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英文原文Machinery,MachinaMechinederivedfromtheGreekandLatin,Mechanicalgearfigure1meanscleverdesign,asageneralmechanicalconcept,canbetracedbacktotheRomanperiod,mainistodistinguishandhandtools.OfmodernChineselanguagethewordMachineisorganizationisMechanismoftheEnglishandthefloorboardoftheMachinetheMachine.Mechanicalcharacteristicsaremachineryisacombinationofphysicalcomponents.Todeterminetherelativemotionofmechanicalparts.SotheMachinecanconvertmechanicalenergyoraccomplishusefulmechanicalwork,isthemostbasicconceptinmodernmechanicalprinciple,themodernconceptofChinesemachinerymorederivedfromthewordMachineoftheJapanese,Japanesemachineryshouldsuppliestodothefollowingdefinitionthatis,inaccordancewiththefollowingthreecharacteristicsiscalledmechanicalMachine1,themachineryisacollectionofobjects,concentrationtothevariouspartsarealsodifficulttodeformation.2,theobjectmustimplementthemutualmovement,single,regulations.3,toexertenergyintoausefulform,orconvertedintomechanicalworkeffectively.Mechanismandmachinedefinitionisderivedfromthemechanicalengineering,belongstothemostbasicconceptofmodernmechanicalprinciples,mechanicalmoremodernconceptsderivedfromChineseofthewordmachineinJapanese.Allhavecertainsportsmachineandthefloorboardofthesystem.Suchasmachinetools,tractors,etc.Mechanicalengineeringisrelatedtothetheoreticalbasisofnaturalscienceandtechnology,Mechanicalgearfigure2combinedwiththeaccumulationoftechnicalexperienceintheproductionpractice,studyandsolveinthedevelopment,design,manufacture,installation,useandrepairofallkindsofmachineryanappliedsubjectoftheoreticalandpracticalproblems.Everydevelopmentinthefieldofengineeringrequirementsinmechanicalengineeringhasadaptedtothedevelopment,needmechanicalengineeringprovidesthenecessarymachinery.Somemechanicalinventionandimprovement,andcouldleadtonewengineeringtechnologyandtheemergenceanddevelopmentofnewindustry.Largemachinerymanufacturingsuccess,forexample,ledtotheestablishmentofelectricpowersystemTheinventionofthelocomotiveledtotheriseofrailwayengineeringandrailwayundertakingsTheinventionoftheinternalcombustionengines,gasturbines,rocketengines,etcandprogress,aswellasthesuccessfuldevelopmentofaircraftandspacecrafthasledtotheriseofaviationandaerospacebusinessThedevelopmentofhighvoltageequipmentleadtothesuccessofmanynewsyntheticchemicalengineeringandsoon.Mechanicalengineeringisinallrespectsunderthepressureofrisingdemandfordevelopment,atthesametimefromdifferentdisciplinesandtheadvancementofthetechnologyimprovedandinnovativeability.Machineryisasimpledevice,itcantransferenergy,forcefromoneplacetoanotherplace.MechanicalgearFIG.3itcanchangetheshapeoftheobjectstructurestocreatenewobjects.Inlife,allaroundustherearethousandsofdifferentkindsofmachineryintheworkforus.Everydayunderstandingofmechanicalisamechanicaldevice,whichisallkindsofmachinesandequipment.Fromthepointofviewofmechanicalprofessionalmachineryhasaveryimportantbasicposition.Machineryisamodernsocietythefivefactorsofproductionandservicethatis,people,money,energy,materialsandmachinery.WhenMarxtoindustrialsociety,industrialsociety,especiallyinbigindustrialsociety,whichismachineproductionmachineage.Whetherfromlifeincontactwithallkindsofphysicaldevices,suchastelephones,electriclights,television,refrigerator,elevatorandsooncontainsthemachine,orincludedinthegeneralmachinery,andfromthepointofproduction,allkindsofmachinetools,automationequipment,aircraft,ships,godfive,six,andsoon,areshortofmachinery.So,machineryisoneofthefoundationsofmodernsociety.Ifsomeonesayagricultureisthefoundation,alsounderstandable,butinmodernsociety,mechanicalserveasthebasisfortherestoftheindustryandengineering,itisnoexaggerationtothinkisthebigpillarinsociety.Anymodernindustrialandengineeringapplicationsrequiremachinery,isthePeoplesDailylife,areincreasinglyusedallkindsofmachinery,suchascars,bicycles,watchesandclocks,cameras,washingmachine,refrigerator,airconditioner,vacuumcleaners,etc.ThefirstmachineisdefinedastheRomanarchitectvitruviuspollioVitruviiinitMechanicalgearfigure4forbuildingtenbookmainlyforcarryingheavythingsworkmachineryandtoolsthedifferencebetweenmechanicalmachaneandtoolsorganonseemtohavethefollowingdifferencesbetween.Themachineismostartificialandverybigpowerandeffect,suchasheavyballistaandgrapespress.Whilethetoolisamanipulationofthestaffcarefullyprocessing,toachievethepurposeofsuchasweretheshapeoflightrangeballistaorcircularspiraldevice.Thus,toolsandmachineryareusedintheindispensablething.TheancientGreekforcylindricalgears.Alexandria,MrHiroHeronofAlexandriainthe1stcenturyfirstdiscussedthebasicelementsofmachinery,mechanicalelementsconsideredtobefiveclasseswheelandshaft,lever,pulley,wedge,spiral.Hirosdiscoursereflectstheclassicalmechanicalcharacteristics.BCChinahasguidelinesontheapplicationofcomplexgearsystem,theincenseburnerintheapplicationofthepermanentcontrollevelofthebogieandotherpartsofacross.Annotations,saidthemachine,thecrossbowtoothenclosed,thearrowaround.Saidwenjieziexplanationofmachineismachine,themainmover,referstothecrossbow.Mechanicalinleipzig,Germanyin1724andliaopoulterLeopoldisdefinedasmachinesortoolsisakindofartificialdevice,useittoproducefavorablemovementatthesametimecantuseotherwaystosavetimeandpower,itcansave.Britishmechanics,WillistrulyillisinitsagencytheoryThePrincipleofMechanism,1841giveThedefinitionofMachinerygearspeedreduceranymachinemachinearemadeinavarietyofdifferentwaysofconnectingasetofartifactsthatmakeitacomponent,thecomponentwillhappeninacertainsport,theseartifactsandtheinitialmovementofthecomponentsofrelativemotionrelationshipdependsonthenatureoftheconnectionsbetweenthem.GermanmachineryatleloroF.ReuleauxinthetheoryofkinematicsTheoretischeKinematik,GrundzugeeinerTheorieChinaistheworldsfirstnationalmachinerydevelopment.ChinesemechanicalengineeringtechnologynotonlyhasalonghistoryandsplendidachievementsinChineseisnotonlythematerialcultureandsocialeconomicdevelopmentplaysanimportantroleintheworld,andtopromotetheprogressofcivilization,technologyhasmadegreatcontributiontoChinesetraditionalmachine.Andinalongperiodaheadintheworld.Inmoderntimes,especiallyfromtheearly18thcentury,duetothenineteenforties,duetotheeconomicandsocialreasons,suchastheChinamachineryindustry,stagnation,inthe100yearsiswesternbourgeoispoliticalrevolutionandindustrialrevolution,mechanicalscienceandtechnologyisdevelopingrapidly,andfarmorethanthelevelofChina.So,Chinamechanicaldevelopmentlevelandthewesterngapwidens,sharplytothe19thcenturymiddlebehindwesternonehundredyears.AfterthefoundingofnewChina,especiallyinthepast30years,ourcountrysmechanicalscienceandtechnologydevelopmentspeed.Tothemechanicalproductlargescale,precision,automationanddiscussesthetrendofdevelopment.Insomeaspectshasreachedorexceededtheworldadvancedlevel.Generallyspeaking,currentlyChinamechanicalscienceandtechnologyachievementishuge,developingfast,highlevelofunprecedented.Inthisperiod,Chinahasnoendofmechanicalscienceandtechnologywilldeveloptoahigherlevel.Aslongaswecanadoptthecorrectpolicy,withgoodtechnologydevelopmentandinnovation,ourmachineryindustryandmechanicaltechnologycanrevitalize,leadingtothedevelopmenttrendofmechanicalindustry.JustsmallrammingmachineryInthe1960s,Chinamechanicalverysmalltamplack,manysmallvenuesrammingbasicallyUSESartificialramming.Early1960s,changshaconstructionmachineryinstituteandBeijingarchitecturalengineeringinstitute,etc.,thetechnicalinnovationachievementsinmassonthebasisofsummingupChinesecharacteristicinventedthebreaststrokerammingmachine,1962exceedednationalscienceandtechnology.Thebreaststrokerammingmachinestructureissimple,easytouseandmaintenancein1960s,soonbecamethedominantproductstoconsolidatemachinery.Accordingtonotcompletecountbreaststroketampcumulativeyieldreachedmorethan50,000machine,intheeconomicdevelopmentofourcountryhasplayedanimportantrole.Since1970s,thebreaststrokerammingmachinewasgraduallymoreadvancedperformanceofvibrationshockramandvibratingplateram,nowreplacedbylayingmachinehasrarelybreaststroke,basicallybeeliminated.In1964,changshaconstructionmachineryinstituteHB120developedmovabletype,typeofShanghaibeganlayingmachine,engineeringmachineproductionmainlybytianjinmunicipallater,annualproductionengineeringmachinerydongtingabout200.Inthe1980s,movabletyperammingmachineproductqualityhasincreasedgreatly,haveexportedtosoutheastAsiaandAfrica.Since1990s,internalcombustiontyperammingmachineproductionsales,andgraduallydecreasedinonlyafewsmallprivateenterpriseproduction.In1977,changshaconstructionmachineryfactorybuildingsanddevelopedinliuzhouHZR250typeandtheHZR70typevibratingplateram,thesetwokindsofproductsin1979and1982passedbytheministryofconstructionoftheorganization.Thenyiwubuildingconstructionmachineryfactory,siping,anyangvibratorsfactory,tianjinmunicipalengineeringmachinerydongtingandotherenterpriseshavestartedproducingvibratingplateram.In1986,changshaconstructionmachineryresearchanddevelopalargerHZR450typeofvibratingplateram.Since1990s,vibratingplateraminourcountryhasdevelopedveryquickly,varietiesofproducts,specificationsandincreaseproductionenterprises,foreignvibratingplateramgraduallytoentertheChinesemarket.In1983,changshaconstructionmachineryinstituteandthejointdevelopmentofhubeivibrationinthefirstHZR70typevibrationshockramming,1984,passedbytheministryofconstruction,organizationconstructiontechnologyprogressin1985wonprizes.Duetothevibrationimpactcompactionresulthasgoodramming,productivity,highvolumeandweightofsmall,lightweightflexibleoutstandingcharacteristics,deeplyuseretc,obtainedarapidpromotion,andsoonZiJiangdevelopmenttothefactory,xinxiangmunicipalengineeringmachinetoolplantandtianjindozens
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