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英文原文SCREWMACHINEDESIGNHOLMES,1999REPORTEDTHATEVENHIGHERACCURACYWASACHIEVEDONTHENEWHOLROYDVITRIFYINGTHREADGRINDINGMACHINE,THUSKEEPINGTHEMANUFACTURINGTOLERANCESWITHIN3ΜMEVENINLARGEBATCHPRODUCTIONTHISMEANSTHAT,ASFARASROTORPRODUCTIONALONEISCONCERNED,CLEARANCESBETWEENTHEROTORSCANBEASSMALLAS12ΜMSCREWMACHINESAREUSEDTODAYFORDIFFERENTAPPLICATIONSBOTHASCOMPRESSORSANDEXPANDERSFIG14SCREWCOMPRESSORMECHANICALPARTSFIG15CROSSSECTIONOFASCREWCOMPRESSORWITHGEARBOXFOROPTIMUMPERFORMANCEFROMTHEMASPECIFICDESIGNANDOPERATINGMODEISNEEDEDFOREACHAPPLICATIONHENCE,ITISNOTPOSSIBLETOPRODUCEEFFICIENTMACHINESBYTHESPECIFICATIONOFAUNIVERSALROTORCONFIGURATIONORSETOFWORKINGPARAMETERS,EVENFORARESTRICTEDCLASSOFMACHINESINDUSTRIALCOMPRESSORSAREREQUIREDTOCOMPRESSAIR,REFRIGERANTSANDPROCESSGASESFOREACHAPPLICATIONTHEIRDESIGNMUSTDIFFERTOOBTAINTHEMOSTDESIRABLERESULTTYPICALLY,REFRIGERATIONANDPROCESSGASCOMPRESSORS,WHICHOPERATEFORLONGPERIODS,MUSTHAVEAHIGHEFFICIENCYINTHECASEOFAIRCOMPRESSORS,ESPECIALLYFORMOBILEAPPLICATIONS,EFFICIENCYMAYBELESSIMPORTANTTHANSIZEANDCOSTOILFREECOMPRESSEDAIRISDELIVEREDALMOSTEXCLUSIVELYBYSCREWCOMPRESSORSTHESITUATIONISBECOMINGSIMILARFORTHECASEOFPROCESSGASCOMPRESSIONINTHEFIELDOFREFRIGERATION,RECIPROCATINGANDVANECOMPRESSORSARECONTINUOUSLYBEINGREPLACEDBYSCREWANDADRAMATICINCREASEINTHENEEDSFORREFRIGERATIONCOMPRESSORSISEXPECTEDINTHENEXTFEWYEARSTHERANGEOFSCREWCOMPRESSORSSIZESCURRENTLYMANUFACTUREDISCOVEREDBYMALEROTORDIAMETERSOF75TO620MMANDTHISPERMITSTHEDELIVERYOFCOMPRESSEDGASFLOWRATESOF06M3/MINTO600M3/MINAPRESSURERATIOOF35ISATTAINABLEINTHEMFROMASINGLESTAGEFORDRYCOMPRESSORSANDUPTO15FOROILFLOODEDONESNORMALPRESSUREDIFFERENCESAREUPTO15BARS,BUTMAXIMUMPRESSUREDIFFERENCESSOMETIMESEXCEED40BARSTYPICALLY,FOROILFLOODEDAIRCOMPRESSIONAPPLICATIONS,THEVOLUMETRICEFFICIENCYOFTHESEMACHINESNOWEXCEEDS90ANDTHESPECIFICPOWERINPUTHASBEENREDUCEDTOVALUESWHICHWEREREGARDEDASUNATTAINABLEONLYAFEWYEARSAGO11SCREWCOMPRESSORPRACTICETHESWEDISHCOMPANYSRMWASAPIONEERANDTHEYARESTILLLEADERSINTHEFIELDOFSCREWCOMPRESSORPRACTICEOTHERCOMPANIES,LIKECOMPAIRUK,ATLASCOPCOINBELGIUM,INGERSOLRANDANDGARDNERDENVERINTHEUSAANDGHHINGERMANYFOLLOWTHEMCLOSELYYORK,TRANEANDCARRIERLEADINSCREWCOMPRESSORAPPLICATIONSFORREFRIGERATIONANDAIRCONDITIONINGJAPANESESCREWCOMPRESSORMANUFACTURERS,LIKEHITACHI,MYCOMANDKOBESTEELAREALSOWELLKNOWNMANYRELATIVELYNEWSCREWCOMPRESSORCOMPANIESHAVEBEENFOUNDEDINTHEMIDDLEANDFAREASTNEWMARKETSINCHINAANDINDIAANDINOTHERDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESOPENNEWSCREWCOMPRESSORFACTORIESALTHOUGHNOTDIRECTLYINVOLVEDINCOMPRESSORPRODUCTIONTHEBRITISHCOMPANY,HOLROYD,ARETHELARGESTSCREWROTORMANUFACTURER,THEYAREWORLDLEADERSINTOOLDESIGNANDTOOLMACHINEPRODUCTIONFORSCREWCOMPRESSORROTORSDESPITETHEINCREASINGPOPULARITYOFSCREWCOMPRESSORS,PUBLICKNOWLEDGEANDUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEMISSTILLLIMITEDTHREESCREWCOMPRESSORTEXTBOOKSWEREPUBLISHEDINRUSSIANINTHEEARLYNINETEENSIXTIESSAKUN,1960GIVESAFULLDESCRIPTIONOFCIRCULAR,ELLIPTICANDCYCLOIDALPROFILEGENERATIONANDAREPRODUCIBLEPRESENTATIONOFARUSSIANASYMMETRICPROFILENAMEDSKBKTHEPROFILEGENERATIONINHISBOOKWASBASEDONANENVELOPEAPPROACHANDREEV,1961REPEATSTHETHEORYOFSCREWPROFILESANDMAKESACONTRIBUTIONTOROTORTOOLPROFILEGENERATIONTHEORYGOLOVINTSOV’STEXTBOOK,1964,ISMOREGENERALBUTITSSECTIONONSCREWCOMPRESSORSISBOTHINTERESTINGANDINFORMATIVEASOMOV,1977,ALSOINRUSSIAN,GAVEAREPRODUCIBLEPRESENTATIONOFTHESRMASYMMETRICPROFILE,FIVEYEARSAFTERITWASPATENTED,TOGETHERWITHTHECLASSICLYSHOLMPROFILETWOTEXTBOOKSHAVEBEENPUBLISHEDINGERMANRINDER,1979,PRESENTEDAPROFILEGENERATIONMETHODBASEDONGEARTHEORYTORECONSTRUCTTHESRMASYMMETRICPROFILE,SEVENYEARSAFTERITWASPATENTEDKONKA,1988,PUBLISHEDSOMEENGINEERINGASPECTSOFSCREWCOMPRESSORSONLYRECENTLYANUMBEROFTEXTBOOKSHAVEBEENPUBLISHEDINENGLISH,WHICHDEALWITHSCREWCOMPRESSORSO’NEILL,1993,ONINDUSTRIALCOMPRESSORSANDARBON,1994,ONROTARYTWINSHAFTCOMPRESSORSTHEREAREAFEWCOMPRESSORMANUFACTURERS’HANDBOOKSONSCREWCOMPRESSORSANDANUMBEROFBROCHURESGIVINGUSEFULINFORMATIONONTHEM,BUTTHESEAREEITHERCLASSIFIEDORNOTINTHEPUBLICDOMAINSOMEOFTHEM,LIKETHESRMDATABOOK,ALTHOUGHAVAILABLEONLYTOSRMLICENSEES,ARECITEDINLITERATUREONSCREWCOMPRESSORSTHEREISANEXTRAORDINARILYLARGENUMBEROFPATENTSONSCREWCOMPRESSORSLITERALLYTHOUSANDSHAVEAPPEAREDINTHEPASTTHIRTYYEARS,OFWHICHSRM,ALONE,HOLDS750THEPATENTSDEALWITHVARIOUSASPECTSOFTHESEMACHINES,BUTESPECIALLYWITHTHEIRROTORPROFILESTHESRMPATENTSOFNILSON,1952,FORTHESYMMETRICPROFILE,SHIBBIE,1979,FORTHEASYMMETRICPROFILEANDASTBERG1982,FORTHE“D”PROFILEARETHEMOSTWIDELYQUOTEDINREFERENCELITERATUREONTHISTOPICOHMAN,1999,INTRODUCEDTHE“G”PROFILEFORSRMOTHEREXAMPLESOFSUCCESSFULPROFILINGPATENTSMAYALSOBEMENTIONED,NAMELYATLASCOPCO,COMPAIRWITHHOUGH,1984,GARDNERDENVERWITHEDSTROEM,1974,HITACHIWITHKASUYA,1983,ANDINGERSOLLRANDWITHBOWMAN,1983MORERECENTLY,SEVERALHIGHLYSUCCESSFULPATENTSWEREGRANTEDTORELATIVELYSMALLCOMPANIESSUCHASFUSHENG,LEE,1988,ANDHANBEL,CHIAHSING,1995ANEWAPPROACHTOPROFILEGENERATION,USINGARACKASTHEBASISFORTHEPRIMARYCURVES,WASPROPOSEDBYRINDER,1987,ANDSTOSIC,1996ALLPATENTEDPROFILESWEREGENERATEDBYAPROCEDUREBUTINFORMATIONONTHEMETHODSUSEDISHARDLYDISCLOSEDEITHERINTHEPATENTSORINACCOMPANYINGPUBLICATIONSTHUSITTOOKMANYYEARSBEFORETHESEPROCEDURESBECAMEKNOWNEXAMPLESOFTHISAREMARGOLIS,WHOPUBLISHEDHISDERIVATIONOFTHESYMMETRICCIRCULARPROFILEIN1977,32YEARSAFTERITHADBEENPATENTEDANDRINDER,WHOUSEDGEARMESHINGCRITERIATOREPRODUCETHESRMASYMMETRICPROFILEIN1979,9YEARSAFTERPATENTPUBLICATIONITMAYALSOBEMENTIONEDTHATTANG,1995,DERIVEDTHESRM“D”PROFILEANALYTICALLYASPARTOFAPHDTHESIS13YEARSAFTERTHEPATENTPUBLICATIONMANYOTHERASPECTSOFSCREWCOMPRESSORSWEREALSOPATENTEDTHESEINCLUDENEARLYALLTHEIRMOSTWELLKNOWNCHARACTERISTICS,SUCHAS,OILFLOODING,THESUCTIONANDDISCHARGEPORTSFOLLOWINGTHEROTORTIPHELICES,AXIALFORCECOMPENSATION,UNLOADING,THESLIDEVALVEANDTHEECONOMISERPORT,MOSTOFWHICHWEREFILEDBYSRMHOWEVER,OTHERCOMPANIESWEREALSOKEENTOFILEPATENTSTHEGENERALIMPRESSIONGAINEDISTHATPATENTEXPERTSAREASIMPORTANTFORSCREWCOMPRESSORDEVELOPMENTASENGINEERSTHEREISASURPRISINGLACKOFSCREWCOMPRESSORPUBLICATIONSINTHETECHNICALLITERATURELYSHOLM’SPAPERSIN1942AND1966WEREAMIDTWENTIETHCENTURYEXCEPTION,BUTHEDIDNOTINCLUDEANYDETAILSOFTHEPROFILINGDETAILSWHICHHEINTRODUCEDTOREDUCETHEBLOWHOLEAREATHUS,JOURNALPAPERSLIKETHOSEOFSTOSICETAL,1997,1998,MAYBEREGARDEDASANEXCEPTIONINRECENTYEARS,PUBLICATIONOFSCREWCOMPRESSORMATERIALSINJOURNALSHASBECOMEMORECOMMONTHROUGHTHEINTERNATIONALINSTITUTIONOFREFRIGERATIONSTOSIC,1992ANDFUJIWARA,1995,THEIMECHE,WITHPAPERSBYSMITH,1996,FLEMING,1994,1998ANDSTOSIC1998,ANDTHEASME,BYHANJALIC,1997TOGETHERTHESEMADEMOREINFORMATIONAVAILABLETHANTHETOTALPUBLISHEDINALLPREVIOUSYEARSSTOSIC’S,1998PAPERISATYPICALEXAMPLEOFTHEMODERNPRACTICEOFTIMELYPUBLISHINGTHEREARETHREECOMPRESSORCONFERENCESWHICHDEALEXCLUSIVELYORPARTLYWITHSCREWCOMPRESSORSTHESEARETHEBIENNIALCOMPRESSORTECHNOLOGYCONFERENCE,HELDATPURDUEUNIVERSITYINTHEUSA,THEIMECHEINTERNATIONALCONFERENCEONCOMPRESSORSANDTHEIRSYSTEMS,INENGLANDANDTHE“VDISCHRAUBENKOMPRESSORENTAGUNG”INDORTMUND,GERMANYDESPITETHENUMBEROFPAPERSONSCREWCOMPRESSORSPUBLISHEDATTHESEEVENTS,ONLYAFEWOFTHEMCONTAINUSEFULINFORMATIONONROTORPROFILINGANDCOMPRESSORDESIGNTYPICALPURDUEPAPERSCITEDASPUBLICATIONSFROMWHICHAREADERCANGAININFORMATIONONTHISAREEDSTROEM,1992,STOSIC,1994ANDSINGH,1984,1990ZHANG,1992,INDICATESTHATTHEYUSEDENVELOPETHEORYTOCALCULATESOMEGEOMETRICFEATURESOFTHEIRROTORSTHEDORTMUNDPROCEEDINGSGIVESOMEINTERESTINGPAPERSSUCHASTHATBYRINDER,1984,WHOPRESENTEDTHERACKGENERATIONOFASCREWROTORPROFILE,INCLUDINGAFULLYREPRODUCIBLEPATTERNBASEDONGEARTHEORYHANJALIC,1994ANDHOLMES,1994,GIVEMOREDETAILSONPROFILING,MANUFACTURINGANDCONTROLKAUDER,1994,1998ANDSTOSIC,1998ARETYPICALEXAMPLESOFSUCCESSFULUNIVERSITYRESEACHAPPLIEDTOREALENGINEERINGSAULS,1994,1998,MAYBEREGARDEDASANEXAMPLEOFFINEENGINEERINGWORKTHELONDONCOMPRESSORCONFERENCEINCLUDEDSOMEINTERESTINGPAPERSLIKETHOSEOFEDSTROEM,1989ANDSTOSICETAL,1999MANYREFERENCETEXTBOOKSONGEARSGIVEUSEFULBACKGROUNDFORSCREWROTORPROFILINGHOWEVERALLOFTHEMARELIMITEDTOTHECLASSICALGEARCONJUGATEACTIONCONDITIONLITVIN,1968AND1956–1994MAYBEREGARDEDASANEXCEPTIONTOTHISPRACTICE,INGIVINGGEARINGTHEORYWHICHCANBEAPPLIEDDIRECTLYTOSCREWCOMPRESSORPROFILING12RECENTDEVELOPMENTSTHEEFFICIENTOPERATIONOFSCREWCOMPRESSORSISMAINLYDEPENDENTONPROPERROTORDESIGNANADDITIONALANDIMPORTANTREQUIREMENTFORTHESUCCESSFULDESIGNOFALLTYPESOFCOMPRESSORISANABILITYTOPREDICTACCURATELYTHEEFFECTSONPERFORMANCEOFTHECHANGEINANYDESIGNPARAMETERSUCHASCLEARANCE,ROTORPROFILESHAPE,OILORFLUIDINJECTIONPOSITIONANDRATE,ROTORDIAMETERANDPROPORTIONSANDSPEEDNOW,WHENCLEARANCESARETIGHTANDINTERNALLEAKAGERATESHAVEBECOMESMALL,FURTHERIMPROVEMENTSAREONLYPOSSIBLEBYTHEINTRODUCTIONOFMOREREFINEDDESIGNPRINCIPLESTHEMAINREQUIREMENTISTOIMPROVETHEROTORPROFILESSOTHATTHEINTERNALFLOWAREATHROUGHTHECOMPRESSORISMAXIMISEDWHILETHELEAKAGEPATHISMINIMISEDANDINTERNALFRICTION,DUETORELATIVEMOTIONBETWEENTHECONTACTINGROTORSURFACES,ISMADEASSMALLASPOSSIBLEALTHOUGHITMAYSEEMTHATROTORPROFILINGISNOWINAFULLYDEVELOPEDSTATE,THISISFARFROM
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