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MODERNMECHANICALENGINEERING,2011,1,4755DOI104236/MME201112007PUBLISHEDONLINENOVEMBER2011HTTP//WWWSCIRPORG/JOURNAL/MMECOPYRIGHT2011SCIRESMMEDESIGNANDDEVELOPMENTOFACOMPETITIVELOWCOSTROBOTARMWITHFOURDEGREESOFFREEDOMASHRAFELFASAKHANY1,2,EDUARDOYANEZ2,KARENBAYLON2,RICARDOSALGADO21DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,FACULTYOFENGINEERING,TAIFUNIVERSITY,ALHAWEIAH,SAUDIARABIA2TECNOLGICODEMONTERREY,CAMPUSCIUDADJUREZ,CIUDADJUAREZ,MEXICOEMAILASHR12000YAHOOCOMRECEIVEDOCTOBER19,2011;REVISEDNOVEMBER7,2011;ACCEPTEDNOVEMBER15,2011ABSTRACTTHEMAINFOCUSOFTHISWORKWASTODESIGN,DEVELOPANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPETITIVELYROBOTARMWITHENHANCEDCONTROLANDSTUMPYCOSTTHEROBOTARMWASDESIGNEDWITHFOURDEGREESOFFREEDOMANDTALENTEDTOACCOMPLISHACCURATELYSIMPLETASKS,SUCHASLIGHTMATERIALHANDLING,WHICHWILLBEINTEGRATEDINTOAMOBILEPLATFORMTHATSERVESASANASSISTANTFORINDUSTRIALWORKFORCETHEROBOTARMISEQUIPPEDWITHSEVERALSERVOMOTORSWHICHDOLINKSBETWEENARMSANDPERFORMARMMOVEMENTSTHESERVOMOTORSINCLUDEENCODERSOTHATNOCONTROLLERWASIMPLEMENTEDTOCONTROLTHEROBOTWEUSEDLABVIEW,WHICHPERFORMSINVERSEKINEMATICCALCULATIONSANDCOMMUNICATESTHEPROPERANGLESSERIALLYTOAMICROCONTROLLERTHATDRIVESTHESERVOMOTORSWITHTHECAPABILITYOFMODIFYINGPOSITION,SPEEDANDACCELERATIONTESTINGANDVALIDATIONOFTHEROBOTARMWASCARRIEDOUTANDRESULTSSHOWSTHATITWORKPROPERLYKEYWORDSROBOTARM,LOWCOST,DESIGN,VALIDATION,FOURDEGREESOFFREEDOM,SERVOMOTORS,ARDUINOROBOTCONTROL,LABVIEWROBOTCONTROL1INTRODUCTIONTHETERMROBOTICSISPRACTICALLYDEFINEDASTHESTUDY,DESIGNANDUSEOFROBOTSYSTEMSFORMANUFACTURING1ROBOTSAREGENERALLYUSEDTOPERFORMUNSAFE,HAZARDOUS,HIGHLYREPETITIVE,ANDUNPLEASANTTASKSTHEYHAVEMANYDIFFERENTFUNCTIONSSUCHASMATERIALHANDLING,ASSEMBLY,ARCWELDING,RESISTANCEWELDING,MACHINETOOLLOADANDUNLOADFUNCTIONS,PAINTING,SPRAYING,ETCTHEREAREMAINLYTWODIFFERENTKINDSOFROBOTSASERVICEROBOTANDANINDUSTRIALROBOTICSERVICEROBOTISAROBOTTHATOPERATESSEMIORFULLYAUTONOMOUSLYTOPERFORMSERVICESUSEFULTOTHEWELLBEINGOFHUMANSANDEQUIPMENT,EXCLUDINGMANUFACTURINGOPERATIONS2INDUSTRIALROBOT,ONTHEOTHERHAND,ISOFFICIALLYDEFINEDBYISOASANAUTOMATICALLYCONTROLLEDANDMULTIPURPOSEMANIPULATORPROGRAMMABLEINTHREEORMOREAXIS1INDUSTRIALROBOTSAREDESIGNEDTOMOVEMATERIAL,PARTS,TOOLS,ORSPECIALIZEDDEVICESTHROUGHVARIABLEPROGRAMMEDMOTIONSTOPERFORMAVARIETYOFTASKSANINDUSTRIALROBOTSYSTEMINCLUDESNOTONLYINDUSTRIALROBOTSBUTALSOANYDEVICESAND/ORSENSORSREQUIREDFORTHEROBOTTOPERFORMITSTASKSASWELLASSEQUENCINGORMONITORINGCOMMUNICATIONINTERFACESIN2007THEWORLDMARKETGREWBY3WITHAPPROXIMATELY114,000NEWINSTALLEDINDUSTRIALROBOTSATTHEENDOF2007THEREWEREAROUNDONEMILLIONINDUSTRIALROBOTSINUSE,COMPAREDWITHANESTIMATED50,000SERVICEROBOTSFORINDUSTRIALUSE3DUETOINCREASEUSINGOFINDUSTRIALROBOTARMS,ANEVOLUTIONTOTHATTOPICBEGANTRYINGTOIMITATEHUMANMOVEMENTSINADETAILMODEFOREXAMPLEAGROUPOFSTUDENTSINKOREAMADEADESIGNOFINNOVATIONSTHATROBOTICARMTAKEACCOUNTOFDANCINGHAND,WEIGHTLIFTING,CHINESECALLIGRAPHYWRITINGANDCOLORCLASSIFICATION4ANOTHERGROUPOFENGINEERSATUSADEVELOPEIGHTDEGREESOFFREEDOMROBOTARMTHISROBOTISABLETOGRASPMANYOBJECTSWITHALOTOFSHAPESFROMAPENTOABALLANDSIMULATINGALSOTHEHANDOFHUMANBEING5INSPACE,THESPACESHUTTLEREMOTEMANIPULATORSYSTEM,KNOWNASSSRMSORCANADARM,ANDITSSUCCESSORISEXAMPLEOFMULTIDEGREEOFFREEDOMROBOTARMSTHATHAVEBEENUSEDTOPERFORMAVARIETYOFTASKSSUCHASINSPECTIONSOFTHESPACESHUTTLEUSINGASPECIALLYDEPLOYEDBOOMWITHCAMERASANDSENSORSATTACHEDATTHEENDEFFECTORANDSATELLITEDEPLOYMENTANDRETRIEVALMANOEUVRESFROMTHECARGOBAYOFTHESPACESHUTTLE6INMEXICO,SCIENTISTSAREONTRACKTODESIGNANDDEVELOPMANYROBOTARMS,ANDTHEMEXICANGOVERNMENTAELFASAKHANYETAL48ESTIMATESTHATINMEXICOTHEREAREABOUT11,000ROBOTICARMSUSEDINDIFFERENTINDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONSHOWEVER,THEEXPERTSTHINKTHATTHEAPOGEEOFTHEROBOTARMSISNOTONLYOFHIGHERQUALITY,BUTALSOACCURATELY,REPEATABILITY,ANDSTUMPYCOSTMOSTROBOTSARESETUPFORANOPERATIONBYTHETEACHANDREPEATTECHNIQUEINTHISMODE,ATRAINEDOPERATORPROGRAMMERTYPICALLYUSESAPORTABLECONTROLDEVICEATEACHPENDANTTOTEACHAROBOTITSTASKMANUALLYROBOTSPEEDSDURINGTHESEPROGRAMMINGSESSIONSARESLOWTHEPRESENTWORKISPARTOFATWOPHASEPROJECT,WHICHREQUIRESAMOBILEROBOTTOBEABLETOTRANSPORTTHETOOLSFROMTHESTORAGEROOMTOTHEINDUSTRIALCELLINTHISPHASEINTHEPROJECT,WHICHCARRIEDOUTATMONTERREYUNIVERSITYOFTECHNOLOGY,MEXICO,THEMAINFOCUSWASTODESIGN,DEVELOPMENTANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFANINDUSTRIALROBOTICARMWITHSTUMPYCOST,ACCURATEANDSUPERIORCONTROLTHISROBOTARMWASDESIGNEDWITHFOURDEGREESOFFREEDOMANDTALENTEDTOACCOMPLISHSIMPLETASKS,SUCHASLIGHTMATERIALHANDLING,WHICHWILLBEINTEGRATEDINTOAMOBILEPLATFORMTHATSERVESASANASSISTANTFORINDUSTRIALWORKFORCE2MECHANICALDESIGNTHEMECHANICALDESIGNOFTHEROBOTARMISBASEDONAROBOTMANIPULATORWITHSIMILARFUNCTIONSTOAHUMANARM68THELINKSOFSUCHAMANIPULATORARECONNECTEDBYJOINTSALLOWINGROTATIONALMOTIONANDTHELINKSOFTHEMANIPULATORISCONSIDEREDTOFORMAKINEMATICCHAINTHEBUSINESSENDOFTHEKINEMATICCHAINOFTHEMANIPULATORISCALLEDTHEENDEFFECTORORENDOFARMTOOLINGANDITISANALOGOUSTOTHEHUMANHANDFIGURE1SHOWSTHEFREEBODYDIAGRAMFORMECHANICALDESIGNOFTHEROBOTICARMASSHOWN,THEENDEFFECTORISNOTINCLUDEDINTHEDESIGNBECAUSEACOMMERCIALLYAVAILABLEGRIPPERISUSEDTHISISBECAUSETHATTHEENDEFFECTORISONEOFTHEMOSTCOMPLEXFIGURE1FREEBODYDIAGRAMOFTHEROBOTARMPARTSOFTHESYSTEMAND,INTURN,ITISMUCHEASIERANDECONOMICALTOUSEACOMMERCIALONETHANBUILDITFIGURE2SHOWSTHEWORKREGIONOFTHEROBOTICARMTHISISTHETYPICALWORKSPACEOFAROBOTARMWITHFOURDEGREEOFFREEDOM4DOFTHEMECHANICALDESIGNWASLIMITEDTO4DOFMAINLYBECAUSETHATSUCHADESIGNALLOWSMOSTOFTHENECESSARYMOVEMENTSANDKEEPSTHECOSTSANDTHECOMPLEXITYOFTHEROBOTCOMPETITIVELYACCORDINGLY,ROTATIONALMOTIONOFTHEJOINTSISRESTRICTEDWHEREROTATIONISDONEAROUNDTWOAXISINTHESHOULDERANDAROUNDONLYONEINTHEELBOWANDTHEWRIST,SEEFIGURE1THEROBOTARMJOINTSARETYPICALLYACTUATEDBYELECTRICALMOTORSTHESERVOMOTORSWERECHOSEN,SINCETHEYINCLUDEENCODERSWHICHAUTOMATICALLYPROVIDEFEEDBACKTOTHEMOTORSANDADJUSTTHEPOSITIONACCORDINGLYHOWEVER,THEDISADVANTAGEOFTHESEMOTORSISTHATROTATIONRANGEISLESSTHAN180˚SPAN,WHICHGREATLYDECREASESTHEREGIONREACHEDBYTHEARMANDTHEPOSSIBLEPOSITIONS9THEQUALIFICATIONSOFSERVOMOTORSWERESELECTEDBASEDONTHEMAXIMUMTORQUEREQUIREDBYTHESTRUCTUREANDPOSSIBLELOADSINTHECURRENTSTUDY,THEMATERIALUSEDFORTHESTRUCTUREWASACRYLICFIGURE3SHOWSTHEFORCEDIAGRAMUSEDFORLOADCALCULATIONSTHECALCULATIONSWERECARRIEDOUTONLYFORTHEJOINTSTHATHAVETHELARGESTLOADS,SINCETHEOTHERJOINTSWOULDHAVETHESAMEMOTOR,IETHEMOTORCANMOVETHELINKSWITHOUTPROBLEMSTHECALCULATIONSCONSIDEREDTHEWEIGHTOFTHEMOTORS,ABOUT50GRAMS,EXCEPTFORTHEWEIGHTOFMOTORATJOINTB,SINCEITISCARRIEDOUTBYLINKBAFIGURE4SHOWSTHEFORCEDIAGRAMONLINKCB,WHICHCONTAINSTHEJOINTSBANDCWITHTHEHIGHESTLOADCARRYTHELINKSDCANDEDANDTHECALCULATIONSARECARRIEDOUTASFOLLOWSFIGURE2WORKREGIONOFTHEROBOTICARMCOPYRIGHT2011SCIRESMME49AELFASAKHANYETALFIGURE3FORCEDIAGRAMOFROBOTARMFIGURE4FORCEDIAGRAMOFLINKCBTHEVALUESUSEDFORTHETORQUECALCULATIONSWD0011KGWEIGHTOFLINKDEWC0030KGWEIGHTOFLINKCDWB0030KGWEIGHTOFLINKCBL1KGLOADCMDM0050KGWEIGHTOFMOTORLBC014MLENGTHOFLINKBCLCD014MLENGTHOFLINKCDLDE005MLENGTHOFLINKDEPERFORMINGTHESUMOFFORCESINTHEYAXIS,USINGTHELOADSASSHOWNINFIGURE4,ANDSOLVINGFORCYANDCB,SEEEQUATIONS14SIMILARLY,PERFORMINGTHESUMOFMOMENTSAROUNDPOINTC,EQUATION5,ANDPOINTB,EQUATION6,TOOBTAINTHETORQUEINCANDB,EQUATIONS7AND8,RESPECTIVELYGYDMCMYFLWDWCC0121141KG98MS1118NYC20YDMCMBBFLWDWCWGC321171KG98MS114758NBC4220CCDDECDCDCDDEMCDCWLLMWLLLLDLM52202DEBBCCDDEDBCCDCDMBCCDCBCBCMBCBBLMLLLLWLLLDLLWLLCLWM61968NM2786OZINCM73554NM50338OZINBM8THESERVOMOTORTHATWASSELECTED,BASEDONTHECALCULATIONS,ISTHEHEXTRONIKHX12K,WHICHHASATORQUEOF280OZ/INTHISMOTORWASRECOMMENDEDBECAUSEITISMUCHCHEAPERTHANANYOTHERMOTORWITHSAMESPECIFICATIONSSINCEWENEEDMORETORQUEATJOINTB,SEEEQUATION8,WEUSEDTWOMOTORSATPOINTBTOCOMPLYWITHTHETORQUEREQUIREMENTS;HOWEVER,ONEMOTORISENOUGHFORTHEOTHERJOINTSUSINGTWOMOTORSATJOINTBISMUCHCHEAPERTHANUSINGONEBIGMOTORWITH560OZ/INOTHERRELEVANTCHARACTERISTICSOFTHEMOTORS,WHICHCANBESHOWNINFIGURE5,ARETHATTHEYCANTURN60DEGREESIN130MILLISECONDSANDTHEYHAVEAWEIGHTOF479GRAMSEACHONCETHEINITIALDIMENSIONSFORTHEROBOTARMANDTHEMOTORWEREDEFINED,THEDESIGNWERECARRIEDOUTUSINGTHESOLIDWORKSPLATFORM;DESIGNSHOULDCAREFULLYTAKEINTOACCOUNTTHETHICKNESSOFTHEACRYLICSHEETANDTHEWAYTHATTHEPIECESWOULDBEATTACHEDTOEACHOTHERTHEACRYLICSHEETUSEDTOMAKETHEROBOTIS1/8THICKNESSANDFIGURE5SERVOMOTORCOPYRIGHT2011SCIRESMMEAELFASAKHANYETAL50THATTHINSHEETWASCHOSENBECAUSEITEASIERFORMACHININGANDLESSWEIGHTWITHAGOODRESISTANCEDURINGDESIGN,WEFACEDSOMEDIFFICULTIESDUETOTHEWAYOFJOININGTHINACRYLICPARTSSTRONGLYITWASNEEDEDTOOLSTOBURNANDJOINTHEACRYLICPARTSANDTHATWEREN’TAVAILABLEANDTHETEAMCONSIDEREDTHATAMECHANICALJUNCTIONBASEDONSCREWSANDNUTSWOULDBEMUCHSTRONGTHANOTHERALTERNATIVES,SUCHASGLUEFOREXAMPLEINORDERTOACCOMPLISHTHIS,ASMALLFEATUREWASDESIGNEDWHICHALLOWEDTOFASTENTHEBOLTSWITHTHENUTSWITHOUTHAVINGTOSCREWINTHETHINACRYLICLAYERTHERESULTOFTHISPROCESSWASTHETRIDIMENSIONALDESIGNSHOWNINFIGURE6BYENDOFDESIGN,EACHPARTWASPRINTEDINFULLSCALEINCARDBOARDPAPERANDTHENWEVERIFIEDALLTHEDIMENSIONSANDTHEINTERFACESOFTHEASSEMBLYINTURN,WEBUILTTHEFIRSTPROTOTYPEOFTHEROBOTARMNEXT,PARTSOFTHEROBOTARMWEREMACHINEDFROMTHEACRYLICSHEETUSINGACIRCULARSAWANDDERMALTOOLSTHEDETAILINGONTHEPARTSWASDONEINAPROFESSIONALWORKSHOPSINCETHEPARTSOFROBOTARMWERETOOSMALLANDITISNOTANEASYFORACCOMPLISHINGSUCHSMALLANDACCURATECUTSDURINGASSEMBLINGTHEROBOTPARTSWITHTHEMOTORS,FEWPROBLEMSPOPUPTHEREWERECRITICALPOINTSTHATDIDNOTRESISTTHEFASTENINGAND,INTURN,MAYBREAKDOWN;HENCE,REINFORCEMENTSINTHESEPOINTSWERECONSIDEREDTHEFINALRESULTOFTHEROBOTARMISSHOWNINFIGURE73ROBOTARMINVERSEKINEMATICSTOVALIDATETHERIGHTPOSITIONINGOFTHEROBOTICARM,INVERSEKINEMATICSCALCULATIONSARECARRIEDOUTSUCHCALCULATIONSAREUSEDTOOBTAINTHEANGLEOFEACHMOTORFROMFIGURE6ROBOTARM3DMODELFIGURE7ROBOTARMCOMPLETEASSEMBLYAPOSITIONGIVENBYUSINGTHECARTESIANCOORDINATESYSTEM,ASSHOWNINFIGURE8EACHMOTORWILLHAVEASPECIFICFUNCTIONTHEMOTORLOCATEDINTHEAUNIONPOSITIONSTHEFINALELEMENTINTHEYAXIS,THEMOTORSBANDCPOSITIONSTHEFINALELEMENTINTHEXANDZAXISTHEPROBLEMWASSIMPLIFIEDBYUSINGTHEXZPLANE,ASSHOWNINFIGURE9INWHICHTHEFOLLOWINGKNOWNVALUESWEREDEFINED9LABTHEFOREARMLENGTHLBCTHEARMLENGTHZTHEPOSITIONINTHEZAXISXTHEPOSITIONINTHEXAXISYTHEPOSITIONINTHEYAXISUSINGTRIGONOMETRYRELATIONS,ASSHOWNINFIGURE9,THEMOTORANGLESΘ2ANDΘ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