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9781424484522/11/26002011IEEEFPM2011EXPERIMENTALRESEARCHOFTHEINFLUENCEOFCONSTRAINTFORPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLECHARACTERISTICZANGKEJIANG,MAYANCOLLEGEOFELECTROMECHANICALENGINEERINGNORTHEASTFORESTRYUNIVERSITYHARBIN,CHINAKJZANG163COMSUNNING,LIXIUCHEN,ZHANGLANCOLLEGEOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGJIAMUSIUNIVERSITYJIAMUSI,CHINAABSTRACTPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEPAMISANEWPNEUMATICACTUATORALOTOFWORKHAVEBEENCOMPLETEDABOUTTHEPRINCIPLE,THEORETICAL,EXPERIMENTALMODELINGANDAPPLICATIONSOFPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLERESEARCHERSHAVEFOUNDTHATPAMSEXHIBITNONLINEARCHARACTERISTICBASEONTHEPUBLISHEDLITERATURES,NONLINEARCHARACTERISTICRELATEDTOELASTICITY,FRICTIONBETWEENRUBBERANDBRAIDANDTHECONSTRAINTRINGTHEFORMERTWOASPECTSHAVEBEENMAINLYSTUDIEDINTHEPUBLISHEDPAPERSHOWEVER,STUDYONTHEINFLUENCEOFCONSTRAINSONTHEENDOFPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEISSTILLRARETHISSTUDYESTABLISHESTHEPAMSTATICCHARACTERISTICEXPERIMENTALSYSTEM,ANDTHEPAMCHARACTERISTICSABOUTMULTIPLECONSTRAINTSARETESTEDTHROUGHTHEANALYSISOFEXPERIMENTALRESULTS,THEINFLUENCEISOBTAINEDWHICHCONSTRAINTSTHEWORKFORPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEWORKINGCHARACTERISTICSKEYWORDSPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEPAM,CONSTRAINTS,STATICCHARACTERISTICS,EXPERIMENTALRESEARCHIINTRODUCTIONPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEISANEWKINDOFPNEUMATICACTUATORWITHTHEADVANTAGESOFCLEANNESS,LIGHTWEIGHT,LOWCOST,EASYMAINTENANCE,COMPACTSTRUCTUREANDHIGHPOWER/VOLUMERATIOFORTHISREASON,THEYAREWIDELYCONCERNEDBYACADEMICSTUDYANDENGINEERINGAPPLICATIONTHEPNEUMATICMUSCLEWASINVENTEDIN1950SINORDERTOPROVIDEDRIVERSFORPROSTHESISORREHABILITATIONMECHANICALHOWEVER,FORTHEPRACTICALPROBLEMS,SUCHASPNEUMATICPOWERSTORAGE,AVAILABILITYANDPOORQUALITYVALVETECHNOLOGYATTHATTIME,PNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEHAVENOTBEENDEVELOPEDANDAPPLIEDINTHE1988S,ENGINEERSOFTHEJAPANESETYPEMANUFACTUREBRIDGESTONEPROPOSEDMOREPOWERFULVERSIONOFTHEREDESIGNEDPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLECALLEDRUBBERTUATORINTENDEDTOMOTORISETHOUGHSOFTYETPOWERFULROBOTARMSTHEYWERECALLEDSOFTARMSANDWERECOMMERCIALIZEDASSERVICEROBOTSWHICHHAVEALSOBEENSTUDIEDTHEARTIFICIALMUSCLE,WHICHISSIMPLEINDESIGN,ISMADEOFRUBBERINNERTUBECOVEREDWITHASHELLBRAIDEDACCORDINGTOHELICALWEAVINGTHEMUSCLEISCLOSEDBYTWOENDS,ONEBEINGTHEAIRINPUTANDTHEOTHERBEINGFORCEATTACHMENTPOINTTHEBRAIDFIBERSRUNHELICALLYABOUTTHEMUSCLE’SLONGAXISATANANGLECALLEDINTERWEAVEANGLEWHENPRESSUREISSUPPLIED,THEINNERTUBETRANSFORMED,TOGETHERWITHSETSOFRADIALMOVEMENTDRIVINGWEAVING,INTERWEAVEANGLEINCREASING,THEAXIALBRAIDSLEEVESHORTINGWHICHPULLINGTHEENDOFTHELOADANDWEAVINGSETSOFFILAMENTSPRODUCEDTENSIONATTHESAMETIME,THENTHETENSIONANDINTERNALPRESSUREEQUILIBRIUMBECAUSEOFPAM’SWORKINGCHARACTERISTICSSIMILARTOANIMALMUSCLE,ITISCALLEDPNEUMATICACTUATORPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLE12PNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEISANEWPNEUMATICACTUATORALOTOFWORKHAVEBEENCOMPLETEDABOUTTHEPRINCIPLE,THEORETICAL,EXPERIMENTALMODELINGANDAPPLICATIONSOFPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLERESEARCHERSHAVEFOUNDTHATPAMSEXHIBITNONLINEARCHARACTERISTICBASEONTHEPUBLISHEDLITERATURES34,NONLINEARCHARACTERISTICRELATEDTOELASTICITY,FRICTIONBETWEENRUBBERANDBRAIDANDTHEENDCONSTRAINTSTHEFORMERTWOASPECTSHAVEBEENMAINLYSTUDIEDINTHEPUBLISHEDPAPERSHOWEVER,STUDYONTHEINFLUENCEOFTHECONSTRAINTSONTHEENDOFPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEISSTILLRARETHISSTUDYESTABLISHESTHEPAMSTATICCHARACTERISTICEXPERIMENTALSYSTEM,ANDTHEPAMCHARACTERISTICSABOUTMULTIPLECONSTRAINTSARETESTEDTHROUGHTHEANALYSISOFEXPERIMENTALRESULTS,THEINFLUENCETHATCONSTRAINTSWORKFORPNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEWORKINGCHARACTERISTICISOBTAINEDIIEXPERIMENTALPNEUMATICSYSTEMAEXPERIMENTALRIGTHISPNEUMATICEXPERIMENTALSYSTEM9FIG19ISDESIGNEDTOSTUDYTHERELATIONSHIPSOFTHEPRESSURE,CONTRACTIONANDFORCEOFPAMSWITHDIFFERENTCONSTRAINTSTHEEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMCONTAINSELEMENTSSHOWNINTHEFOLLOWINGTABLETABLEIDETAILSHEETCOMPONENTNAMECOMPONENTTYPECOMPONENTTECHNICALDATAAIRSOURCEFUMACEBMPOWER11KWMAXIMUMPRESSURE08MPAGASHOLDER2LSOLENOIDVALVESFESTOR107SUPPLYVOLTAGEDC24VOUTPRESS006MPAPRESSURESENSORSMCPSE540AR06SUPPLYVOLTAGEDC1224VPRESSURERANGE01MPAACCURACY0G5LOADSENSORCZL3SUPPLYVOLTAGEDC1224VLOADRANGE050KGACCURACY0G03PAMHOMEMADEINITIALLENGTH176MMINITIALDIAMETER8MM132PRESSURERANGE003MPASTEPPERMOTOR86BYGH450B113STEPANGLEACCURACY2STEPANGLE18EMAXTORQUE67NMGUIDESCREWSFU1605NOMINALDIAMETER16MMLEAD5MMRATEDLOAD765KNDISPLACEMENTSENSORKTC500LIN0058R53KCOMPUTERLEGEND11CPUPENTIUMIII450RAM256MDATACOLLECTORWSUSBRESOLUTION8ACCURACY0003FSF1LSBDRIVERCW250ACSUPPLYVOLTAGEDC1224VMODEOFOPERATION1/51/101/251/401/501/1001/200PULSERMPTGSUPPLYVOLTAGEDC100250VOUTPUTFREQUENCY69999HZWEIGHTCOMPONENTSOFNATIONALSTANDARDS2KGREDUCINGVALVEIR202002GRMAXSUPPRESS1MPAOUTPRESS00108MPAFIGURE1PNEUMATICEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMTHEFEEDEQUIPMENTISCOMPOSEDOFFOURPARTS9STEPPERMOTOR,PULSER,DRIVERANDGUIDETHEPULSEROUTPUTSPULSESTOSTEPPERMOTORSDRIVERSTODRIVETHESTEPPERMOTORSFORWARDORBACKWARDTHEPULSERCANBEMEASUREDIN1/4998THESTEPPERMOTORTURNSAFULLCIRCLEBY200STEPSTHELEADOFSCREWIS5MM/RTHEPOSITIONERRORISLITTLEABOUT5E6MM/RSTRAIGHTLINELEADRAILSAREADOPTEDINTHEEXPERIMENTALSYSTEM,WITHGOODACCURACYANDSTABILIZATIONFIG1SHOWSANORDINARYPNEUMATICEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMTHECOMPUTERCONTROLLEDSOLENOIDVALVESCANOUTPUTAPREDETERMINEDGASPRESSUREWHENCOMPRESSEDGASENTERSPAM,ITCONTRACTSANDPRODUCESAPULLINGFORCETHEGASSOURCEISUSUALLYACOMPRESSORCLEARLYTHEEXPERIMENTSHOULDINCLUDEBOTHASOLENOIDVALVESANDPAMFIRSTWEDISCUSSTHESOLENOIDVALVESTHISISACOMPUTERCONTROLLEDSYSTEMOUTPUTSAPREDETERMINEDGASPRESSUREWITHINADEFINITEFIELDWHICHISPROPORTIONALTOTHEVOLTAGEWHICHASASOLENOIDVALVES’INPUT,WHOSEQUANTITYCANBECONTROLLEDBYTHECOMPUTERTHEPNEUMATICEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMCONSISTSOFAPRESSURESENSOR,ALOADSENSORANDADISPLACEMENTSENSORTHEPRESSURESENSORMEASURESTHEOUTPUTGASPRESSURE,THELOADSENSORMEASURESTHEOUTPUTLOAD,ANDFEEDTHESEBACKTOTHECONTROLCIRCUITTHEMAGNITUDEOFTHEGASPRESSUREOUTPUTFROMTHECOMPRESSORSHOULDBELARGERTHANTHEMAXIMALGASPRESSUREOUTPUTFROMTHESOLENOIDVALVESBMUSCLETHEARTIFICIALMUSCLECONSISTSOFTHEINNERRUBBERTUBEWHERETHENATURALRUBBERLATEXTHROUGHTHEVULCANIZINGPROCESSHASBEENUSEDASSHOWNINFIG2INORDERTOREDUCETHEINFLUENCEOFTHERUBBERELASTIC,THERUBBERUSEDINTHEEXPERIMENTALISVERYTHINTHEOUTERSHELLISTHEBRAIDEDSLEEVESEEFIG2FIGURE2RUBBERTUBEANDBRAIDEDSLEEVETHEASSEMBLYOFTHEARTIFICIALMUSCLEISSHOWNINFIG3,ONESIDEOFWHICHISTHEAIRINLETANDTHEOTHERSIDEISTHECLOSEDENDINTHISEXPERIMENT,FOURTYPESOFTHENUMBEROFTHECONSTRAINTRINGS0,1,2,4HAVEBEENTESTED5FIGURE3PNEUMATICARTIFICIALMUSCLEWITHCONSTRAINTRINGSIIIISOMETRICLOADEXPERIMENTTHEEXPERIMENTSETUPISSHOWNINFIG4ONEENDOFPAM5ISMOUNTEDTIGHTLYTOAMETALFRAMETHEOTHERENDOFTHEMUSCLEISTIEDBYWIREROPEWITHDIFFERENTLOADSSUSPENDEDTOITDISPLACEMENTSENSOR8ISFIXEDTOTHEMETALFRAME;SLIDERODISCONNECTEDTOREMOVABLEENDOFTHEMUSCLE,SOTHATAPRECISEMEASUREMENTISMADETHEPOSITIONDATAOBTAINEDFROMDISPLACEMENTSENSORISSENTBACKTOTHEPCTHROUGHTHEA/DCONVERTERTOPROVIDETHEPOWERFORTHEMUSCLE,AIRCOMPRESSOR1CANSUPPLY08MPACOMPRESSEDAIRTHECOMPUTERCONTROLLEDSOLENOIDVALVES2CANOUTPUTAPREDETERMINEDGASPRESSUREINTHISTEST,WEIGHTS7ARE4KGAND6KGCOMPRESSEDGASENTERSMUSCLE,PAMCONTRACTSWHILETHEWEIGHTISABLETOMAINTAINCONSTANTPULLINGFORCETHEREALTIMEDATATHROUGHTHESENSORSARELOGGEDTOTHEPCTHEEXPERIMENTISREPEATEDSEVERALTIMESUNDERDIFFERENTCONSTRAINTSTHENWECANSTATISTICALLYANALYZERUBBERTUBEBRAIDEDSLEEVE133THERESULTSTOFINDOUTTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHECONTRACTIONRATIOANDPRESSUREOFTHEMUSCLEFORDIFFERENTLOAD6789FIGURE4PRINCIPLEBLOCKDIAGRAMOFISOMETRICLOADEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMTHELENGTHOFMUSCLEISMEASUREDBYDISPLACEMENTSENSOR90LISINITIALLENGTH,LISREALTIMELENGTH,THENCONTRACTIONRATIOΕISCALCULATEDAS00/LLLΕ−1FIG5SHOWSTHERELATIONBETWEENCONTRACTIONRATIOANDPRESSUREFROMTHISFIGURE,WECANOBVIOUSLYCONCLUDETHATTHEEXPERIMENTALCURVEISAHYSTERESISCURVE,THISISBECAUSEOFACHANGEINDIRECTIONOFFRICTIONWHENTHEPAMWORKINGDURINGATESTPERIODANDATLOWPRESSURE,THEEXPERIMENTALCURVESHOWSMOREHYSTERESISTHANATHIGHPRESSURETHISKINDOFPHENOMENONISREFERREDTOTHEINTERNALFRICTIONCOEFFICIENTOFPAMANDFILLINGPRESSURE10FIGURE5PRESSUREVERSUSCONTRACTIONRATIOINORDERTOHIGHLIGHTTHEINFLUENCEOFCONSTRAINTS,CONSTRAINTRINGDIAMETERSLIGHTLYLARGERTHANTHEINITIALDIAMETEROFPAMWHENTHECONTRACTIONRATIOREACHESACERTAINVALUE,THECONSTRAINTRINGSBEGINTOWORKONTHEPAMWHENCONSTRAINTRINGSDONTWORK,THEEXPERIMENTCURVESARESUPERPOSITION;WHENCONSTRAINTRINGSUNDERWORKING,THECONTRACTIONISOBVIOUSLYSMALLERWHENINCREASINGTHECONSTRAINTRINGSINTHESAMEPRESSURECONSTRAINTSREDUCETHEPAMCONTRACTIONABILITYIVISOMETRICPRESSUREEXPERIMENTISOMETRICPRESSUREEXPERIMENTSTUDIESTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHECONTRACTIONRATIOANDFORCEUNDERCERTAINCONSTANTPRESSUREONEENDOFPAM5ISMOUNTEDTIGHTLYTOAMETALFRAMETHROUGHLOADSENSOR4THEOTHERENDOFTHEMUSCLEISATTACHEDONASLIDEPLATESLIDINGALONGLINEARGUIDES,ANDTHESLIDEPLATEEMPLOYSGUIDESCREW7CONTROLLEDBYASTEPPERMOTOR6,THESETRANSMISSIONCOMPONENTSAREABLETOSIMULTANEOUSLYOBTAINHIGHCONTROLACCURACYANDOPERATINGEFFICIENCYINTHISTEST,PRESSUREVALVESETPRESSUREAT01MPA,015MPA,02MPAAND025MPATHENBYUSINGTHEMOTORTOCHANGETHELENGTHOFTHEMUSCLEUNDERTHECORRESPONDINGPRESSURESMENTIONEDABOVETHEDATAOFPULLINGFORCEANDDISPLACEMENTTHROUGHTHESENSORS4,6ARESENTTOTHEPCTHEEXPERIMENTISREPEATEDSEVERALTIMESUNDERDIFFERENTCONSTRAINTSWECANCARRYOUTDIFFERENTCONSTRAINTISOMETRICPRESSUREEXPERIMENTSUNDERTHEDIFFERENTPRESSURE11FIGURE6PRINCIPLEBLOCKDIAGRAMOFISOMETRICPRESSUREEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMFIG7SHOWSTHERELATIONBETWEENCONTRACTIONRATIOANDFORCETHEOUTPUTFORCEOFPAMISRELATEDTOCONTRACTIONRATIO,THEGREATERTHECONTRACTIONRATIO,THEGREATERTHEOUTPUTFORCEASMENTIONEDABOVE,THEPAMISOMETRICPRESSURECURVEISAHYSTERESISCURVEDUETOTHEINFLUENCEOFFRICTIONWITHTHEINCREASEINTHENUMBEROFCONSTRAINTS,THEREEXISTSSIGNIFICANTHYSTERESISPHENOMENON,THEEXPERIMENTALCURVESDROPASAWHOLE,THELINEARITYDEGREEBECOMEPOOR,BUTTHETRENDDONOTCHANGE,WHICHCLEARLYINDICATETHATCONSTRAINTSARESIGNIFICANTLYIMPACTSTHESTATICCHARACTERISTICSOFPAMFIGURE7CONTRACTIONRATIOVERSUSFORCEVISOMETRICLENGTHEXPERIMENTTHEEXPERIMENTRIGISSHOWNINFIG8ONEENDOFPAM5ISFIXEDONFRAMETHEOTHERENDOFTHEMUSCLECONNECTSASLIDEPLATESLIDINGALONGLINEARGUIDESWHICHISTHESAMESTRUCTUREASISOMETRICPRESSUREEXPERIMENTSYSTEMTHESYSTEMISCOMPOSEDOFASLIDEPLATE,AGUIDESCREW7ANDASTEPPERMOTOR6SELFLOCKDEVICEWHICHISUSEDTOACCURATELYCHANGETHELENGTHOFMUSCLETHECOMPUTERCONTROLLEDSOLENOIDVALVES2CANMAKEGASPRESSURECHANGEREGULARLYWHENCOMPRESSEDGASENTERSTHEMUSCLE,APULLINGFORCEISPRODUCEDANDWORKINGONTHELOADSENSOR4THELOADDATAOBTAINEDFROMLOADSE
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