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翻译部分英文原文TheintroductionofConveyorBeltAconveyorbeltmaybedefinedasanumberofloadcarryingmembersbondedtogetherwithpolymericcompoundsmakingupthecarcaseandprotectedfrommechanicaldamagebyelastomeric.Theloadcarryingmembersusuallyconsistofeitheranumberofplyofwovenfabric,asinglesolidwovenfabriccarcase,orasinglelayerofparallel,equidistantsteelcables.Attheonset,itmustbestatedthatconveyorbeltingofanyconstruction,maybeclassifiedasFireResistantorNonfireResistant.Incertainundergroundsituation,theformermayberequiredbylegislationorbyacceptedcodesofPractice.Forexample,intheU.K,coalminingindustry,onlyapprovedfireresistingbeltingmaybeusedunderground,mostotherdevelopedcountrieshavesimilarrequirements.Inadditiontherearemanysituationswheretheuseoffiveresistantbeltingisrecommended,forexample,incomplexmineralbeneficationplant.Itismostimportantthatintheearlystagesofdesignofanyconveyorsystems,thetypeofbeltbedetermined,addifferingcharacteristicsofthetwotypesmayinfluencethedesignofotherassociatedequipmentandproblemsmaybeintroducedifachangeisrequiredatsomelatedate.Theusetowhichanyparticularbeltistobesubjectedshouldberecordedinthepurchasespecificationsincethevariouspropertiesofabeltmayneedmodificationtoaccommodatethesometimesconflictingdemandsofcoefficientoffriction,ageingcharacteristics,moistureabsorption,etc..Alsoasagenerally,abeltofrubberconstructionhasagreaterabilitytoabsorbimpactthanoneoffireresistantconstruction.Therearethreemainconstructionalformsofbeltingaplyconstruction,bsolidwovenconstructioncsteelcordconstructionIntheaboveconstructions,aandb,onlythecarcaseprovidesthestrengthtocarrytheloadandwithstandthevariousoperationalstressesthataredevelopedinthebelt.Sincethecarcaseisthemostexpensiveelementinthebelt,itisimportantthatthespecificationincorporatesadequatemeansofprotectingthismostimportantelement.Inc,theloadcarryingsteelcordsrequireslikeprotection.Additionally,thereisthespecializeddesignofbeltusedwiththeCableBeltSystemwhichwillbeseparatelydescribedwhenthatarrangementisconsidered.(1)PlyBeltConstructionWhendiscussingplybelting,thetermswarpandweftoftenoccur,forthepurposeofthissubsectionitmaybetakenthatwarpreferstothelongitudinalstrengthofthebelt.Thelateralflexibilityofthebeltisalwaysofimportanceinorderthatitmayconformtotheidlercurve,thisbeingparticularlysowhendeeptroughidlersaretobeused.Thetraditionalbeltcarcaseconsistedofwovennaturalfabric,thisnowconsistofoneormorepliesofsyntheticfiberssuchasnylonorterylene,thewholebeingvulcanizedorfusedtogetherwiththeappropriatecovermaterial.Suchsyntheticfibersarestrongerthannaturalfibers.arethinner,moreflexibleallowingdeeperthroughintheidlers,allowtheuseofsmallerdiameterpulleysandhaveashorterelongationunderhighworkingtensions.ThecovermayberubberinthecaseofnonfireresistingbeltsandPVC.Neoprene,etc,inthecaseoffireresistingtypes.Theminimumcoveronbothsidesofanybeltshouldbenotlessthan0.8mm,butforthetransportofalmostallmineralsmustbeincreasedhavingregardtothematerialhandled.Forexample,withmoderatelyabrasivematerialssuchascoal.rubble,ashes,etc.theminimumcarryingsidecovershouldbe2.4mmwith0.8mmonthepulleysidecovershouldbe3.2mmwith1.6mmonthepulleyside.Althoughnationalstandardsmayvary,abelttypemaybeclassifiedhavingregardtoitsstrength,anexamplebeinggiveninthenextsubsection.(2)SolidwovenbeltMuchofthatsaidaboutplybeltingappliestothesolidwovenform,butinthelater,thefibersfromwhichthebeltcarcaseisconstructedareinterwoven,thenimpregnatedtogiveasolidform,andtowhichappropriatecoversareapplied.Thefibersmaybeofhightenacitynylonwarpcottonpileandblendedweft,withcertainqualitiesofbeltingemployingapolyesterwarp.InthestandardfireresistingformthecovermaybePVC,butthishascertainlimitations,particularlyinrespectofconveyingupinclines.Toovercomethisproblemthecovermaybepolymer,whichofferstheadvantagesofnaturalrubber.Suchnitrilerubbercoversareappliedtoboththecarryingandthedrivingfacesofthebeltwithconsequentlyimprovedfrictionalcharacteristicswhichminimizeloadslierandaffordincreaseddrivingtraction.AfurtheradvantageisthatsuchcoversdonotpolishinservicesasdoesPVC.plyseparationandgivesexcellentresistancetoagewear,further,itsrotproofandresistanttomineraloils.Amodernloomtomanufacturesolidwovenbeltingemploysarapierweftincertainsystemratherthanashuttletoeliminatethedowntimerequiredtochangeweftbobbins,andalsotogivegoodselvedgefinish.ThewearingprocesswhichentailsimpregnationwithliquidPVCcompound,givinganadditional,appropriatewearresistantsurfacecoating,finallybeingpresscuredundertension.InadditiontosatisfyingU.Krequirementssuchbeltsconformtothefollowingfireresistantspecificationsandarereadilyavailableintensilestrengthsfrom315to2625kN/mofbeltwithAustraliaMDAseries250InternationalISOR340Canada4thdraftNO.M422mFranceNFM8165USAUSBMSchedule2GSouthAfricaSABS971GermanyDIN2203/4Aparticularproductrangeincludesbeltsrangingintensilewarplongitudinalstrengthrangingfrom315to1000kN/m,withassociatedwarplateralstrengthfrom158to350kN/m,thewefttowarpratiovariesprogressivelyfrom50downto35.Higherstrengthbeltsthenincreasetoatensilestrengthto2625kN/m,theweftstrengthremainingconstantat350kN/m.Consequently,theweft/warpratiodropsrapidlydownto11.4,thisbeingnecessarytoallowreadytrackinginthetroughidlers(3)SteelcordBeltconstructionTheeverincreasingdemandforstrongerbeltreinforcements,whichathigherlevelcannotbesatisfiedbytheuseofeventhehighestmanmadefibers,resultingintheuseofthesteelcordbeltinwhichthewarpstrengthisprovidedbysteelcablessuchbeltismanufacturedinatwopartprocess,athemaxiofpolychloroprenetoproduceaentermatrixandcoversinarollingprocesswiththecordsundertension,followedbyacuringprocess.Ithasbeenfoundthatacombinationofhand80degreesfireresistant,antistaticFRASelastomersandcordsdisplacedverticallyatadistancegreaterthan1mmleadstothefailureoftheelastomerbycompressionandtension,likeproblemsmayoccurifthereredefectsinthedesignconcept.Suchproblemsmaybeovercomebytheuseofelastomerswithahardnessinthe60to68degreerange,thisbeingastringentrequirementwhenadditivestoensurefirebycloseattentiontodriveandreturndrumdiametersandbytheuseoftonguelimitationdevicesintheconveyordrive.IntheUSA,thedetailsofthebeltemployedattheSelbyminingcomplexareConveyorlength14.93kmBeltthickness28.3mmBeltwidth1300mmBeltstrength6950kN/mNumberofcords57Verticallift990Corddiameter13.1mmMotorpower1010kWTheconveyorbeltisthemostimportantpartinthebeltconveyor.Inadditiontotheconveyorbelt,thereareidlers,pulleys,driveandstructure,towhichareaddedotherimportantitems,theyaremakeupthebeltconveyor.Initssimplestformabeltconveyorconsistsofapairofdrums,oneofwhichispowered,andbetweenwhichisstretchedandendlesshand.Thiselementaryarrangementhaslimiteduseforotherthanshortdistanceapplicationsuchasthecarryingofpackages,etc.Forotherthanshortdistancesthetophandmustbesupportedbyregularlyspacedidlestopreventsaggingidlersareidealforthispurpose,asetofwhichisnormallyconsistsofthreeseparaterollers,thetwoouterandshorterbeinginclinedupwardstotroughthebelt.Forlowcapacity,narrowbelts,twoidlesmaybeusedandforhighcapacityduty,fiveormoremaybeemployed.Thebottomorreturnbeltrequiresalowerlevelofsupportandgenerallymayruninaflatplaneausualarrangementbeingtousesinglerollers,atdoublethespacingdistanceusedwiththetopstrand.Withexceptionallylongconveyors,tworoblsemitroughedreturnrollersmaybejustified.Thedrivearrangementnormallyconsistsofanelectricmotorandspeedreductiongearbox,connectedtoeachotherbysuitablecoupling.Ideally,theadoptforthetransportofanymineralshouldaprovidecontinuityofmineralclearanceformthepointofproductionwithmaximumsafetyandreliability,toensurethatproductionisnotinterruptedbytransportrestrictions.bbecapableofhandlingthepeakoutputs.cminimizedegradationanddustproblems.deliminatespillageoratleastincorporatemeansforitscollectionandreintroductiontothemainmineralstream.eprovideoptimumeconomyinlaborrequirement.Ingeneralterms,beltconveyingsystemssatisfytheabovestandard,theapplicationofremotemonitoringandcontroltogetherwithemploymentofbunkerconveyors,furtherenhancetheefficiencyofthesystems.Therearelimitingfactorsaffectingtheuseofbeltconveyorsinthatgenerallyreasonablystraightrunisnecessary,themaximumangleofinclinationisnormally25degrees1in4andthemaximumlumpsizeistobelessthanabouthalfthewidthofthebelt.Thecarryingcapacityisinfluencedbytheangleofthemineralmaterialtransported,keepinginmindthatinpassingovertheidlerrollers,thematerialiscontinuouslydisturbedandspreadoutonthebelt,Notwithstandingtheabovethebeltconveyorhasatremendousandexpandingmineraltransportpotential.
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