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MechanicalDesignThenewblenderTheDesignProcessDesigningstartswithaneedreal.Existingapparatusmayneedimprovementsindurability,efficiency,weight,speed,orcost.Newapparatusmaybeneededtoperformafunctionpreviouslydonebymen,suchascomputation,assembly,orservicing.WiththeobjectivewhollyorpartlyInthedesignpreliminarystage,shouldallowtodesignthepersonnelfullytodisplaythecreativity,noteachkindofrestraint.Evenifhashadmanyimpracticalideas,alsocaninthedesignearlytime,namelyinfrontoftheplanblueprintiscorrected.Onlythen,onlythendoesnotsendtostopsuptheinnovationthementality.Usually,mustproposeseveralsetsofdesignproposals,thenperformthecomparison.Hasthepossibilityverymuchintheplanwhichfinallydesignated,hasusedcertainnotinplansomeideaswhichaccepts.Whenthegeneralshapeandafewdimensionsoftheseveralcomponentsbecomeapparent,analysiscanbegininearnest.Theanalysiswillhaveasitsobjectivesatisfactoryorsuperiorperformance,plussafetyanddurabilitywithminimumweight,andacompetitivecost.Optimumproportionsanddimensionswillbesoughtforeachcriticallyloadedsection,togetherwithabalancebetweenthestrengthsoftheseveralcomponents.Materialsandtheirtreatmentwillbechosen.Theseimportantobjectivescanbeattainedonlybyanalysisbasedupontheprinciplesofmechanics,suchasthoseofstaticforreactionforcesandfortheoptimumutilizationoffrictionofdynamicsforinertia,acceleration,andenergyofelasticityandstrengthofmaterialsforstressanddeflectionofphysicalbehaviorofmaterialsandoffluidmechanicsforlubricationandhydrodynamicdrives.Theanalysesmaybemadebythesameengineerwhoconceivedthearrangementofmechanisms,or,inalargecompany,theymaybemadebyaseparateanalysisdivisionorresearchgroup.Designisareiterativeandcooperativeprocess,whetherdoneformallyorinformally,andtheanalystcancontributetophasesotherthanhisown.Productdesignrequiresmuchresearchanddevelopment.ManyConceptsofanideamustbestudied,tried,andtheneitherusedordiscarded.Althoughthecontentofeachengineeringproblemisunique,thedesignersfollowthesimilarprocesstosolvetheproblems.Productliabilitysuitsdesignersandforcedinmaterialselection,usingthebestprogram.Intheprocessofmaterial,themostcommonproblemsforfiveadontunderstandornotuseaboutthelatestapplicationmaterialstothebestinformation,bfailedtoforeseeandconsiderthereasonableusematerialmaysuchaspossible,designersshouldfurtherforecastandconsiderduetoimproperuseproducts.Inrecentyears,manyproductsliabilityinlitigation,theuseofproductsandhurttheplaintiffaccusedmanufacturer,andwonthedecision,cofthematerialsusedallorsomeofthedata,data,especiallywhentheuncertaintylongtermperformancedataisso,dqualitycontrolmethodisnotsuitableandunproven,ebysomecompletelyincompetentpersonschoosematerials.Throughtotheabovefivequestionsanalysis,mayobtainthesequestionsisdoesnothavethesufficientreasonexistencetheconclusion.Mayforavoidthesequestionstothesequestionsresearchanalysestheappearanceindicatingthedirection.Althoughusesthebestchoiceofmaterialmethodnottobeabletoavoidhavingtheproductresponsibilitylawsuit,designsthepersonnelandtheindustrycarriesonthechoiceofmaterialaccordingtothesuitableprocedure,maygreatlyreducethelawsuitthequantity.Mayseefromtheabovediscussion,thechoicematerialpeopleshouldtothematerialnature,thecharacteristicandtheprocessingmethodhavecomprehensiveandthebasicunderstanding.Finally,adesignbaseduponfunction,andaprototypemaybebuilt.Ifitstestsaresatisfactory,theinitialdesignwillundergocertainmodificationsthatenableittobemanufacturedinquantityatalowercost.Duringsubsequentyearsofmanufactureandservice,thedesignislikelytoundergochangesasnewideasareconceivedorasfurtheranalysesbasedupontestsandexperienceindicatealterations.Salesappeal.SomeRulesforDesignInthissectionitissuggestedthat,appliedwithacreativeattitude,analysescanleadtoimportantimprovementsandtotheconceptionandperfectionofalternate,perhapsmorefunctional,economical,anddurableproducts.Tostimulatecreativethought,thefollowingrulesaresuggestedforthedesignerandanalyst.Thefirstsixrulesareparticularlyapplicablefortheanalyst.1.Acreativeuseofneedofphysicalpropertiesandcontrolprocess.2.Recognizefunctionalloadsandtheirsignificance.3.Anticipateunintentionalloads.4.Devisemorefavorableloadingconditions.5.Provideforfavorablestressdistributionandstiffnesswithminimumweight.6.Usebasicequationstoproportionandoptimizedimensions.7.Choosematerialsforacombinationofproperties.8.Selectcarefully,stockandintegralcomponents.9.Modifyafunctionaldesigntofitthemanufacturingprocessandreducecost.10.Provideforaccuratelocationandnoninterferenceofpartsinassembly.Machinerydesigncoversthefollowingcontents.1.Providesanintroductiontothedesignprocess,problemformulation,safetyfactors.2.Reviewsthematerialpropertiesandstaticanddynamicloadinganalysis,Includingbeam,vibrationandimpactloading.3.Reviewsthefundamentalsofstressanddefectionanalysis.4.Introducesfatiguefailuretheorywiththeemphasisonstresslifeapproachestohighcyclefatiguedesign,whichiscommonlyusedinthedesignofrotationmachinery.5.Discussesthoroughlythephenomenaofwearmechanisms,surfacecontactstresses,andsurfacefatigue.6.Investigatesshaftdesignusingthefatigueanalysistechniques.7.Discussesfluidfilmandrollingelementbearingtheoryandapplication8.Givesathoroughintroductiontothekinematics,designandstressanalysisofspurgears,andasimpleintroductiontohelical,bevel,andwormgearing.9.Discussesspringdesignincludingcompression,extensionandtorsionsprings.10.Dealswithscrewsandfastenersincludingpowerscrewandpreloadfasteners.11.Introducesthedesignandspecificationofdiskanddrumclutchesandbrakes.MachineDesignThecompletedesignofamachineisacomplexprocess.Themachinedesignisacreativework.Projectengineernotonlymusthavethecreativityinthework,butalsomustinaspectandsoonmechanicaldrawing,kinematics,engineerigmaterial,materialsmechanicsandmachinemanufacturetechnologyhasthedeepelementaryknowledge.Oneofthefirststepsinthedesignofanyproductistoselectthematerialfromwhicheachpartistobemade.Numerousmaterialsareavailabletotodaysdesigners.Thefunctionoftheproduct,itsappearance,thecostofthematerial,andthecostoffabricationareimportantinmakingaselection.Acarefulevaluationofthepropertiesofa.materialmustbemadepriortoanycalculations.Carefulcalculationsarenecessarytoensurethevalidityofadesign.Incaseofanypartfailures,itisdesirabletoknowwhatwasdoneinoriginallydesigningthedefectivecomponents.Thecheckingofcalculationsanddrawingdimensionsisofutmostimportance.Themisplacementofonedecimalpointcanruinanotherwiseacceptableproject.Allaspectsofdesignworkshouldbecheckedandrechecked.Thecomputerisatoolhelpfultomechanicaldesignerstolightentediouscalculations,andprovideextendedanalysisofavailabledata.Interactivesystems,basedoncomputercapabilities,havemadepossibletheconceptsofcomputeraideddesignCADandcomputeraidedmanufacturingCAM.Howdoesthepsychologistfrequentlydiscusscausesthemachinewhichthepeopleadaptsthemtooperate.Designspersonnelsbasicresponsibilityisdiligentlycausesthemachinetoadaptthepeople.Thiscertainlyisnotaneasywork,becausecertainlydoesnothavetoallpeopletosayinfactallisthemostsuperioroperatingareaandtheoperatingprocess.Anotherimportantquestion,projectengineermustbeabletocarryontheexchangeandtheconsultationwithotherconcernedpersonnel.Intheinitialstage,designsthepersonneltohavetocarryontheexchangeandtheconsultationonthepreliminarydesignwiththeadministrativepersonnel,andisapproved.Thisgenerallyisthroughtheoraldiscussion,theschematicdiagramandthewritingmaterialcarrieson.Iffrontsues,themachinedesigngoalistheproductioncanmeetthehumanneedtheproduct.Theinvention,thediscoveryandtechnicalknowledgeitselfcertainlynotnecessarilycanbringtheadvantagetothehumanity