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英文原文NewenergysavingmechanicalmixerandOverviewofadaptablediedesignforextrusionAbstractIntheworktherearedescribedtheresultsfromthelaboratoryresearchesofthebasiccharacteristicsperformanceofonenewtypeofenergysavingmechanicalmixer,conditionallynamedEleron.Thesecharacteristicsperformancearecomparedwithrespectiveresultsoftheotherknownintheliteratureandsuccessfullyusedinpracticemixers.Themixerisdesignedformixingandaeratingliquidsystemsanditwillbeeffectiveformixinginthefermentreactorsforbiochemicalindustries,wheretheprocessesareenergyabsorbing.KeywordsMixerAirsaturationPowernumberHeatandmasstransferduringmixingAerationnumber1.IntroductionInimplementingalongterm,energysavingprogramforindustry1,thedepartmentofHeatandMassTransferTechnicsinTUSofia,undertheguidanceoftheauthor,hasconditionallycreatedforpatentanoriginalconstructionofenergysavingmixer.Ithasauniversalfunctionformixingliquidsystemsinchemical,food,wine,tobacco,andbiochemicalindustries.Weexpectourmixertotakeitsplacewithdignityinfermentationtechnics,becauseofitseasymanufacture,goodresultsinairsaturationandlowenergyconsumption.TillnowitwastheinvestigatedlaboratoryversionofEleron1mixer,whichisasmalltype,withD0.25/0.35T.UniversalappearanceofmixerisshowninFig.1.Itconsistsofacentralrounddisk1,whichiscarryingpap2andfourwings3.Thewingsarecutthroughinthemiddlea–aandinthebeginning,neartherounddiskc–c,andthereceivingpiecesarebendarchshapedupanddownward,makingfourbladeswithradiusR0.05/0.07D.TheirlengthisL0.8pR,asconsideredfromlineofbend.Thebladesoneachfollowingwingareindifferentorderinbenddirection,andbecauseofthisinworkingconditionstherearecircumstancesforvortexes.ThisisveryimportantwhenthereismorethanonemixeronashaftFigs.1and2.Whenmounting,weobservetheaxialflows,createdbycurvedblades,tomeeteachotherifweaimairsaturationortopasseachother,whenweaimmixingwithoutaeration.Inthiswaywecreatemultitudeofsymmetricalcurrentlinesvortexes,whichspreadsymmetricallyvessel.2.ExperimentalForresearchingcharacteristicsperformancesofmixerEleron1thereareusedtwoidenticallaboratoryreactorswithplanebottomandreleasers,respectivelywithvolumes6.5and24dm3.Reactorsdiametersare,respectively190and300mm,andmixersaremakeupwithD_0.35T.Aspatternsubstancesthereareusedwateranddiethyleneglycol,whichunder20°ChavedynamicalviscosityandPas.ReactorsconfigurationisonFig.2andtheexperimenttalinstallation,whichisused,isonFig.3.Withthisinstallationsconfigurationweareresearchingthepowerconsumption,workingwithandwithoutaeration,heattransferduringmixingwithEleron1,thatiswhyreactorshaveheattransferbogieswormpipesserpentineswithrespectivetubediameterd1andwindupdiameterdS,whichareonFig.2.FormeasuringDO2dissolvedoxygeninliquidphaseduringaeration,installationalsohasabottlewithnitrogen,aircompressor,sensorforDO2andawritinginstrument,whichregisteronthetapetheoxygenabsorptionFig.3.Fig.1.SchemeofmechanicalmixerEleron1inappearancefromabove.2.1.PowercoefficientdeterminationForthismixerscharacteristicareusedtworeactorsandtwopatternsubstances,andtherotationfrequencyofmixersshaftischangingfrom100to1200min_1.Rotationfrequencyischosenandfixedandafterthatiscontrolledwithelectroniccyclometer.EunumberisdeterminedunderequationanditisreadnetpowerconsumptionP,forrespectiverotationfrequency.ThedependencyisinFig.4andiscomparedwiththedependencyofRushtonturbine.2.2.AerationnumberdeterminationThisexponentisdefinedunderknownmethods,whichisadoptedformixingtechnics.Inourreactorwithvolume6.5dm3,withthehelpofairdistributedmechanism,theairisentrancedwithflowofqG_0.1to1.5V.TheresearchingresultsareonFig.5andarecomparedandheattransfersurfaceserpentine.Fig.2.ConfigurationoflaboratoryreactorswithmechanicalmixerFig.3.Schemeofexperimentalinstallations1,thermostat2,reactor3,pressurevessel4,heattransfersurfaceserpentine2.3.MasstransfercoefficientdeterminationduringmixingwithEleron1Thereareusedtworeactorswithdifferentvolumes,whichhaveairdistributedmechanismsandsensorformeasuringandregisteringofCO2inwater.Weworkunder20°C,andtheliquidphase,beforeeachattempt,isscavengedwithnitrogenuntilinitialoxygenconcentrationC0,whichischangingprogressivelyandiswritingonthetapetillestablishinganequilibriumsaturationconcentration.3TraditionalMixer3.1Differentwaystoclassifythemixers.3.1.1Accordingtothenumberofmixingspindles.Therearesinglespindlemixersanddoublespindleoreventriplespindlemixers.3.1.2Accordingtotheirmixingspeed.Thereareslowspeedmixerslessthan30rev/min,highspeedmixersabove35rev/min,andvariablespeedmixers.3.1.3Accordingtotheiroperationmode.Theycanbeclassifiedintobatchmixersandcontinuousmixers.3.1.4Accordingtotheaxispositionofthemixingspindlefromwhichthemixingarmsreceivetorqueandmotion.Theycanbeclassifiedintoverticalmixersandhorizontalmixers.Inthischapter,hemachineswillbediscussedintermsofthisclassification.Investigationsshowthathorizontalmixersarestillthedominantmixingequipmentintodaysmodernbakeryandsnackindustry,fortheyareofsimpleconstruction,simpleinoperation,andcheapertorun.TheyalsohavevariedcapacitiesandcanbeusedforawidevarietyofmixturesfromathinbatterforcookiedepositingtoextremelytoughdoughforChinesesnackcasing.3.2HORIZONTALMIXERSHorizontalmixersarecharacterizedbyhavingahorizontallylocatedmixingspindleonwhichthemixingarmsarefixedintothemixingbowl.Fig.2.1isatypicalfrontviewofthiskindofmixer.3.2.1ConstructionAtypicalhorizontalmixerconsistsofamixingbowl,oneortwomixingspindlesbywhichthemixingarmsisoraredriventhroughtransmissionmechanisms,andamainframemadeofeithercastironorunitaryconstructionofheavysteelplate,Oneortwomotorsaremountedbelowformixingandbowltiltingfunctionstogetherwithafaciacontrolandanelectricinterlocksystemtopreventaccesswhenthemachineisrunning.Therearetwotypesofweighingsystemsoneisseparatefromthemixertheothercalculatestheweightchangeofthecompletemixerbeforeandaftertheadditionofaningredient,themixerbeinglocatedonasuitableweighingscaleorplatform.Inthiscasethemixerisoftenreferredtoasaweighmixer.3.2.2MixingbowlThebowlofthehorizontalmixersisoftroughlikedesignwithacurvedbottomUshapedincrosssectionandflatends.Thebowlsurfacesincontactwiththedougharecommonlyofstainlesssteelorstainlesscladsteel.Thisistheusualconstructionforthebowlends,wherethebearingsarefixedtosupportthemixingspindles.Thebowlsoflargemodernmixersaregenerallydoubleskinnedintheformofajacketthroughwhichchilledwaterorrefrigerantcanbecirculatedtopreventthedoughwarminguptotoohighatemperatureasaresultofmixingfriction.Toavoidflourandotheringredientssplashing,especiallyatthebeginningofmixing,andforsafetyaswellasfoodhygiene,thebowlisalwaysequippedwithalidwhichiseitherremovable
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