外文翻译--酒后驾驶量刑的歧视性分析.doc外文翻译--酒后驾驶量刑的歧视性分析.doc

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外文文献及翻译中文英文16094字数SENTENCERANDOFFENDERFACTORSASSOURCESOFDISCRIMINATIONINMAGISTRATESPENALTIESFORDRINKINGDRIVERSDISCRIMINATIONSINPENALTIESWERERELATEDTOOFFENDERSLEGALLYRELEVANTPRIOROFFENSESANDBLOODALCOHOLCONCENTRATIONS,ANDEXTRALEGALVARIABLESOFOFFENDERAGE,GENDERANDEMPLOYMENTSTATUSMENWERETREATEDMOREHARSHLYTHANWOMEN,ANDYOUNGOFFENDERSMOREHARSHLYTHANALLOTHEROFFENDERSEXCEPTTHOSEOVER56YEARSUNEMPLOYEDOFFENDERSWEREFINEDLESS,BUTDISQUALIFIEDFORLONGERTHANOFFENDERSINTHEWORKFORCEMAGISTRATESORIENTATIONSANDCOURTINTERACTEDWITHOFFENSECATEGORIESTOPRODUCEFURTHERDIFFERENCESRELATEDTOBLOODALCOHOLCONCENTRATIONANDRECIDIVISMKEYWORDSSENTENCING;JUSTICE;DISCRIMINATION;DISCRETIONHOWDOMAGISTRATESDETERMINEJUSTPENALTIESFORACOMMONOFFENSETHATCAUSESDEATH,INJURY,ANDPROPERTYDAMAGE,BUTHASQUESTIONABLESTATUSASACRIMEGUSFIELD,1981ARESENTENCERSDETERMINATIONSINFLUENCEDMOSTLYBYOFFENSEANDOFFENDERCHARACTERISTICS,BYMAGISTRATESSENTENCINGORIENTATIONS,ORBYCOMBINATIONSOFSENTENCERANDCASEFACTORSTHEAIMOFTHISRESEARCHWASTOEXAMINETHEFACTORSINFLUENCINGMAGISTRATESPENALTIESFORTHESOCIALLYPERTINENTOFFENSEOFDRINKDRIVINGWEUSETHEAUSTRALIANTERMDRINKDRIVINGRATHERTHANTHEAMERICANTERMDRUNKDRIVINGTHROUGHOUTOURFIRSTTASKWASTOCARRYOUTACOMPREHENSIVEEMPIRICALANALYSISOFPENALTIESTHATINCORPORATEDMAGISTERIAL,CASE,ANDINSTITUTIONALFACTORSINTHESAMESTATISTICALMODELTHENWESOUGHTTOAPPLYTHEEXTENSIVEANALYSESTOTHEJUSTICEISSUEOFHOWMUCHSENTENCERSATTENDTOLEGALLYDEFINED,JUSTIFIABLEORLEGITIMIZEDFACTORS,ANDHOWMUCHTHEYATTENDTOOFFENDERCHARACTERISTICSSUCHASGENDERANDSOCIALCLASSATTENTIONTOOFFENDERCHARACTERISTICSISNOTPRESCRIBEDINFORMALLAW,ANDWHILENORMALLYREFERREDTOASEXTRALEGALVARIABLES,THEYALSOHAVEBEENCALLEDLEGALLYIRRELEVANTALTHOUGHTHEREISCONTRADICTORYEVIDENCEABOUTTHEEXACTINFLUENCEOFEXTRALEGALOFFENDERCHARACTERISTICSHAGANANDBUMILLER,1983,THEREARESUFFICIENTINDICATIONSOFTHEIRINTRUSIONSINTOSENTENCINGDELIBERATIONSTOWARRANTCONTINUEDPUBLICCONCERNANDTHOROUGHEMPIRICALINVESTIGATIONEVENAFTERTHEINTRODUCTIONOFTHEINFLUENTIALMINNESOTASENTENCINGGUIDELINES,MIETHEANDMOORE1985ANDMOOREANDMIETHE1986FOUNDTHATGENDER,EMPLOYMENT,ANDEDUCATIONALLEVELSHADAMAJORIMPACTONPRISONSENTENCESSENTENCERSADJUSTEDGUIDELINEPENALTIESTOFITTHEIRSENTENCINGPHILOSOPHIESTHEPRESSINGRESEARCHISSUEISTODETERMINEHOWMUCHDIFFERENCESINPENALTIESAREINFLUENCEDBYSENTENCERSUNWARRANTED,LEGALLYIRRELEVANTDISCRIMINATIONSBETWEENOFFENDERS,ASOPPOSEDTOTHEIRAPPROPRIATEATTENTIONTOLEGALLYRELEVANTCASEDETAILSCAMPAIGNSTOREDUCEDRINKINGPROVIDEAUNIQUEOPPORTUNITYFORANALYZINGHOWJUSTICEISDISPENSED,SINCESENTENCINGOUTCOMESANDTHESENTENCERSCONTRIBUTIONCANBESPECIFIEDINWAYSNOTNORMALLYACHIEVABLEINCRIMINOLOGICALRESEARCH,ANDSINCEOFFENDERSINCLUDEMANYPERSONSOFGOODCHARACTERWHONORMALLYWOULDNOTAPPEARINCOURTHOMEL,1988;WOOD,1990AUSTRALIANSTATEPARLIAMENTSHAVERESPONDEDTOTHESOCIALCOSTOFDRINKINGANDDRIVINGBYTYINGPENALTIESTOGRADEDLEVELSOFOFFENSESDEFINEDBYCOMBINATIONSOFBLOODALCOHOLLEVELSANDRECIDIVISM,ANDTHISACTIONAUTOMATICALLYLIMITSMAGISTRATESDISCRETIONARYPOWERSCONSEQUENTLY,THESCOPEOFINDIVIDUALSENTENCERSDELIBERATIONSISCONSTRAINEDBYCIRCUMSCRIBEDRANGESOFPENALTIES,ATTHESAMETIMETHATTHEYAREINFORMEDBYPUBLICANDMEDIAATTENTIONTOTHEROADTOLLHOMEL,1990INSUCHASITUATION,ITISPOSSIBLETOINVESTIGATEHOWMAGISTRATESAPPLYTHEIRPERSPECTIVESTOTHEFUNDAMENTALCASEINFORMATIONSPECIFIEDBYTHELEGISLATION,INRELATIONTOOTHERINFORMATIONABOUTOFFENDERSAPPEARINGBEFORETHEMANEFFECTIVESTRATEGYFORUNDERSTANDINGSENTENCINGBEHAVIORSINVOLVESANALYZINGHOWSENTENCERANDCASEFACTORSINTERACTHAGAN,1975;HOGARTH,1971MCFATTER,1986,ALTHOUGHANALYTICPROCEDURESFORENCAPSULATINGTHESEINTERACTIONSARENOSIMPLERTHANTHEEXPLANATIONSTHEYSEEKTOSUPPLYFOREXAMPLE,GROSSMAN1966,GREEN1961,ANDHOODANDSPARKS1970AGREEABOUTTHEFUTILITYOFSEEKINGONETOONEASSOCIATIONSBETWEENAJUDGESBACKGROUNDANDTHEJUDICIALDECISIONSHEORSHEPRODUCESDIFFERENTSENTENCERFACTORSWILLBECONSIDEREDRELEVANTINANYEMPIRICALANALYSIS,DEPENDINGONTHERESEARCHERSINTERESTSANDCOMMITMENTS,WITHCONSEQUENTPOSSIBILITIESOFVARIATIONSINEXPLANATORYPOWERFORINSTANCE,THEORETICALASSUMPTIONSOFSTABLEPERSONALTRAITSANDATTITUDESARELIKELYTOLEADTOANALYSESTHATDONOTLOOKFORINTRASENTENCERVARIABILITYINRESPONSETODIFFERENTCONTEXTSDOUGLAS,1989;MCFATTER,1986ALTHOUGHSOMENOTABLESTUDIESHAVERELATEDSENTENCERSATTITUDES,GOALS,ANDROLEDEFINITIONSTOSENTENCINGOUTCOMESEG,GIBSON,1978;HOGARTH,1971;SOFTLEY,1980,THEREISLIMITEDVALUEINATTEMPTINGTOPREDICTPENALTIESFROMSENTENCERFACTORS,IFSENTENCERRELATEDINFLUENCESARENOTEXAMINEDINTERMSOFTHEIRRESPONSIVENESSTOTHEDIFFERENTCONFIGURATIONSOFCASEFEATURESSUCHASTHEACTUALOFFENSECATEGORYUNDERWHICHANOFFENSEISCLASSIFIEDDOUGLAS,1989SENTENCERFACTORSMAYBEONCEREMOVEDFROMTHECOURTROOMTASK,ANDSIMPLYFUNCTIONASTHEBACKDROPTOTHESENTENCERSACTUALSENTENCINGACTIVITIESGROSSMAN,1966;LAWRENCEANDHOMEL,1987THEWORKOFTHESENTENCERISTOSELECT,WEIGH,ANDAPPLYEVIDENCETOPARTICULARCASESESSENTIALLY,ITISANINFORMATIONMANAGEMENTACTIVITYANDTHESENTENCERSRELEVANTACTIVITIESINVOLVETHEIRINTERPRETIVECOGNITIVEWORKMAYNARD,1982EVERYTHINGELSETODOWITHTHESENTENCERPROVIDESTHESETTINGFORTHATWORKEXPERTISEINMANAGINGINFORMATIONRESIDESCHIEFLYINPROFESSIONALSABILITIESTOCOMPILEANDORGANIZETHEIRKNOWLEDGEANDBELIEFSTRUCTURESTOALLOWTHEMTOCONSTRUCTWORKINGIMAGESORMENTALMODELSOFEACHNEWTASKCHIETAL,1988;JOHNSONLAIRD,1983ASEXPERIENCEDPROFESSIONALSAPPROACHAGIVENTASKFROMTHEBASISOFACCRUEDKNOWLEDGE,THEYMENTALLYCONSTRUCTTHEIROWNWORKINGMODELSORIMAGES,ENVISAGINGTHEELEMENTSANDLINKAGESINVOLVEDINTHETASKENVIRONMENTACCUMULATEDEXPERIENCEOFSIMILARTASKSSUGGESTSREOCCURRINGPATTERNSOFASSOCIATIONS,SOTHATFRESHINSTANCESCANBEINTERPRETEDAGAINSTTHESEWELLKNOWNPATTERNSANDTHEINTERNALLYCONSTRUCTEDINTERPRETATIONSTHEYSUGGESTBECAUSEDRINKDRIVINGCASESAREFREQUENTINMAGISTRATESCOURTS,ITISREASONABLETOEXPECTTHATANEXPERIENCEDMAGISTRATEISABLETOCALLUPONSTOREDPATTERNSOFTYPICALCASESASTHENEXTCASEISPRESENTEDINCOURT,ANDOFCOURSE,THESESTOREDPATTERNSAREINFLUENCEDBYTHATMAGISTRATESOWNATTITUDESANDGOALSHOGARTH,1971;LAWRENCE,1984MODELS,ADDINGNORMATIVEVALUESANDRULESASWELLASAFFECTIVEMARKERSTOTHEKNOWLEDGEUSEDFORINTERPRETINGINFORMATIONPERSONALORIENTATIONSANDCASEINFORMATIONAREBROUGHTTOGETHERINTHESENTENCERSMIND,SOTHATHEORSHEFINDSAWAYOFSELECTINGANDCATEGORIZINGTHEFACTSABOUTANOFFENDERSCASE,WORKINGBACKANDFORTHBETWEENTHEINCOMINGINFORMATIONANDSTOREDPATTERNSOFHOWDIFFERENTTYPESOFCASESHANGTOGETHERLAWRENCE,1988A,1991LITTLESENSECANBEMADEOFTHEMASSOFCASEINFORMATIONTHATMAYAFFECTSENTENCINGOUTCOMES,UNLESSWEUNDERSTANDHOWTHATINFORMATIONISFILTERED,INTERPRETED,ANDCLOTHEDWITHMEANINGBYTHEINDIVIDUALSENTENCERIFEXPERIENCEDJUDGINGSHARESTHECHARACTERISTICSOFEXPERTISEOVERMANYDOMAINSCHIETAL,1988THEORIENTATIONSSENTENCERSAPPLYTOCASESARELIKELYTOBETASKOFFENSESPECIFIC,ANDSENSITIVETODIFFERENTDETAILSANDTHEIRSOURCESFOREXAMPLE,ASENTENCERSEEKINGTOREHABILITATEALCOHOLDEPENDENTOFFENDERSMAYPAYCAREFULATTENTIONTOHOWADRINKDRIVERCAMETOPOLICENOTICE,ANDHOWMUCHALCOHOLHEHADCONSUMEDONTHISANDOTHEROCCASIONSTHESENTENCERMATCHESTHESEDETAILSWITHHISORHERMENTALIMAGEOFTHETYPICALALCOHOLICDRINKDRIVER,ANOTHERMAGISTRATEWITHATARIFFAPPROACHMAYSIMPLYSLOTBLOODALCOHOLCONCENTRATIONBACINTOANOFFENTHEREISLITTLEDOUBTTHATPERSONALANDSOCIALCHARACTERISTICSCOLORSENTENCERSWORKINGSEEQUATION,ANDSEEKFEWOTHERDETAILSEACHSENTENCERMAYADOPTONEORMOREPERSPECTIVESONTHESAMEPIECEOFINFORMATION,BECAUSEONEPERSPECTIVEMAYNOTEXHAUSTALLTHEPOSSIBLEVIEWPOINTSTHATANEXPERIENCEDPERSONCANAPPLYTOTHESAMECASETHETARIFFORIENTEDSENTENCERMAYBECONCURRENTLYORIENTEDTOWARDSNOTDISCRIMINATINGAGAINSTTHEPOOR,SOTHATHEORSHECONSULTSANIMAGEOFAKNOWNCLASSOFOFFENDERWHOCANNOTPAYANORMALTARIFFPENALTYBECAUSETHEYAREUNEMPLOYEDTHATSENTENCERNEEDSTOWEIGHTHEIMMEDIATERELEVANCEOFEACHORIENTATIONTOTHEGIVENCASEPARTICULARS,ANDCOMEUPWITHAPENALTYTHATSATISFIESPERSONALSENTENCINGCRITERIAINTHEDOMAINOFDRINKDRIVING,WEWEREABLETODRAWONASETOFAPRIORIORIENTATIONSBASEDONHOMELS1983A,1988EXTENSIVERESEARCH,ANDWECOULDSPECIFYDIFFERENTPOSITIONSONTHOSEORIENTATIONSANALYSESOFOVER15,000DRINKDRIVINGCASESALLOWEDHOMELTOINFERTHATPENALTIESWEREINFLUENCEDBYTHEMAGISTRATESTOUGHORLENIENTSTYLES,GOALSFORDETERRINGSPECIFICOFFENDERS,ORCONTRIBUTINGTOTHEGENERALDETERRENCEOFTHECOMMUNITY;PROPENSITIESTOUSETARIFFORINDIVIDUALIZEDAPPROACHESTOSENTENCING;ANDPERSPECTIVESONADRINKDRIVERSAGE,STANDINGASAPERSONOFGOODCHARACTER,ANDSUSCEPTIBILITYTOALCOHOLDEPENDENCYFROMTHISANDMANYOTHERSTUDIESUSINGARCHIVALDATASEEHOMEL,1982,WEGENERATEDASETOFORIENTATIONSTOCLASSIFYEMPIRICALLYMAGISTRATESEXPRESSIONSOFMULTIPLEPERSPECTIVESONINTERPRETINGDRINKDRIVINGOFFENSESWEWERESPECIFICALLYINTERESTEDINORIENTATIONSRELATEDTOMAGISTRATESVARYINGPOSITIONSONTHESERIOUSNESSOFDRINKDRIVINGASANOFFENSE;DETERRENCE;TARIFFVERSUSINDIVIDUALIZEDSENTENCINGGOALS;THEIMPORTANCEOFANOFFENDERSAGE,ALCOHOLICDEPENDENCE,ANDACTUALORPOTENTIALCAUSEOFACOLLISION;ANDAMAGISTRATESOVERALLSEVERITYINPENALIZINGDRINKDRIVERSSEEHOMELLAWRENCE,1992THEAVAILABILITYOFAPOWERFULMULTIVARIATELINEARMODELTHATCOULDINCORPORATENOMINALCATEGORIESOFSEVERALORIENTATIONSANDTHEIRINTERACTIONSWITHOTHERFACTORSMEANTWECOULDUSEQUALITATIVECODINGSOFORIENTATIONSTHATWEREREALISTICFORTHESPECIFICOFFENSE,WITHOUTFORCINGPOSITIONSINTOFALSELYORDINALCLASSIFICATIONSWITHTASKSPECIFICITY,ANDAWELLDEFINEDOFFENSETHATAPPROXIMATESAFIELDEXPERIMENTINWHICHTHEEXPERTSWORKSPACEISCONSTRAINEDANDOUTCOMESAREQUANTIFIABLE,ITISPOSSIBLETOBEEXPLICITABOUTINDIVIDUALDIFFERENCESRATHERTHANTORELYUPONGLOBALDESCRIPTIONSOFMAGISTRATESASIDIOSYNCRATICMCFATTER,1986,P150ORSTYLISTICALLYTOUGHORLENIENTHOMEL,1983AINADDITION,BYSAMPLINGMAGISTRATESANDCASESFROMTWOLARGECITYCOURTSTHATWERECONTRASTEDONOVERALLSEVERITY,COURTCOULDBEUSEDASAFURTHER,SUPRAINDIVIDUALFACTORWEEXPECTEDTHATTHECOMPREHENSIVEMODELINGPROCESSWOULDALLOWUSTOEXPLAINMOREOFTHESENTENCINGVARIANCETHANISPOSSIBLEUSINGGENERALMAGISTRATEFACTORSSINCETHEINTERPRETIVESENTENCINGPROCESSISDEPENDENTONTHEADEQUACYOFINFORMATIONMADEAVAILABLETOSENTENCERSBYATTORNEYSANDWITNESSESWITHDIFFERENTAGENDASANDABILITIESLAWRENCE,1984,1991;POPE,1986,WEINCLUDEDASMANYLEGALANDEXTRALEGALVARIABLESASPOSSIBLELEGALLYRELEVANTINFORMATIONISWELLDEFINEDINTHISAREABACINRELATIONTORECIDIVISM,BUTTHEEXTRALEGALORSOCIALVARIABLESRELATEDTOTHEOFFENDERALSOHAVETOBEFITTEDINTOTHEINTERPRETIVEPICTUREIFDISPARITIESARETOBEIDENTIFIED,MAKINGACOMPLEXSETOFDIFFERENTANDCONFLICTINGFACTORSTOBESORTEDANDUSEDINTHEDECISIONPROCESSADOPTINGTHECOMMONPRACTICEOFLABELIN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