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附录EngineMechanicalandEFISystemAbstractTheengineblockisthemainsupportingstructuretowhichallotherenginepartsareattached.Frontsuspensionsystemdesignmustprovidegoodrideandstabilitycharacteristics.Inaddition,thefrontsuspensionmustmakeprovisionforturningthefrontwheelstobothrightandleftforturningcornersKeywordsEngineSystemcompartmentcarTheCruiseControlSystemallowsyoutomaintainasetspeedabove40km/h(25rpm)withoutkeepingyourfootontheacceleratorpedal.Anintegralpartofthecruiseistheoverrev.protectioncircuit.ItsfunctionistomonitorengineRPManddisengagethecruisecontrolwhentheclutchisappliedorthetransmissionshiftleverismovedintoneutral.WhenasuddenriseinRPMisdetected,thedecisiontodisengageismadeforoverrev.protection,thebluewiremustbeattachedtothenegativesideoftheignitioncoil.Forthisreasonmakesureallcruisecontrolwiringisatleast1ft.awayfromallelectromagneticsourcessuchasignitionwires,alternator,regulator,andallhighcurrentcarryingconductors.ToreduceyourSETSPEED,pressandholdtheSET/COASTbutton.ThiserasesthepreviousprogrammedSETSPEED,andallowsthevehicletocoastTheECMusesthesignalsderivedfromthecrankshaftpositionsensorandthecamshaftpositionsensortotriggereachinjectorseparatelyincylinderfiringorder.AthrottlepositionsensorismountedontheendofthethrottlevalvespindletoprovidetheECMwithaconstantlyvaryinganaloguevoltagesignalcorrespondingtothethrottleopening.Theoxygensensorintheexhaustsystemprovidesthemodulewithconstantfeedbackclosedloopcontrolwhichenablesittoadjustthemixturetoprovidethebestpossibleconditionsforthecatalyticconvertertooperate.Whenworkingwithfuelsystemcomponents,payparticularattentiontocleanlinessdirtenteringthefuelsystemmaycauseblockageswhichwillleadtopoorrunning.BoththeidlespeedandmixtureareunderthecontroloftheECMmodule,andcannotbeadjusted.Notonlycantheynotbeadjusted,theycannotevenbechecked,exceptwiththeuseofspecialdiagnosticequipment.Whentheengineiswarm,thecoolingsystemisoverpressure.Itisnecessarytoreleasepressurebeforestartingrepairwork.Wheninstallingcoolanthoses,routestressfreesothattheydonotcomeintocontactwithothercomponentsobservemarkingsoncoolantconnectionhoseEngineoilsaregradedaccordingtotheirviscosity.Thepropergradetobeusedinyourenginedependsonexistingclimaticorseasonalconditions.Wheninsertingtheoildipstick,insertthecurvedtipofthedipstickfacingthesamedirectionasthecurveoftheguide.Visuallyinspectthermostatforcorrosionandpropersealingofvalveandseat.Ifokay,suspendthermostatandthermometerina50/50mixtureofcoolantandwater.TheECMcontainsabuilt–inself–diagnosissystembywhichtroubleswiththeenginesignalnetworkaredetectedandaMalfunctionindicatorlampontheinstrumentpanellightsup.Amalfunctionindicatorinformsthedriverthatamalfunctionhasbeendetected.Thelightgoesoffautomaticallywhenthemalfunctionhasbeenrepaired.Atestmodefunctionhasbeenaddedtothefunctionsoftheself–diagnosticsystemofthenormalmodeforthepurposeofdetectingmalfunctionssuchaspoorcontact,whicharedifficulttodetectinthenormalmode.TheMalfunctionindicatorlampwillcomeonwhentheignitionswitchisturnedONandtheengineisnotrunning.Whenthenormalcodeisdisplayedinthediagnostictroublecodecheck,troubleshootingshouldbeperformedintheorderforallpossiblecircuitstobeconsideredasthecausesoftheproblems.TheenginecontrolmoduleECMisprogrammedwithdataforoptimumignitiontimingunderalloperatingconditions.AlwaysswitchOFFtheignitionwhendisconnectingandconnectingthebattery,otherwisetheEngineControlModuleECMcouldbedamaged.WhileperformingcertainchecksitispossiblethattheECMwillrecognizeandstoreaDiagnosticTroubleCodeDTC.Thereforeaftercompletingallchecksandrepairs,checkanderasetheDTCmemoryasnecessary.AllchargingsystemsusetheprincipleofelectromagneticinductiontogenerateElectricalpower.Electromagneticprinciplestatesthatavoltagewillbeproducedifmotionbetweenaconductorandamagneticfieldoccurs.Thebrushesandslipringsprovideameansofmaintainingelectricalcontinuitybetweenstationaryandrotatingcomponents.ApplyATFtofrictioncomponents,rotatingparts,andslidingpartsbeforeinstallation.ImmerseanewclutchdiscorbrakediscinATFforatleasttwohoursbeforeassemblingthem.ThemostcommoncompoundplanetarygearsetsaretheSimpsoncompoundplanetarygearsetandtheRavigneauxcompoundplanetarygeartrain.Acommontypeofautomatictransaxleortransmissionforpassengercarshasthreeforwardspeeds,reverse,neutral,andparkpositions.Theclutchislocatedbetweentheengineflywheelandthetransmissiononrearwheeldrivevehicles.Onfrontwheeldrivevehiclesitislocatedinthetransaxleassemblybetweentheengineflywheelandtransmissionsectionofthetransaxle.Shockabsorbersaremountedbetweentheframeandthesuspensionbymeansofbracketsandrubberbushings.Thepiniongearsareinmeshwiththetwosideoraxlegears,andtheaxlegearsaresplinedtotheaxleshafts.Removetheadhesiveadheredtothethreadedholesofthedrivegearbyturningthespecialtool,andthencleanthethreadedholesbyapplyingcompressedair.Atwopiecetubulardriveshaftwitharubberelementpressedbetweenthetwotubes,whichreducestorsionvibrations,isusedonsomevehiclesTheabilityofthebrakesystemtobringavehicletoasafecontrolledstopisabsolutelyessentialinpreventingaccidentalvehicledamage,personalinjury,andlossoflife.Uponseverebraking,thewheelsbecomelocked,atwhichtimethereisaslidingfrictionbetweenthetireandtheroadandstaticfrictionbetweentheshoeanddrumordiscandpad.Lockedwheelsaredangerousbecausethecarneedsamuchlongerdistancetostop.Lockedwheelsalsocancausethedrivertolosecontrol.Donotuseascrewdriverorsimilartooltoremovepistonseal.Thesemaydamagetheinnersideofthecylinder.Thesteeringlinkageincludesthesteeringarmsthatareattachedtothesteeringknuckle,tierodsandtierodends,adjustingsleevesandclamps,acenterlinkrelayrodordraglink,anidlerarm,andapitmanarm.Thesteeringgearalsoabsorbsmuchoftheroadshock,whichtendstoturnthefrontwheelsrightorleft.Theintegraltypeofpowersteeringunitcombines,allinasingleassembly,thepowerpistonandcylinderwiththesteeringgearandflowcontrolvalve.Turningthesteeringwheelonavehicleequippedwitharecirculatingballtypeofsteeringgearturnsthegroovedwormshaftinthegear.Turningthegroovedwormshaftcausestheballnuttothreaditswayupordowntheworm.Diagnostictroublecodeswill,however,beerasedwhenabatteryterminalorthePCMconnectorisdisconnected.Inaddition,thediagnostictroublecodecanalsobeerasedbyscantoolMUTIII.IfasensorisdisconnectedwhentheignitionswitchisintheONposition,adiagnostictroublecodeisstoredinmemory.Inthiscase,erasetheDTCusingscantool。WhenamalfunctionofamainsensororactuatorisdetectedbythePCM,thetransmissioniscontrolledbypresetcontrollogictomaintainsafeconditionsfordriving.Ifthelightstaysonorcomesonwhiletheengineisrunning,youhavelostoilpressureandcontinuedoperationwillcausesevereenginedamage.Aburnedoutbrakelightisahazardwhendriversbehindyoucannotbetoldthatyouarebraking.Haveyourbrakelightrepairedrightaway.Itcanindicatethebrakefluidlevelislowifitremainslightafteryoureleasetheparkingbrakeorcomesonwhiledriving.ThislightcomesonwhentheElectronicEngineControlSystemisnotworkingproperly.Takevehicletothedealerimmediately.Theappropriatelightcomesoninthisdisplayifthebootoranydoorisnotclosedtightly.Ifabrakelightdoesnotwork,theBRAKELAMPindicatorcomesonwhenyoupushdownthebrakepedalwiththeignitionswitchON.Thecompressorsuckstherefrigerantvapor(lowtemperatureandlowpressure)fromanevaporatorandchangesitintoahightemperatureandhighpressureconditions.Thenrefrigerantisforcedtopassthecondenser,inwhichtheheatis
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