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©CopyrightbyInternationalOCSCOWorldPress.Allrightsreserved.2006VOLUME18ISSUE12September–October2006ofAchievementsinMaterialsandManufacturingEngineeringShortpaper127PropertiesandapplicationofmagnetorheologicalfluidsM.Kciuka,R.TurczynbaDivisionofNanocrystallineandFunctionalMaterialsandSustainableProecologicalTechnologies,InstituteofEngineeringMaterialsandBiomaterials,SilesianUniversityofTechnology,ul.Konarskiego18a,44100Gliwice,PolandbDepartmentofPhysicalChemistryandTechnologyofPolymers,SilesianUniversityofTechnologyul.MarcinaStrzody9,44100Gliwice,PolandCorrespondingauthorEmailaddressmonika.kciukpolsl.plReceived15.03.2006acceptedinrevisedform30.04.2006MaterialsAbstrActPurposeThispaperpresentsbasicpropertiesofthemagnetorheologicalfluidsMRandtheirdevelopmentinrecentyears.Avarietyofstillgrowingpracticalapplicationsinmechanicaldevicesarepresented.Design/methodology/approachThetheoreticalresearchresultsofthepropertiesandapplicationsobtainedinthepastdecadesandprogressedinrecentyearsarereviewed.FindingsItisveryclearlyandwellunderstoodfromthepresentedpaperthatreplacementofthetraditionaldeviceswithactive,smartsystembetteradaptedtotheenvironmentstimulusarenecessary.ManyofthemwillincludeMRfluidsasactivecomponent.Researchlimitations/implicationsMRfluidswithexcellentpropertiescanbeappliedinvariousfieldsofcivilengineering,safetyengineering,transportationandlifescience.Theyofferanoutstandingcapabilityofactivecontrolofmechanicalproperties.PracticalimplicationsAveryusefulmaterialfortheengineersengagedinthedesignofbrakes,dampers,clutchesandshockabsorberssystems.Originality/valueThisarticledescribesanuptodateMRmaterialsdevelopmentandtheirapplicationincivilengineering.Theadvantageofthesmartsystemsovernowadayssolutionsbecomesthedirectionoftheresearchesanddesigningof21stcenturydevices.KeywordsSmartmaterialsMagnetorheologicalmaterialsMagneticpropertiesShearstress1.IntroductionScienceandtechnologyhavemadeamazingdevelopmentsinthedesignofelectronicsandmachineryusingstandardmaterials,whichdonothaveparticularlyspecialpropertiesi.e.steel,aluminum,gold.Imaginetherangeofpossibilities,whichexistforspecialmaterialsthathavepropertiesscientistscanmanipulate.Somesuchmaterialshavetheabilitytochangeshapeorsizesimplybyaddingalittlebitofheat,ortochangefromaliquidtoasolidalmostinstantlywhennearamagnetthesematerialsarecalledsmartmaterials.Smartmaterialshaveoneormorepropertiesthatcanbedramaticallyaltered.Mosteverydaymaterialshavephysicalproperties,whichcannotbesignificantlyalteredforexampleifoilisheateditwillbecomealittlethinner,whereasasmartmaterialwithvariablemayturnfromaliquidstatewhichflowseasilytoasolid.Eachindividualtypeofsmartmaterialhasadifferentpropertywhichcanbesignificantlyaltered,suchasviscosity,volumeorconductivity.Thepropertythatcanbealtereddetermineswhattypeofapplicationsthesmartmaterialcanbeusedfor1..IntroductionShortpaper128JournalofAchievementsinMaterialsandManufacturingEngineeringM.Kciuk,R.TurczynVolume18Issue12September–October2006Varietiesofsmartmaterialsalreadyexist,andarebeingresearchedextensively.Theseincludepiezoelectricmaterials,magnetorheostaticmaterials,electrorheostaticmaterials,andshapememoryalloys.Someeverydayitemsarealreadyincorporatingsmartmaterialscoffeepots,cars,glassesandthenumberofapplicationsforthemisgrowingsteadily.MagnetorheologicalmaterialsfluidsMRareaclassofsmartmaterialswhoserheologicalpropertiese.g.viscositymayberapidlyvariedbyapplyingamagneticfield.Underinfluenceofmagneticfieldthesuspendedmagneticparticlesinteracttoformastructurethatresistssheardeformationorflow.Thischangeinthematerialappearsasarapidincreaseinapparentviscosityorinthedevelopmentofasemisolidstate.AdvancesintheapplicationofMRmaterialsareparalleltothedevelopmentofnew,moresophisticatedMRmaterialswithbetterpropertiesandstability.ManysmartsystemsandstructureswouldbenefitfromthechangeinviscosityorothermaterialpropertiesofMR.Nowadays,theseapplicationsincludebrakes,dampers,clutchesandshockabsorberssystems.2.PropertiesofmagnetorheologicalfluidsTypicalmagnetorheologicalfluidsarethesuspensionsofmicronsized,magnetizableparticlesmainlyironsuspendedinanappropriatecarrierliquidsuchasmineraloil,syntheticoil,waterorethyleneglycol.Thecarrierfluidservesasadispersedmediumandensuresthehomogeneityofparticlesinthefluid.Avarietyofadditivesstabilizersandsurfactantsareusedtopreventgravitationalsettlingandpromotestableparticlessuspension,enhancelubricityandchangeinitialviscosityoftheMRfluids.Thestabilizersservetokeeptheparticlessuspendedinthefluid,whilstthesurfactantsareadsorbedonthesurfaceofthemagneticparticlestoenhancethepolarizationinducedinthesuspendedparticlesupontheapplicationofamagneticfield.Table1.SummaryofthepropertiesofMRfluids1PropertyTypicalvalueInitialviscosity0,2–0,3Pasat25oCDensity3–4g/cm3Magneticfieldstrength150–250kA/mYieldpoint2o50–100kPaReactiontimefewmillisecondsTypicalsupplyvoltageandcurrentintensity2–25V,1–2AWorktemperature50do150oCTypically,thediameterofthemagnetizableparticlesrangefrom3to5microns.FunctionalMRfluidsmaybemadewithlargerparticles,however,stablesuspensionofparticlesbecomesincreasinglymoredifficultasthesizeincreases.Commercialquantitiesofrelativelyinexpensivecarbonylironaregenerallylimitedtosizesgreaterthan1or2microns.Smallerparticlesthatareeasiertosuspendcouldbeused2,3,butthemanufactureofsuchparticlesisdifficult.Significantlysmallerferromagneticparticlesaregenerallyonlyavailableasoxides,suchaspigmentscommonlyfoundinmagneticrecordingmedia.MRfluidsmadefromsuchpigmentparticlesarequitestablebecausetheparticlesaretypicallyonly30nanometersindiameter.However,becauseoftheirlowersaturationmagnetization,fluidsmadefromtheseparticlesaregenerallylimitedinstrengthtoabout5kPaandhavealargeplasticviscosityduetothelargesurfacearea.Mainparametersofthesefluidsarepresentedintable1.Intheabsenceofanappliedfield,MRfluidsarereasonablywellapproximatedasNewtonianliquids.FormostengineeringapplicationsasimpleBinghamplasticmodeliseffectiveatdescribingtheessential,fielddependentfluidcharacteristics.ABinghamplasticisanonNewtonianfluidwhoseyieldstressmustbeexceededbeforeflowcanbegin4.Thereafter,therateofshearvs.shearstresscurveislinear.Inthismodel,thetotalyieldstressisgivenby1JKWWHo1whereoWyieldstresscausedbyappliedmagneticfield,PaHmagneticfieldstrength,A/mJshearrate,s1Kplasticviscosity,PasLotsofmodern,complexmodelsofmagnetorheologicalfluidsaredeveloped5,6.Normally,MRfluidsarefreeflowingliquidshavingaconsistencysimilartothatofmotoroilFig.1.Fig.1.MRfluidmodelwithoutoutermagneticfield1–carrierliquid,2–suspendedmagnetizableparticlesHowever,inthepresenceofanappliedmagneticfield,theironparticlesacquireadipolemomentalignedwiththeexternalfieldwhichcausesparticlestoformlinearchainsalignedtothemagneticfield,asshowninFig.2.Thisphenomenoncansolidifythesuspendedironparticlesandrestrictthefluidmovement.Consequently,yieldstrengthisdevelopedwithinthefluid.Thedegreeofchangeisrelatedtothemagnitudeoftheappliedmagneticfield,andcanoccurinafewmilliseconds.2.Propertiesofmagnetorheologicalfluids129MaterialsPropertiesandapplicationofmagnetorheologicalfluidsTypicalmagnetorheologicalmaterialscanachieveyieldstrengthsupto50–100kPaatmagneticfieldstrengthofabout150–250kA/m.Itwasfoundthatwallroughnessoncontactwiththefluidisimportantforyieldstrengths,especiallyinlowmagneticfields.Forlowstrainspriortoyield,theshearmodulusofaMRfluidalsoshowsaverylargeincreaseinanappliedmagneticfield.MRmaterialseventuallyreachasaturationpointwhereincreasesofmagneticfieldstrengthdonotincreasetheyieldstrengthoftheMRmaterial.Thisphenomenontypicallyoccursaround300kA/m.TheeffectofmagneticsaturationonthestrengthofMRmaterialscanbestudiedbyusingfiniteelementanalysis.Fig.2.MRfluidmodelintheoutermagneticfieldTheMReffectisimmediatelyreversibleifthemagneticfieldisreducedorremoved.Responsetimesof6.5mshavebeenrecorded.MRmaterialsthathavebeenalreadydevelopedarestableintemperaturerangesfrom–50to150qC.Thereareslightchangesinthevolumefractionandhenceslightreductionsintheyieldstrengthatthesetemperatures,buttheyaresmall.AlsosizeandsizedistributionofthesuspendedparticlesaffectthechangeinpropertiesoftheMRfluidwhenplacedinamagneticfield.Magnetorheologicalmaterialsexhibitsomeadvantagesovertypicalelectrorheologicalmaterials.Incontrasttoelectrorheologicalmaterials,MRfluidsaremoreusefulbecausethechangeintheirrheologicalpropertiesislarge,largerthatinERfluids,soanincreaseofyieldstressare2050timesstronger.UnlikeERmaterials,theyarealsolesssensitivetomoistureandcontaminants,andthusMRmaterialsarecandidatesforuseindirtyorcontaminatedenvironments.TheyarealsounaffectedbythesurfacechemistryofsurfactantsasERmaterialsare.Thepower50Wandvoltage12–24VrequirementsforMRmaterialsactivationarerelativelysmallcomparedwithERmaterials.3.ApplicationofmagnetorheologicalfluidsBecausethestateofMRmaterialscanbecontrolledbythestrengthofanappliedmagneticfield,itisusefulinapplicationswherevariableperformanceisdesired.Microprocessors,sensortechnologiesandincreasingelectroniccontentandprocessingspeedshavecreatedrealtimecontrolpossibilitiesofsmartsystemsusedMRdevices.BeginningofthecommercializationofMRtechnologywasyear1995anduseofrotarybrakesinaerobicexerciseequipment.Fromthismomentapplicationofmagnetorheologicalmaterialtechnologyinrealworldsystemshasgrownsteadily.Duringthepastfewyearsanumberofcommerciallyavailableproductsornearcommercializationhavebeendeveloped,e.g.714xlinearMRdampersforrealtimeactivevibrationalcontrolsystemsinheavydutytrucks,xlinearandrotarybrakesforlowcost,accurate,positionalandvelocitycontrolofpneumaticactuatorsystems,xrotarybrakestoprovidetactileforcefeedbackinsteerbywiresystems,xlineardampersforrealtimegaitcontrolinadvancedprostheticdevices,xadjustablerealtimecontrolledshockabsorbersforautomobiles,xMRspongedampersforwashingmachines,xmagnetorheologicalfluidpolishingtools,xverylargeMRfluiddampersforseismicdamagemitigationincivilengineeringstructures,xlargeMRfluiddamperstocontrolwindinducedvibrationsincablestayedbridges.TheMRbrakeoperatesinadirectshearmode,shearingtheMRfluidfillingthegapbetweenthetwosurfaceshousingandrotormovingwithrespecttooneanother.Rotorisfixedtotheshaft,whichisplacedinbearingsandcanrotateinrelationtohousing.ResistancetorqueintheMRbrakedependsonviscosityoftheMRfluidthatcanbechangedbymagneticfield.MRbrakeallowsforcontinuouscontroloftorque.Whenthereisnomagneticfieldthetorqueiscausedbyviscosityofcarrierliquid,bearingsandseals.MRbrakeisespeciallywellsuitedforavarietyofapplicationsincludingpneumaticactuatorcontrol,precisiontensioncontrolandhapticforcefeedbackinapplicationssuchassteerbywire15.MRclutchsimilartoMRbrakeoperatesinadirectshearmodeandtransferstorquebetweeninputandoutputshaft.TherearetwomaintypesconstructionsofMRclutchcylindricalandfrontal.InthecylindricalmodelMRfluidworksbetweentwocylindricalsurfacesandinfrontalMRfluidfillsgapbetweentwodiscs.Duringworkmagneticfieldproducedbycoilsincreasesviscosityoffluidandcausestransferoftorqueforminputtooutputshaft.Usefultorqueisavailableafter23millisecondsfromstimulation1.MRdampersaresemiactivedevicesthatcontainmagnetorheologicalfluids.Afterapplicationofamagneticfieldthefluidchangesfromliquidtosemisolidstateinfewmilliseconds,sotheresultisaninfinitelyvariable,controllabledampercapableoflargedampingforces.MRdampersofferanattractivesolutiontoenergyabsorptioninmechanicalsystemsandstructuresandcanbeconsideredasfailsafedevices.magneticfieldcarrierliquidmagnetizableparticles3.ApplicationofmagnetorheologicalfluidsShortpaper130READINGDIRECTwww.journalamme.orgJournalofAchievementsinMaterialsandManufacturingEngineeringVolume18Issue12September–October20064.ConclusionsScienceandtechnologyinthe21stcenturywillrelyheavilyonthedevelopmentofnewmaterialsthatareexpectedtorespondtotheenvironmentalchangesandmanifesttheirownfunctionsaccordingtotheoptimumconditions.Thedevelopmentofsmartmaterialswillundoubtedlybeanessentialtaskinmanyfieldsofscienceandtechnologysuchasinformationscience,microelectronics,computerscience,medicaltreatment,lifescience,energy,transportation,safetyengineeringandmilitarytechnologies.Materialsdevelopmentinthefuture,therefore,shouldbedirectedtowardcreationofhyperfunctionalmaterialswhichsurpassevenbiologicalorganinsomeaspects.Thecurrentmaterialsresearchistodevelopvariouspathwaysthatwillleadthemoderntechnologytowardthesmartsystem.Thesefluidscanreversiblyandinstantaneouslychangefromafreeflowingliquidtoasemisolidwithcontrollableyieldstrengthwhenexposedtoamagneticfield.Intheabsenceofanappliedfield,MRfluidsarereasonablywellapproximatedasNewtonianliquids.Formostengineeringapplications,asimpleBinghamplasticmodeliseffectiveindescribingtheessential,fielddependentfluidcharacteristics.MRtechnologyhasmovedoutofthelaboratoryandintoviablecommercialapplicationsforadiversespectrumofproducts.Applicationsincludeautomotiveprimarysuspensions,truckseatsystems,controlbywire/tactilefeedbackdevices,pneumaticcontrol,seismicmitigationandhumanprosthetics.Incontrasttoconventionalelectromechanicalsolutions,MRtechnologyoffersxRealtime,continuouslyvariablecontrolofxDampingxMotionandpositioncontrolxLockingxHapticfeedbackxHighdissipativeforceindependentofvelocityxGreaterenergydensityxSimpledesignfewornomovingpartsxQuickresponsetime10millisecondsxConsistentefficacyacrossextremetemperaturevariationsrangeof140Cto130CxMinimalpowerusagetypically12V,1Ampmaxcurrentfailsafetobatterybackup,whichcanfailsafetopassivedampingmodexInherentsystemstabilitynoactiveforcesgeneratedxMRfluidscanbeoperateddirectlyfromlowvoltagepowersupplies.MRtechnologycanprovideflexible,reliablecontrolcapabilitiesindesigns.References1A.àawniczak,ElectroandMagnetorheologicalFluidsandtheirApplicationsinEngineering,Pozna1999inPolish2S.P.Rwei,H.Y.Lee,S.D.Yoo,L.Y.Wang,J.G.Lin,MagnetorheologicalcharacteristicsofaqueoussuspensionsthatcontainFe3O4nanoparticles,ColloidPolymerScience2832005,1253–12583C.Holm,J.J.Weis,ThestructureofferrofluidsAstatusreport,CurrentOpinioninColloidInterfaceScience102005,133–1404D.A.Siginer,AdvancesintheFlowandRheologyofNonNewtonianFluids,Elsevier,19995K.C.Chen,C.S.Yeh,Amixturemodelformagnetorheologicalmaterials,ContinuumMechanicsandThermodynamics,152002,495–5106L.Zhou,W.Wen,P.ShengGroundStatesofMagnetorheologicalFluids,PhysicalReviewLettersVol.81,Nr7,150915127J.Huang,J.Q.Zhang,Y.Yang,Y.Q.WeiAnalysisanddesignofacylindricalmagnetorheologicalfluidbrake,JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology1292002,559–5628K.Shimada,Y.Wu,Y.MatsuoandK.Yamamoto,Newpolishingtechniqueusingnewpolishingtoolconsistingofmicromagneticclustersinfloatpolishing,Proceedingsofthe8thInternationalConferenceonAdvancesinMaterialsandProcessingTechnology,AMPT2005,GliwiceWisáa,2005,5475509K.Shimada,Y.Wu,Y.MatsuoandK.Yamamoto,Floatpolishingtechniqueusingnewtoolconsistingofmicromagneticclusters,JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology,1621632005,69069510T.Pranoto,K.Nagaya,Developmenton2DOFtypeandRotarytypeshockabsorberdamperusingMRFandtheirefficiencies,JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology,1612005,14615011W.B.Kim,B.K.Min,S.J.Lee,Developmentofapadlessultraprecisionpolishingmethodusingelectrorheologicalfluid,JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology,1551562004,1293129912DhirendraK.Singh,V.K.Jin,V.Raghuram,Parametricstudyofmagneticabrasivefinishingprocess,JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology,1492004,222913W.Klein,M.Otorowski,Reviewofmagnetorheologicalfluidsapplicationsinmechanicalsystems,9thInternationalseminarofAppliedMechanics,Wisáa2005,7582inPolish14W.Klein,A.Myk,M.Otorowski,Theapplicationoverhaulofmagnetorheologicalfluidsinmechanicalengineering,XIIIInternationalScientificConferenceTEMAG,GliwiceUstro2005,9510515B.Sapiski,S.Bydo,Applicationofmagnetorheologicalfluidbraketoshaftpositioncontrolininductionmotor,AMASWorkshoponSmartMaterialsandStructures,SMART03,Jadwisin2003,169–1804.conclusionsreferences
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