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外文翻译--酒后驾驶量刑的歧视性分析.doc外文翻译--酒后驾驶量刑的歧视性分析.doc -- 5 元

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外文文献及翻译中文英文16094字数SentencerandOffenderFactorsasSourcesofDiscriminationinMagistratesPenaltiesforDrinkingDriversDiscriminationsinpenaltieswererelatedtooffenderslegallyrelevantprioroffensesandbloodalcoholconcentrations,andextralegalvariablesofoffenderage,genderandemploymentstatus.Menweretreatedmoreharshlythanwomen,andyoungoffendersmoreharshlythanallotheroffendersexceptthoseover56years.Unemployedoffenderswerefinedless,butdisqualifiedforlongerthanoffendersintheworkforce.Magistratesorientationsandcourtinteractedwithoffensecategoriestoproducefurtherdifferencesrelatedtobloodalcoholconcentrationandrecidivism.KEYWORDSsentencingjusticediscriminationdiscretion.Howdomagistratesdeterminejustpenaltiesforacommonoffensethatcausesdeath,injury,andpropertydamage,buthasquestionablestatusasacrimeGusfield,1981Aresentencersdeterminationsinfluencedmostlybyoffenseandoffendercharacteristics,bymagistratessentencingorientations,orbycombinationsofsentencerandcasefactorsTheaimofthisresearchwastoexaminethefactorsinfluencingmagistratespenaltiesforthesociallypertinentoffenseofdrinkdriving.WeusetheAustraliantermdrinkdrivingratherthantheAmericantermdrunkdrivingthroughout.Ourfirsttaskwastocarryoutacomprehensiveempiricalanalysisofpenaltiesthatincorporatedmagisterial,case,andinstitutionalfactorsinthesamestatisticalmodel.Thenwesoughttoapplytheextensiveanalysestothejusticeissueofhowmuchsentencersattendtolegallydefined,justifiableorlegitimizedfactors,andhowmuchtheyattendtooffendercharacteristicssuchasgenderandsocialclass.Attentiontooffendercharacteristicsisnotprescribedinformallaw,andwhilenormallyreferredtoasextralegalvariables,theyalsohavebeencalledlegallyirrelevantAlthoughthereiscontradictoryevidenceabouttheexactinfluenceofextralegaloffendercharacteristicsHaganandBumiller,1983,therearesufficientindicationsoftheirintrusionsintosentencingdeliberationstowarrantcontinuedpublicconcernandthoroughempiricalinvestigation.EvenaftertheintroductionoftheinfluentialMinnesotaSentencingGuidelines,MietheandMoore1985andMooreandMiethe1986foundthatgender,employment,andeducationallevelshadamajorimpactonprisonsentences.Sentencersadjustedguidelinepenaltiestofittheirsentencingphilosophies.Thepressingresearchissueistodeterminehowmuchdifferencesinpenaltiesareinfluencedbysentencersunwarranted,legallyirrelevantdiscriminationsbetweenoffenders,asopposedtotheirappropriateattentiontolegallyrelevantcasedetails.Campaignstoreducedrinkingprovideauniqueopportunityforanalyzinghowjusticeisdispensed,sincesentencingoutcomesandthesentencerscontributioncanbespecifiedinwaysnotnormallyachievableincriminologicalresearch,andsinceoffendersincludemanypersonsofgoodcharacterwhonormallywouldnotappearincourtHomel,1988Wood,1990.Australianstateparliamentshaverespondedtothesocialcostofdrinkinganddrivingbytyingpenaltiestogradedlevelsofoffensesdefinedbycombinationsofbloodalcohollevelsandrecidivism,andthisactionautomaticallylimitsmagistratesdiscretionarypowers.Consequently,thescopeofindividualsentencersdeliberationsisconstrainedbycircumscribedrangesofpenalties,atthesametimethattheyareinformedbypublicandmediaattentiontotheroadtollHomel,1990.Insuchasituation,itispossibletoinvestigatehowmagistratesapplytheirperspectivestothefundamentalcaseinformationspecifiedbythelegislation,inrelationtootherinformationaboutoffendersappearingbeforethem.AneffectivestrategyforunderstandingsentencingbehaviorsinvolvesanalyzinghowsentencerandcasefactorsinteractHagan,1975Hogarth,1971.McFatter,1986,althoughanalyticproceduresforencapsulatingtheseinteractionsarenosimplerthantheexplanationstheyseektosupply.Forexample,Grossman1966,Green1961,andHoodandSparks1970agreeaboutthefutilityofseekingonetooneassociationsbetweenajudgesbackgroundandthejudicialdecisionsheorsheproduces.Differentsentencerfactorswillbeconsideredrelevantinanyempiricalanalysis,dependingontheresearchersinterestsandcommitments,withconsequentpossibilitiesofvariationsinexplanatorypower.Forinstance,theoreticalassumptionsofstablepersonaltraitsandattitudesarelikelytoleadtoanalysesthatdonotlookforintrasentencervariabilityinresponsetodifferentcontextsDouglas,1989McFatter,1986.Althoughsomenotablestudieshaverelatedsentencersattitudes,goals,androledefinitionstosentencingoutcomese.g.,Gibson,1978Hogarth,1971Softley,1980,thereislimitedvalueinattemptingtopredictpenaltiesfromsentencerfactors,ifsentencerrelatedinfluencesarenotexaminedintermsoftheirresponsivenesstothedifferentconfigurationsofcasefeaturessuchastheactualoffensecategoryunderwhichanoffenseisclassifiedDouglas,1989.Sentencerfactorsmaybeonceremovedfromthecourtroomtask,andsimplyfunctionasthebackdroptothesentencersactualsentencingactivitiesGrossman,1966LawrenceandHomel,1987.Theworkofthesentenceristoselect,weigh,andapplyevidencetoparticularcases.Essentially,itisaninformationmanagementactivityandthesentencersrelevantactivitiesinvolvetheirinterpretivecognitiveworkMaynard,1982.Everythingelsetodowiththesentencerprovidesthesettingforthatwork.ExpertiseinmanaginginformationresideschieflyinprofessionalsabilitiestocompileandorganizetheirknowledgeandbeliefstructurestoallowthemtoconstructworkingimagesormentalmodelsofeachnewtaskChietal.,1988JohnsonLaird,1983.Asexperiencedprofessionalsapproachagiventaskfromthebasisofaccruedknowledge,theymentallyconstructtheirownworkingmodelsorimages,envisagingtheelementsandlinkagesinvolvedinthetaskenvironment.Accumulatedexperienceofsimilartaskssuggestsreoccurringpatternsofassociations,sothatfreshinstancescanbeinterpretedagainstthesewellknownpatternsandtheinternallyconstructedinterpretationstheysuggest.Becausedrinkdrivingcasesarefrequentinmagistratescourts,itisreasonabletoexpectthatanexperiencedmagistrateisabletocalluponstoredpatternsoftypicalcasesasthenextcaseispresentedincourt,andofcourse,thesestoredpatternsareinfluencedbythatmagistratesownattitudesandgoalsHogarth,1971Lawrence,1984.models,addingnormativevaluesandrulesaswellasaffectivemarkerstotheknowledgeusedforinterpretinginformation.Personalorientationsandcaseinformationarebroughttogetherinthesentencersmind,sothatheorshefindsawayofselectingandcategorizingthefactsaboutanoffenderscase,workingbackandforthbetweentheincominginformationandstoredpatternsofhowdifferenttypesofcaseshangtogetherLawrence,1988a,1991.Littlesensecanbemadeofthemassofcaseinformationthatmayaffectsentencingoutcomes,unlessweunderstandhowthatinformationisfiltered,interpreted,andclothedwithmeaningbytheindividualsentencer.IfexperiencedjudgingsharesthecharacteristicsofexpertiseovermanydomainsChietal.,1988theorientationssentencersapplytocasesarelikelytobetaskoffensespecific,andsensitivetodifferentdetailsandtheirsources.Forexample,asentencerseekingtorehabilitatealcoholdependentoffendersmaypaycarefulattentiontohowadrinkdrivercametopolicenotice,andhowmuchalcoholhehadconsumedonthisandotheroccasions.Thesentencermatchesthesedetailswithhisorhermentalimageofthetypicalalcoholicdrinkdriver,AnothermagistratewithatariffapproachmaysimplyslotbloodalcoholconcentrationBACintoanoffenThereislittledoubtthatpersonalandsocialcharacteristicscolorsentencersworkingseequation,andseekfewotherdetails.Eachsentencermayadoptoneormoreperspectivesonthesamepieceofinformation,becauseoneperspectivemaynotexhaustallthepossibleviewpointsthatanexperiencedpersoncanapplytothesamecase.Thetarifforientedsentencermaybeconcurrentlyorientedtowardsnotdiscriminatingagainstthepoor,sothatheorsheconsultsanimageofaknownclassofoffenderwhocannotpayanormaltariffpenaltybecausetheyareunemployed.Thatsentencerneedstoweightheimmediaterelevanceofeachorientationtothegivencaseparticulars,andcomeupwithapenaltythatsatisfiespersonalsentencingcriteria.Inthedomainofdrinkdriving,wewereabletodrawonasetofaprioriorientationsbasedonHomels1983a,1988extensiveresearch,andwecouldspecifydifferentpositionsonthoseorientations.Analysesofover15,000drinkdrivingcasesallowedHomeltoinferthatpenaltieswereinfluencedbythemagistratestoughorlenientstyles,goalsfordeterringspecificoffenders,orcontributingtothegeneraldeterrenceofthecommunitypropensitiestousetarifforindividualizedapproachestosentencingandperspectivesonadrinkdriversage,standingasapersonofgoodcharacter,andsusceptibilitytoalcoholdependency.FromthisandmanyotherstudiesusingarchivaldataseeHomel,1982,wegeneratedasetoforientationstoclassifyempiricallymagistratesexpressionsofmultipleperspectivesoninterpretingdrinkdrivingoffenses.Wewerespecificallyinterestedinorientationsrelatedtomagistratesvaryingpositionsontheseriousnessofdrinkdrivingasanoffensedeterrencetariffversusindividualizedsentencinggoalstheimportanceofanoffendersage,alcoholicdependence,andactualorpotentialcauseofacollisionandamagistratesoverallseverityinpenalizingdrinkdriversseeHomelLawrence,1992.Theavailabilityofapowerfulmultivariatelinearmodelthatcouldincorporatenominalcategoriesofseveralorientationsandtheirinteractionswithotherfactorsmeantwecouldusequalitativecodingsoforientationsthatwererealisticforthespecificoffense,withoutforcingpositionsintofalselyordinalclassifications.Withtaskspecificity,andawelldefinedoffensethatapproximatesafieldexperimentinwhichtheexpertsworkspaceisconstrainedandoutcomesarequantifiable,itispossibletobeexplicitaboutindividualdifferencesratherthantorelyuponglobaldescriptionsofmagistratesasidiosyncraticMcFatter,1986,p.150orstylisticallytoughorlenientHomel,1983a.Inaddition,bysamplingmagistratesandcasesfromtwolargecitycourtsthatwerecontrastedonoverallseverity,courtcouldbeusedasafurther,supraindividualfactor.Weexpectedthatthecomprehensivemodelingprocesswouldallowustoexplainmoreofthesentencingvariancethanispossibleusinggeneralmagistratefactors.SincetheinterpretivesentencingprocessisdependentontheadequacyofinformationmadeavailabletosentencersbyattorneysandwitnesseswithdifferentagendasandabilitiesLawrence,1984,1991Pope,1986,weincludedasmanylegalandextralegalvariablesaspossible.LegallyrelevantinformationiswelldefinedinthisareaBACinrelationtorecidivism,buttheextralegalorsocialvariablesrelatedtotheoffenderalsohavetobefittedintotheinterpretivepictureifdisparitiesaretobeidentified,makingacomplexsetofdifferentandconflictingfactorstobesortedandusedinthedecisionprocess.Adoptingthecommonpracticeoflabelingpersonalandsocialoffendervariablesasextralegalinordertoconsidertheirlegitimacy,wefocusedonthreetypesofoffendercharacteristicsthatconsistentlypromotedifferentoutcomesgender,age,andemploymentstatusasanindexofsocialclass.Thesethreefactorsthrowlightonthejusticeandequityissueaswellasbeingconsistentlyrecordedin
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