,onlyhaswhentheyareappliedcanproduceontheproductthebenefit.Thus,shouldrealizetocarriesonbeforethedesigninaspecificproduct,mustfirstdeterminewhetherthepeopledoneedthiskindofproductMustregardasthemachinedesignisthemachinedesignpersonnelcarriesonusingcreativeabilitytheproductdesign,thesystemanalysisandaformulationproductmanufacturetechnologygoodopportunity.Graspstheprojectelementaryknowledgetohavetomemorizesomedataandtheformulaismoreimportantthan.Themerelyservicedataandtheformulaisinsufficienttothecompletelydecisionwhichmakesinagooddesignneeds.Ontheotherhand,shouldbeearnestpreciselycarriesonalloperations.Forexample,evenifplaceswrongadecimalpointposition,alsocancausethecorrectdesigntoturnwrongly.Agooddesignpersonnelshoulddaretoproposethenewidea,moreoveriswillingtoundertakethecertainrisk,whenthenewmethodisnotsuitable,useoriginalmethod.Therefore,designsthepersonneltohavetohavetohavethepatience,becausespendsthetimeandtheendeavorcertainlycannotguaranteebringssuccessfully.Abrandnewdesign,therequestscreenabandonsobsoletelymany,knowsverywellthemethodforthepeople.Becausemanypersonofconservativeness,doesthiscertainlyisnotaneasymatter.Amechanicaldesignershouldunceasinglyexploretheimprovementexistingproductthemethod,shouldearnestlychooseoriginally,theprocessconfirmationprincipleofdesigninthisprocess,withhasnotunifieditaftertheconfirmationnewidea.Hereistointroducethedesignconceptofanewtypeofmixer.Theincreasingadoptionofhapticmodalityinhumancomputerinteractionparadigmshasledtoahugedemandfornewtoolsthathelpnoviceuserstoauthorandedithapticapplications.Currently,thehapticapplicationdevelopmentprocessisatimeconsumingexperiencethatrequiresprogrammingexpertise.ThecomplexityofhapticapplicationsdevelopmentrisesfromthefactthatthehapticapplicationcomponentssuchasthehapticAPI,thedevice,thehapticrenderingalgorithms,etc.needtointeractwiththegraphiccomponentsinordertoachievesynchronicity.Additionally,thereisalackofapplicationportabilityastheapplicationistightlycoupledtoaspecificdevicethatnecessitatestheuseofitscorrespondingAPI.Therefore,deviceandAPIheterogeneityleadtothefragmentationanddisorientationofbothresearchersanddevelopers.Inviewofalltheseconsiderations,thereisaclearneedforanauthoringtoolthatcanbuildhapticapplicationswhilehidingprogrammingdetailsfromtheapplicationmodelersuchasAPI,device,orvirtualmodel.TheBlenderdesignphilosophyisbasedonthreemaintasksdatastorage,editing,andvisualization.Itfollowsadatavisualizeeditdevelopmentcycleforthe3Dmodelingpipeline.A3DsceneisrepresentedusingdatastructureswithintheBlenderarchitecture.Themodelerviewsthescene,makeschangesusingtheeditinginterfacewhichdirectlymodifiestheunderlyingdatastructures,andthenthecyclerepeats.Tobetterunderstandthisdevelopmentcycle,considertherepresentationofa3DobjectinBlender.A3Dobjectmayberepresentedbyanarrayofverticeswhichhavebeenorganizedasapolygonalmesh.Usersmaychoosetooperateonanysubsetofthisdataset.Editingtasksmayincludeoperationstorotate,scale,andtranslatethevertices,orperhapsaremeshingalgorithmtocleanupredundantverticesandtransformfromaquadtoatriangletopology.Thedataisvisualizedusingagraphical3Drendererwhichiscapableofdisplayingtheobjectasawireframeorasashaded,solidsurface.Thevisualizationisnecessaryinordertoseetheeffectsofeditingonthedata.Inanutshell,thisexampledefinesthedesignphilosophybehindBlendersarchitecture.InBlender,dataisorganizedasaseriesoflistsandbasedatatypesarecombinedwithlinksbetweenitemsineachlist,creatingcomplexscenesfromsimplestructures.Thisallowsdataelementsineachlisttobereused,thusreducingtheoverallstoragerequirements.Forexample,ameshmaybelinkedbymultiplesceneobjects,butthepositionandorientationmaychangeforeachobjectandthetopologyofthemeshremainsthesame.Themeshesalsoshareacommonmaterialproperty.Theentiresceneisrenderedononeofseveralscreens,whichvisualizesthescene.WeadopttheBlenderdesignapproachforourauthoringtool.Thedatastructureswhichareusedtorepresentobjectsina3Dscenehavebeenaugmentedtoincludefieldsforhapticpropertiese.g.,stiffness,dampinguserinterfacecomponentse.g.,buttonpanelswhichallowthemodelertochangeobjectpropertieshavealsobeenupdatedtoincludesupportformodifyingthehapticpropertiesofanobject.Additionally,aninteractivehaptovisualrendererhasbeenimplementedtodisplaythe3Dscenegraphicallyandhaptically,providingthemodelerorartistwithimmediatefeedbackaboutthechangestheymaketothescene.inthecurrentversionoftheHAMLAT.themodificationstotheBlenderframeworkincludedatastructuresforrepresentinghapticproperties,aneditinginterfaceformodifyinghapticproperties,anexternalrendererfordisplayingandpreviewinghapticallyenabledscenes,scriptswhichallowscenestobeimported/exportedintheHAMLfileformat.AclassdiagramoutliningthechangestotheBlenderrameworkisshown.ComponentswhichareertinenttoHAMLATareshadedingray.HAMLATbuildsonexistingBlendersubsystemsbyextendingthemorhapticmodelingpurposes.Datastructuresforrepresentingobjectgeometryandgraphicalrenderingareaugmentedtoincludefieldwhichencompassthetactilepropertiesnecessaryforhapticrendering.ToallowtheusertomodifyhapticpropertiesGUIComponentsareintegratedaspartoftheBlendereditingpanels.TheoperationstriggeredbythesecomponentsoperatedirectlyonthedatastructuresusedforrepresentinghaticcuesandmaybeconsideredpartoftheeditingstepoftheBlenderdesigncycle.Similarlytothebuiltingraphicalrenderer,HAMLATusesacustomrendlererfordisplaying3Dsscenesgrphcalandhaptcall,anisineednoftheBlenderrenderer.Thiscomponentisdevelopedindependentlysincehapticalandgraphicalrenderingmustbeperformedsimultaneouslyandsynchronously.Asimulationloopisusedtoupdatehapticrenderingforcesataratewhichmaintainsstabilityandquality.Adetaileddiscussionoftheimplementationoftheseclassesandtheirconnectivityisgiveninthenextsection.IIIIMLIEMENTATIONADataStructureA.1MeshDataTypeBlenderusesmanydifferentdatastructurestorepresentthevarioustypesofobjectsina3Dsceneaverticesalampcontainscolourandintensityvaluesandcameraaobjectcontainsintrinsicviewingparameters.TheMeshdatastructureiSusedbytheBlenderinframeworktodescribeapolygonalmeshobject.ItiSofparticularinterestforhapicrenderingsincemanysolidobjectsina3Dscenemayberepresentedusingthistypeofdatastructure.Thetactileandkinestheticcues,whicharedisplayedduetointeractionwithvirtualobjects,aretypicallyrenderedbasedonthegeometryofthemesh.Hpticrenderingisperformedbasedprimaryondatastoredinthisdatatype.Otherscenecomponentssuchaslamps,cameras,orlinesarenotintuitivelyrenderedusingforcefeedbackhapticdevicesandarethereforenotofcurrentinterestforhapticrendering.AnaugmentedversionoftheMeshdatastructureisshown.Itcontainsfieldsforvertexandfacedata,plussomespecialcustomdatafieldswhichallowdatatobestoredto/retrievedfromdiskandmemory.WehavemodifiedthisdatatypetoincludeapointertoaMHapticsdatastructure,whichstoreshapticpropertiessuchasstiffness,damping,andfrictionforthemeshelements.A.2EditMeshDataTypeItshouldbenotedthattheMeshdatatypehasacomPlimentarydatastructure,calledEditMesh,whichisusedwheneditingmeshdata.Itholdsacopyofthevertex,edge,andfacedataforapolygonalmesh.whentheuserswitchestoeditingmode,theBlendercopiesthedatafromaMeshintoanEditMeshandwheneditingiscompletethedataiscopiedback.Caremustbetakentoensurethatthehapicpropertydatastructureremainsintactduringthecopysequence.TheEditMeshdatastructurehasnotbeenmodifiedtocontainacopyofthehapicpropertydata,butthismaypropertiesineditmodeisrequired.Theeditingmodeismainlyusedtomodifymeshtopologyandgeometry,notthehapticandgraphicalrenderingcharacteristics,A.3HapticPropertiesInthissectionwellbrieflydiscussthehapticpropertieswhichmaycurrentlybemodeledusing
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