacturingworkstation,makingtheComputersinIndustry572006goalofastandardisedCNCcontrollerandNCcodegenerationfacilityareality.ItisbelievedthatCNCmachinesimplementingSTEPNCwillbethebasisforamoreopenandadaptablearchitecture.ThispaperoutlinesafuturisticviewofSTEPNCtosupportdistributedinteroperableintelligentmanufacturingthroughglobalnetworkingwithautonomousmanufacturingworkstationswithSTEPcompliantdatainterpretation,intelligentpartprogramgeneration,diagnosticsandmaintenance,monitoringandjobproductionscheduling.2005ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsCNCInteroperabilitySTEPSTEPNC1.IntroductionFromthestartofcraftproductioninthe1800stothepioneeringmassproductionoftheearly1900stherehavebeenanumberofrevolutionarychangestomanufacturingsystemsconfigurations.Themostrecognisedtraditionalconfigurationofmanufacturingsystemswasthededicatedtransfermachineline,whichenabledmassproductionathighefficiencyandlowcost.Withtheneedofthe1970sand1980stoproduceawiderrangeofparts,flexiblemanufacturingwasdevelopedtomeettheseneedsfortheproductionofsmallerbatchesofdifferentparts.ThesesystemsusedgroupsofcomputernumericallycontrolledCNCmachinesthatcouldbereprogrammedtomakedifferentpartscombinedwithautomatedtransportsystemsandstorage.TheseCNCmachinesbecamethecentralelementsinthesystemssuchasflexibletransferlines,flexiblemanufacturingsystemsFMSandflexiblemanufacturingcellsFMC.However,theamountofflexibilityexistinginthesesystemswasstillbelievedtobelimited.Inordertopreparemanufacturingcompaniestofaceincreasinglyfrequentandunpredictablemarketchangeswithconfidence,interoperableandmoreopenmanufacturingsystemsareneeded.Intheprocessofdesigningandoperatinginteroperableandopenmanufacturingsystemsthereisaneedtodistinguishfromamongsystemlevelissues,componentleveli.e.machineandcontrolissues,andrampuptimereductionissues1,2.Mostoftheresearchefforthasbeensparedontheissuesatthesystemlevel,someatthecomponentlevelandlittleontherampuptimereductionissues.Atthecomponentlevel,researchworkhasprimarilycentredaroundthecontrolissuesconcerningmachinetools,withtheaimtoprovideenablingCNCtechnologiesformodularandopenarchitecturecontrol3,4.CNCmachinetoolsarethemaincomponentsinanymanufacturingsystem.TherearedemandsandnewopportunitiestoempowerthecurrentCNCmachineswiththemuchneededfeaturessuchasinteroperability,adaptability,agilityandreconfigurability.Tothisend,therearetwomajorissuesthatneedtobeaddressednamelyproductdatacompatibility/Correspondingauthor.Tel.6493737599x84527fax6493737479.Emailaddressx.xuauckland.ac.nzX.W.Xu.01663615/–seefrontmatter2005ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.compind.2005.06.002MakingCNCmachinetoolsintelligentareviewX.W.Xua,,aDepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,SchoolPrivateBag92019,bDepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringReceived30August2004AvailableonlineAbstractTheaimofthenextgenerationofcomputernumericallycontrolledyears,GcodesISO6983havebeenextensivelyusedbytheCNCmachinedevelopingnextgenerationofCNCmachines.Anewstandardknownasopen,interoperableandofthetechnologies.NewmanbofEngineering,TheUniversityofAuckland,kland,NewZealandofBath,Bath,BA27AY,UKaccepted7June2005October2005machinesistobeportable,interoperableandadaptable.OverthetoolsforpartprogrammingandarenowconsideredasabottleneckforisbeingdevelopedasthedatamodelforanewbreedofCNCwww.elsevier.com/locate/compind141–152rsinteroperabilityandadaptableCNCmachines.Uptillnowlittleresearchhasbeencarriedoutinthisfield,butduetothedevelopmentsofthenewCNCdatamodelknownasSTEPNC,therehasbeenasurgeofresearchactivitiesintryingtoaddresstheabovementionedissues.ThispaperreportsontheseresearchactivitiesandtriestoaddresstheissuesofinteroperabilityandadaptabilityforCNCmachinetools.2.ImpedimentsofcurrentCNCtechnologiesTodaysCNCmachinedesignsarewelldevelopedwithcapabilitiessuchasmultiaxiscontrol,errorcompensationandmultiprocessmanufacturee.g.combinedmill/turn/laserandgrindingmachines.Inthemeantime,thesecapabilitieshavemadetheprogrammingtaskincreasinglymoredifficultandmachinetoolsthemselveslessadaptable.Someefforthasbeenmadetoalleviatethisproblem,inparticularlythetrendtowardsopenarchitecturecontrol,basedonOSACA5andopenmodulararchitecturecontrollerOMAC6,wherethirdpartysoftwarecanbeusedatthecontrollerworkingwithinastandardwindowsoperatingsystem.Onefurtherrecognisableindustrialdevelopmentistheapplicationofsoftwarecontrollers,wherePLClogiciscapturedinsoftwareratherthaninhardware.AlthoughthesedevelopmentshaveimprovedsoftwaretoolsandthearchitectureofCNCsystems,vendorsandusersarestillseekingacommonlanguageforCAD,CAPP,CAM,andCNC,whichintegratesandtranslatestheknowledgeofeachstagewithnoinformationloss.ThoughtherearemanyCAMtoolssupportingNCmanufacture,theproblemofadaptabilityandinteroperabilityfromsystemtosystemwasandisstillseenasoneofthekeyissuesinlimitingthewideruseofthesetools.2.1.ProductdatacompatibilityandinteroperabilityCNCmachinetoolscompletetheproductdesignandmanufacturinglifecycle,andmoreoftenthannottheyhavetocommunicatewithupstreamsubsystems,suchasCAD,CAPPandCAM.Inthecasewhenneutraldataexchangeprotocols,suchasSET,VDA,andinitialgraphicsexchangespecificationIGESareused,informationexchangecanhappenbetweenheterogeneousCADand/orCAMsystems.ThisishoweveronlypartiallysuccessfulsincetheseprotocolsaremainlydesignedtoexchangegeometricalinformationandnottotallysuitabletoalltheneedsoftheCAD/CAPP/CAMindustry.Thus,theinternationalcommunitydevelopedtheISO103037setofstandards,wellknownasSTEP.ByimplementingSTEPAP2038andSTEPAP2149withinCADsystems,thedataexchangebarrierisremoved.Yet,dataexchangeproblemsbetweenCAD/CAMandCNCsystemsremainunsolved.CADsystemsaredesignedtodescribethegeometryofapartprecisely,whereasCAMsystemsfocusonusingcomputersystemstogenerateplansandcontrolthemanufacturingoperationsaccordingtothegeometricalinformationpresentinaCADmodelandtheexistingresourcesontheshopfloor.ThefinalresultfromaCAMsystemisasetofCNCprogramsthatcanbeexecutedonaCNCmachine.STEPX.W.Xu,S.T.Newman/Compute142AP203andSTEPAP214onlyunifytheinputdataforaCAMsystem.OntheoutputsideofaCAMsystem,a50yearoldinternationalstandardISO6983knownasGCodeorRS274D10stilldominatesthecontrolsystemsofmostCNCmachines.Outdatedyetstillwidelyused,ISO6983onlysupportsonewayinformationflowfromdesigntomanufacturing.TheCADdataarenotutilisedatamachinetool.Instead,theyareprocessedbyapostprocessoronlytoobtainasetoflowlevel,incompletedatathatmakesmodification,verificationsandsimulationdifficult.Thechangesmadeattheshopfloorcannotbedirectlyfedbacktothedesigner.Hence,invaluableexperiencesontheshopfloorcannotbepreservedandreutilised.2.2.InflexibleCNCcontrolregimeTheISO6983standardfocusesonprogrammingthepathofthecuttercentrelocationCLwithrespecttothemachineaxes,ratherthanthemachiningtaskswithrespecttothepart.Thus,ISO6983definesthesyntaxofprogramstatements,butinmostcasesleavesthesemanticsambiguous,togetherwithlowlevellimitedcontroloverprogramexecution.Theseprograms,whenprocessedinaCAMsystembyamachinespecificpostprocessor,becomemachinedependent.InordertoenhancethecapabilityofaCNCmachine,CNCcontrollervendorshavealsodevelopedtheirowntailoredcontrolcommandsetstoaddmorefeaturestotheirCNCcontrollerstoextendISO6983.Thesecommandsetsonceagainvaryfromvendortovendorresultinginfurtherincompatibledataamongthemachinetools.ThecurrentinflexibleCNCcontrolregimemeansthattheoutputfromaCAMsystemhasnoadaptability,whichinturndeniestheCNCmachinetoolsofhavinganyinteroperability.ThemainreasonisthataGcodebasedpartprogramonlycontainslowlevelinformationthatcanbedescribedashowtodoinformation.TheCNCmachinetools,nomatterhowcapabletheyare,candonothingbutfaithfullyfollowtheGcodeprogram.Itisimpossibletoperformintelligentcontrolnormachiningoptimization.3.TheSTEPNCstandardTodayanewstandardnamelyISO1464911–16recognisedinformallyasSTEPNCisbeingdevelopedbyvendors,usersandacademicinstitutesworldwidetoprovideadatamodelforanewbreedofintelligentCNCs.ThedatamodelrepresentsacommonstandardspecificallyaimedatNCprogramming,makingthegoalofastandardisedCNCcontrollerandNCcodegenerationfacilityareality.CurrentlytwoversionsofSTEPNCarebeingdevelopedbyISO.ThefirstistheApplicationReferenceModelARMi.e.ISO14649andtheotherApplicationInterpretedModelAIMofISO14649i.e.ISO10303AP23817.Formoreinformationontheuseanddifferencesbetweenthemreadersarereferredto18,19.ContrarytothecurrentNCprogrammingstandardISO6983,ISO14649isnotamethodforpartprogramminganddoesnotnormallydescribethetoolmovementsforaCNCinIndustry572006141–152machine.Instead,itprovidesanobjectorienteddatamodelforCNCswithadetailedandstructureddatainterfacethatincorporatesfeaturebasedprogrammingwherearangeofinformationisrepresentedsuchasthefeaturestobemachined,tooltypesused,theoperationstoperform,andthesequenceofoperationstofollow.ThoughitispossibletocloselydefinethemachinetooltrajectoryusingSTEPNC,theaimofthestandardistoallowthesedecisionstobemadeatalatterstagebyanewbreedofintelligentcontrollerSTEPNCcontroller.ItistheaimthatSTEPNCpartprogramsmaybewrittenonceandusedonmanydifferenttypesofmachinetoolcontrollerprovidingthemachinehastherequiredprocesscapabilities.Indoingthis,bothCNCmachinetoolsandtheircontrolprogramsaremadeadaptableandinteroperable.Fig.1illustratesthatbothgeometricandmachininginformationcannowbebidirectionallytransferredbetweenaCAD/CAMsystemandaSTEPNCcontroller20.OnecriticalissueisthatthetoolpathmovementinformationisoptionalandideallyshouldbegeneratedatthemachinebytheSTEPNCcontroller.GeometricinformationisdefinedbymachiningfeaturessimilartoAP22422withmachiningoperationstermedWorkingstepsperformedononeormorefeatures.TheseC15STEPNCprovidesacompleteandstructureddatamodel,linkedwithgeometricalandtechnologicalinformation,sothatnoinformationislostbetweenthedifferentstagesoftheproductdevelopmentprocess.C15ItsdataelementsareadequateenoughtodescribetaskorientedNCdata.C15ThedatamodelisextendabletofurthertechnologiesandscalablewithconformanceclassestomatchtheabilitiesofaspecificCAM,SFPorNC.C15MachiningtimeforsmalltomediumsizedjoblotscanbereducedbecauseintelligentoptimisationcanbebuiltintotheSTEPNCcontrollers.C15Postprocessormechanismwillbeeliminated,astheinterfacedoesnotrequiremachinespecificinformation.C15MachinetoolsaresaferandmoreadaptablebecauseSTEPNCisindependentfrommachinetoolvendors.C15ModificationattheshopfloorcanbesavedandfedbacktothedesigndepartmenthencebidirectionalinformationflowfromCAD/CAMtoCNCmachinescanbeachieved.C15XMLfilescanbeusedasaninformationcarrierhenceenableWebbaseddistributedmanufacturing.X.W.Xu,S.T.Newman/ComputersinIndustry572006141–152143WorkingstepsprovidethebasisofaWorkplantomanufacturethecomponent.Fig.2illustratesanactualextractofsuchdataforapartwithaWorkplanconsistingofWorkingstepsforslotting,drillingandpocketing.OneimportantpointtonoteisthatthiscodeistheSTEPNCtransferphysicalfile,whichisimported/exportedintoandoutofaSTEPNCintelligentcontroller.Thisfilewouldbeinterpretedbythecontroller,enablingCNCoperatorstointeractataWorkingstepi.e.machiningoperationlevelviaanintelligentmanualdatainterfaceMDIorCAD/CAMsystematthecontroller.SomeofthebenefitswithusingSTEPNCareasfollows23.Fig.1.BidirectionalinformationAdetaileddiscussiononvaluepropositionforSTEPNCcanbefoundinareportproducedbytheOMACSTEPNCWorkingGroup24andotherpublications20,23,25.4.STEPNCinternationalcommunityInthesecondhalfofthe1990s,aneffortfromtheinternationalcommunitybackedbyISOstartedthemajorchangeintheconceptofNCprogramming,throughaninternationalintelligentmanufacturingsystemsIMSprogramme26.TheprogrammewascoordinatedacrossfourflowwithSTEPNC21.rsX.W.Xu,S.T.Newman/Compute144worldwideregionseachwithindividualprojectsnamelyEurope,Korea,SwitzerlandandtheUSA.ThemajorcoordinatorsoftheprogrammeareSiemensEU,CADCAMationSwitzerland,STEPToolsUSAandERCACIKorea.STEPNCEuropeisresponsibleformilling,turningandinspectionoftheISO14649standard.Ithas15partners,ledbySiemens,withuserssuchasDaimlerChrysler,Volvo,andthesupportofresearchinstitutessuchasWZLRWTHAachenandISWStuttgartUniversity.TheSwissareleadingthedevelopmentofthestandardforwirecutanddiesinkEDMincollaborationwithvendorssuchasAgie,StarragandCAMmanufacturerCADCAMation.TheworkinKoreahasbeencarriedoutbybothPohangUniversityofScienceTechnologyPosTECHandtheSeoulNationalUniversityintheareasofmillingandturningarchitecturesforISO14649compliantcontrollers.OtherresearchteamsworkingintheareaincludethoseintheUKandNewZealand.IntheUnitedKingdom,anAgentBased,STEPcompliantCAMABCAMsystemhasbeendevelopedinWolfsonSchoolofMechanicalandManufacturingEngineering,LoughboroughUniversityFig.2.ExampleSTEPNCinIndustry572006141–15227,28.InNewZealand,theManufacturingSystemsLaboratoryattheUniversityofAucklandhasbeenusingtheAIMofSTEPNC17todevelopaSTEPcompliantCAPPsystemforcollaborativemanufacturing29,30.TheSTEPNCprogrammeintheUSAcalledSuperModelledbySTEPToolsInc.andsponsoredbyNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnologyNISThasmademajoradvancestofullyautomatetheCADtoCNCmanufacturingprocessthroughtheuseofSTEPorratherAP238.ThisprojectinvolvedastronggroupofindustrialpartnersincludingBoeing,LockheadMartin,GeneralElectricandGeneralMotors,togetherwithrecognisedCAMvendorssuchasGibbsAssociatesandMasterCAM.5.STEPNCformoreopenandinteroperablemachinetoolsTherearefourtypesofresearchworkrelatedtoSTEPNC1conventionalCNCcontrolusingSTEPNC2newSTEPNCenabledcontrol3STEPNCenabledintelligentcontrolphysicalfile20.
编号:201311171625307266    大小:713.80KB    格式:PDF    上传时间:2013-11-17
  【编辑】
5
关 键 词:
教育专区 外文翻译 精品文档 外文翻译
温馨提示:
1: 本站所有资源如无特殊说明,都需要本地电脑安装OFFICE2007和PDF阅读器。图纸软件为CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.压缩文件请下载最新的WinRAR软件解压。
2: 本站的文档不包含任何第三方提供的附件图纸等,如果需要附件,请联系上传者。文件的所有权益归上传用户所有。
3.本站RAR压缩包中若带图纸,网页内容里面会有图纸预览,若没有图纸预览就没有图纸。
4. 未经权益所有人同意不得将文件中的内容挪作商业或盈利用途。
5. 人人文库网仅提供交流平台,并不能对任何下载内容负责。
6. 下载文件中如有侵权或不适当内容,请与我们联系,我们立即纠正。
7. 本站不保证下载资源的准确性、安全性和完整性, 同时也不承担用户因使用这些下载资源对自己和他人造成任何形式的伤害或损失。
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:21次
英文资料库上传于2013-11-17

官方联系方式

客服手机:13961746681   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

相关资源

相关资源

相关搜索

教育专区   外文翻译   精品文档   外文翻译  
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5