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ChiplessTags,theNextRFIDFrontierS.Tedjini,E.Perret,V.Deepu,andM.Bernier1IntroductionEveniftheconceptofRadioFrequencyIDentificationRFIDwasintroducedmanydecadesago1,itisstillveryattractiveandfertileintermofRDandnewapplications2.Today,RFIDisseenasaveryenablingtechnologyanditisunderconsiderationforthousandsofapplicationscoveringalargevarietyofdomainsamongthemIDpapers,security,accesscontrol,roadtoll,ticketing,pharmacy,logistic,manufacturing,gambling,etc.3Duetotheirrelativelowcostandlargedistanceofcommunication,passivei.e.,batterylessUHFtagsareverypromising.Thecrucialissuesofcost,efficiency,reliability,security,andstandardsareunderconsiderationbyseveralgroupsworldwide3.Researchonpassivetags,particularlyUHFtags,isstillveryactiveinordertoensureinteroperability,lowcostrequirement,anddatasecurity.Theinteroperabilityisneededsincetherearethreefrequencybandsworldwide.Roughly,theoperatingfrequencybands865–869MHzforEurope,902–928MHz,forAmericasandUSA,952–954MHzinJapan,China,andmostofAsia4.TheinteroperabilityrequiresthedevelopmentofefficientminiaturizedantennaabletocoverthethreeRFIDUHFBands.PrivacyishighlydependantonthesecurityofthedatacontainedintheRFIDChip.Today,differentmicroelectronictechnologiesareavailableformanufacturingRFIDchipsCMOS,ASIC,andEEPROMarethebestknownexamples4,5.AstheIFF6IdentificationofFriendorFoewasthefirstapplicationofRFID,duringWorldWarII,theAlliesusedthecryptographyonIFFtransponders.IntodaysRFID,chipontagcryptographyisgenerallydesirableandcanbeimplementedinmanyapplications.However,ontagcryptographyisstillprohibitivewhenitviolatesapplicationrequirements,suchaspowerorcostconstraints7.Thethirdissueconcernsthecostofthetag.InadditiontothecostoftheRFIDICandtheantenna,thecostofthetagwilldependontheconnectionmanufacturingprocessbetweentheantennaandtheICRFIDChip.EvenifmuchprogresshasbeenmadeinantennaS.Tedjinienc12,E.Perret,V.Deepu,andM.BernierGrenobleinp/LCIS,ESISAR,F26902Valence,Franceemailsmail.tedjinilcis.grenobleinp.frD.Giustoetal.eds.,TheInternetofThings20thTyrrhenianWorkshoponDigitalCommunications,DOI10.1007/978144191674723,cCRSpringerScienceBusinessMedia,LLC2010239240S.Tedjinietal.costreductionusinglowcostsubstrateandinkprinting8ofatleastapartoftheantenna,theinterconnectionbetweenantennaandRFIDICportsstilldemandsbetterreliability9,10.OnealternativeforbetterdatasecurityandlowcostobjectiveistoconsiderChiplesssolutions.RecentlymanydesignsofchiplessRFIDsinthemicrowaveregionhavebeenreportedinliterature.MicrowavetagsorRFtagshaveobviousadvantagesoflongerrangecomparedtoopticalbarcodesandareeasytobefabricatedbyconventionallithographictechniques.Thisisaveryinterestingapproachunderdevelopmentinmanylabs.Inthiscommunication,wediscussdifferentapproachesandadvancesforUHFtagdesign.Section2willdiscussthetraditionaltagsbasedonRFIDchip.Section3isdedicatedtochipless.BothRFandTHzchiplesspossibilitiesarepresentedanddiscussed.Somesimulationresultsofnewlyproposedstructuresarereported.2TraditionalRFIDTagNowadays,UHFRadioFrequencyIdentificationRFIDtechnologyisgeneratingmuchinterestinindustrialandacademicinstitutionsowingtoitsimmensepotentialintracking.ThisiswhythedesignofUHFRFIDtagswithhighperformancesandlowcostisaveryactivefieldofresearch.UHFtagswithrelativelylowcosthavebeeninplaceforthelast10years.However,thedeploymentinhighvolumeofthistechnologyisstillheldbackbytherelativelyhighcostofthesetags.Thisisapartofthesituation,butitisnottheonlyreason.Indeed,ifweconsiderthecaseofHFRFID,onecannoticethatsuchtagsarerelativelyclosetotheUHFtagsregardingmanufacturingprocess,technologyandinsitumaterials.Thesetagsarealsocomposedofasiliconchipandmetalstripsforcommunicatingwiththereader,andthusthecostsofbothofthesetagsUHandUHFarecomparable.Butthefieldofapplicationisquitedifferent.TheHFtagsareusedforshortrangeapplications.However,ifweconsiderthemassmarket,inspiteofthisrealhandicapformaintenanceorhandlingreason,itisgenerallybettertobeabletoreadalltagsinvolvedinaspecificarearemotely,HFtagsarestillthemostinvolvedinthissector.Thereasonforthisisnoteconomicaltagspricesarecomparablebuttechnical.Indeed,inrealsituation,theHFtagsaremorerobustthantheUHFtags.Thishasanextremelyimportantimpactforthefinaluserwithoutpreliminarytest,auniqueHFtagcanbeusedwithaverygreatnumberofobjects.Forexample,inpractice,theRFIDsystemoperationwillnotbedisturbediftheobject,onwhichthetagisplaced,containsmetalsornot.InthecaseofUHF,theenvironmenttheobjectonwhichthetagisplaced,aswellasthecloseenvironmentinwhichthetagsareusedaffectstheircharacteristicsconsiderably.Inparticular,whenthetagisplacedinanenvironmentdifferentfromwhichitwasspecificallydesignedfor,theperformancesofthesystemcanberapidlydamaged,andthusthepotentialforthistechnologyislimited.However,ChiplessTags,theNextRFIDFrontier241weremindthatthisapplicationwouldbeviablefordetectioninabout99cases.Generalobservationscouldleadonetonoticethattrackingobjectshaveneitherthesameelectromagneticproperties,northesamegeometricalsize.Moreover,consideringthetrendofnewapplications,itisexpectedthatthetagswillbeintegrateddirectlyintheobjectitself.Indeed,itisinterestingtofollowtheobjectthroughoutitsdifferentmanufacturesteps,butalsothroughoutthesupplychain.Therefore,itisimportanttodevelopnewRFIDtagdesigntoolstopromotethedeploymentinmassvolumeoftheUHFRFIDtechnology.Thetool,onwhichweareworking11,isabletoautomaticallydesignthetagaccordingtouserspecifications.TheinputsbytheuserarethegeometricalsizeofthefinaltagandthepropertiesoftheUHFRFIDchipfrontend.Dependingontheuserrequirements,onwherethetagwillbeusedpermittivity,metal,etc.,theapplicationreturnsthetopologyofthetag,whichcanbeuseddirectlyforthemanufacturing.Antennasdesignsolutionsrestonpurelyempiricaldesignapproaches,basedonfoldeddipoleantennasandcurrentloopformatchingandnearfieldconsiderations.Wedevelopanewdesignapproachwheretheuserrequirementstakepartinthedesignoftheantenna.Theantennatopologyisnotdefinedaprioriasintheclassicalmethods.Originaltopologiesofantennasaregeneratedautomaticallyandselectedaccordingtotheconstraints.SomeexamplesaregiveninFig.1.Thisapproachdoesnotsimplyconsistinoptimizingatopologyalreadyselected,butindesigningtheantennafrombeginningtoend.Ourapproachcombinesgeneralpurposesoftwareforexample,MATLABRCRwithsoftwarededicatedtoEMsimulationsforexample,ANSOFTDESIGNERRCR.Themainmotivationfortheintegrationofthesetwotypesofsoftwareistobenefitfromdataprocessing,theverybroadpaneloffunctionsforexamplefunctionsofoptimization,alongwithpowerfulandverygeneralpurposeelectromagneticsimulators.AllthecommandsarecontrolledfromMATLABRCRwhatmakesthisapproachveryflexible.So,thedesignercanavoidmanualrepetitivetasksaswellasthetediousparameterizations.WeuseanoptimizationprocessbasedontheconceptofGeneticAlgorithmsGAtosatisfytheconstraintssetduringthedesignprocess.Theoptimizationconsistsofaniterativeprocess,whichfirstgeneratestheantennashape,thensimulatesitandfinelyevaluatesitsperformanceaccordingtotheimposedconstraints.Thus,theantennashapechangesduringiterationonanevolutionaryprinciple.Thisisrepeateduntilanantennadesign,whichsatisfiestheprojectspecificationasgoodFig.1Examplesofautomaticantennadesigns1symmetric2asymmetric3sectorizationmethodmeanderedzoneindashline242S.Tedjinietal.aspossibleisobtained.Thisveryflexibleapproachmakesitpossibletotakeintoaccountthedifferentissuesthroughoutthedesignprocess,andspecially,thephysicalenvironmentofthetag11.3ChiplessSolutionsChiplessRFIDisanemergingareaofRFIDtechnologyforultralowcostRFIDapplications.However,itiscurrentlyconfinedtotheunlicensedradiofrequencybands.Inthissection,wepresentdifferentapproachesforchiplesssolutions,includingsomealternativetoconsiderhigherfrequencies,namelytheTHzdomain.3.1ChiplessMethodsThemostpopulartagsonthemarketthemostsoldtooarethepassivetags.Thisfamilyoftagshasachievedtremendousgrowth,althoughunitcostsstillremainhigh,hinderingtheirdevelopment1.ThisiswhytagswithoutchipchiplesshaveappearedandmakingitpossibletoreducethecostinalargewaytomakethemcompatiblewiththeAutoIDCenterrecommendations.Inadditiontothepriceofthechip,thisapproachallowstodrivedownchipassemblycost.Theseelementsmakeuptomorethanhalfofthepriceofthetraditionaltag12.Chiplesstags,alsonamedRFbarcode,areusuallymanufacturedwithlowcostmaterials,generallyelectromagneticreflectiveorabsorptivematerials.Chiplesstags,comparedtopassivetags,generallyhavethefollowingcharacteristicsSIlowcost,lessthan5centsinvolume,SIcontactless,shortrangeslessthan1m,SIbetterreliabilitythermalandmechanicalbehavioursHowever,theseadvantagesshouldbebalancedwiththelimitedstoragecapacityafewtensofbitsandthenonrewriteablecharacteristicReadOnlyTagsofthesedevices.Anotherdrawbackisthecostofthereader,whichcouldbehighercomparedtochipbasedreaders.Chiplesstagsarecomposedofdifferentfamilies,basedonvariousapproaches.Themostpromisingarebasedon1.Theacoustoopticspropertiesofmaterials,morepreciselyonsurfaceacousticwaveSAW13.ThisapproachalreadycommercializedisbyfarthemostmaturechiplessRFIDtechnology.2.Printedorganictransistors.ThisprospectiveapproachismainlybasedonthesameprincipleofpassiveRFID14,3.TheelectromagneticpropertiesofRFinpassivemicrowaveintegratedcircuits15–21.Thisapproachisverypromisingbutstillinthedevelopingstage.ThequestionishowisitpossibletoencodeinformationusingultralowcostpassiveRFdevicesTheprincipleoftheinformationencoding,whichconsistsinencoding
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