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JournalofShanghaiUniversityEnglishEdition,2005,95455457ArticleID10072641720050520455203AbstractofDoctoralDissertationComputerAidedAlloyDesignofHighPerformancePrehardenedMoldSteelforPlasticPh.D.CandidateHEYan2lin何燕霖AdvisorProf.LiLin李麟SchoolofMaterialsScienceandEngineering,ShanghaiUniversity,Shanghai200072,P.R.ChinaReceivedJun.15,2005ProjectsupportedbyKeyProjectofShanghaiMunicipalCommis2sionofScienceandTechnologyGrantNo.015211010HEYan2lin,Ph.D.Candidate,E2mailylhemail.shu.edu.cnLILin,Ph.D.,Prof.,E2maillilingsh163.netKeywordsprehardenedmoldsteelforplastic,Thermo2CalcDICTRAsoftwarepackage,machinability,heattreatmenttechnology,freecuttingphase.Prehardenedmoldsteelforplasticistheprimaryformanufacturinghighqualityplasticmold.Withtherapiddevelopmentofmoldindustryinourcountry,thiskindofsteelexhibitsextensiveapplicationprospect.How2ever,becauseofpropertydeficienciesofdomesticpro2ducedsteel,importsteelsholdmajorpartofmarketshare\1,2\.Inordertochangethesituation,usingmethodofacceleratedmaturationofmaterialsinthisarticle,thecompositionandtechnologyofprehard2enedmoldsteelforplasticareoptimizedanddesignedbyThermo2CalcDICTRAthermodynamicsoftwarepackage\3\.Onthestrongbackgroundofindustrialap2plication,thepropertyofdomesticproducedsteeliseffectivelyimprovedatthepremiseofnoincrementalcost,whichreachestotheperformancelevelofthesamekindofhighqualitysteelintheworld,e.g.,ASSAB718steel.Inaddition,onthebasisofresearchresultsmentionedabove,thenewkindoffreemachin2abilitysteelwithhighperformanceandbetterapplica2tionisdeveloped.Withthecomparedandstudiedinthisarticle,itisshownthatthemechanicalpropertyatroomtempera2turebetweenimportprehardenedmoldsteelforplasticwithlargesectionanddomesticproducedsteelissimi2lar.CombinedwithmicroscopeandSEMEDXanaly2ses,itisshownthatthecontentofoxideinclusionindomesticproducedsteelishigherandmainlycom2posedofaluminumoxide,butthenon2metallicinclu2sioninASSAB718steelismainlycomposedofsoftphasesulphideinclusionintheformofmanganesesul2phidewithaluminumoxideatthecore.Theflankwearamount,cuttingforceandthesurfaceroughnessofmachiningsamplesarecomprehensivelytestedbyturn2ingtestatlowcuttingspeedandpolishingtest,itisshownthatthemainperformancedifferencebetweendomesticproducedsteelandASSAB718steelisma2chinability.Becausethekeytoaffectmachinabilityofsteelisnon2metallicinclusion,machinabilityofsteelcanbeimprovedbythedeformationanddecreasingabrasioneffectofsulphideduringmachining\4,5\.Themachinabilityofdomesticproducedsteelismarkedlydecreasedbysevereabrasioneffectofaluminumoxidewithhighhardnessandhighmeltingpointonthecar2bidetool.Soitisthemainmeanstoimprovesteelsperformancethatremoveormodifytheoxideinclusioninsteel.SLAGdatabasebasedonGayemodelandthermody2namiccomputationsystembasedonCALPHADtech2niqueinThermo2CalcDICTRAsoftwarepackagearepowerfultoolsforcomputationequilibriumrelationofmulticomponentandmultiphasesystemduringsteel2makingprocess\6,7\.Accordingtocomputationalre2sults,theprecipitationprocessanditsinfluencingfac2torsofnon2metallicinclusionarepredicted.Itisshownthattheirrationalcompositionratioisthemainfactortoresultinhighercontentofaluminumoxidein2clusionindomesticproducedsteelbytheestimationofinclusiontypeprecipitatedinsteel.Thenthecomposi2tionofthesteelisoptimized,itisshownthattheweightpercentofalloyelementscarbon,manganese,silicon,chromium,nickelandmolybdenumareattherangeof0.360.42wt,1.351.45wt,0.20.3wt,1.82.0wt,0.81.0wtand0.20.4wtrespectively.Theexperimentalresultsshowthatthecontentofaluminumoxideinclusionismark2edlyreducedandmainlysubstitutedbyMnSwithmi2nusculealuminumoxideparticleatthecore,thema2chinabilityofdomesticproducedsteelaftercomposi2tionregulationismarkedlyimproved.Duetothecloserelationshipbetweenphasetrans2formationandheattreatmenttechnologyestablish2ment,themaintypeofcarbideinprehardenedmoldsteelforplasticisM7C3typebyTEManalysesandcomputedresults.ThentheeffectoftemperatureandalloycompositiononthedissolutionofM7C3typecar2bideinsteelissimulatedbyCellmodelinDICTRAprogram\8210\.ItisshownthatgenerallythedissolutioncontentsofM7C3typecarbideareincreasedwithen2hancedheatingtemperatureandprolongedkeepingtemperaturetime,therelationshipbetweendissolutioncontentofM7C3typecarbideandtimeatthetempera2tureof1183K910℃isclosetothatatthetempera2tureof1203K930℃,asshowninFig.1.Fig.1RelationshipbetweenM7C3carbidecontentandtimeunderdifferentKelvinstemperatureAlloyelementsCr、Mn、MoaffectthedissolutionofM7C3typecarbide,asshowninFig.2.Accordingtosimulatedresults,thesegregationofelementsinlargemoduleisbasicallyeliminatedbyhightemperatureho2mogenizingtreatmentbeforeforging,thatisdonebykeeping10hoursatthetemperatureof1200±10℃,thussurfaceroughnessofmachiningsteelsampleisimproved.Inaddition,thecrackingofmodulewithsmallthicknessresultingfromquenchingisavoidedby910℃normalizing,themicrostructureandpropertyofthesteelarenotbasicallyaffected.Fig.2RelationshipbetweenM7C3carbideamountandtimeinsteelswithdifferentcompositi2onsatthetemperatureof1183KTheperformanceofdomesticproducedsteelwithlargesectionaftercompositionregulationandhomoge2nizationtreatmentathightemperaturebeforeforging,includingmachinability,polishingpropertiesandanti2corrosionperformance,reachtothelevelofASSAB718steelanditcanbeproducedinmass.Itishelpfultoimprovethemachinabilityofsteelwithadditionoffreecuttingelementssuchassulphur,calcium,etc\11,12\.Butprecipitationofharmfulnon2metallicinclusion,suchascalciumaluminatesandcal2ciumsulphide,canbeavoidedonlybyregulationthecontent.TheeffectofelementsS,Cawithdifferentcontentsontheprecipitationofnon2metallicinclusioniscomputedbyThermo2Calcsoftwarepackage,itisshownthatperfectfreecuttingphasecanforminsteelatthepropercompositionrange,suchasglassyoxideinclusion2CaOAl2O3SiO2thatisC2AS.Freema2chinabilityprehardenedmoldsteelforplasticwithmodifiedcompositionistentativelyproduced.Com2binedwithSEMEDXanalyse,itisshownthatfreecuttingphaseC2AScanbeobtainedbyaddition2040ppmcalciumand0.02wtsulphur,butC2ASisnoteasytobeobtainedifthecontentofsulphurincreasedto0.04wt,whichisagreewiththeprediction.Comparedwithcuttingatlowspeed,itisshownthatathighcuttingspeed,thedamageoftoolisheavyandtoollifeisshort,butthecuttingforcebecomessmallandthesurfaceroughnessofmachiningsurface654JournalofShanghaiUniversityisalsoimproved.Theexistenceofsoftphasesulphideresultsinbetterpropertiesofsteelatlowcuttingspeedcondition,butathighcuttingspeedcondition,onlytheglassyoxideC2ASistestifiedtoformprotectivelayeratthesurfaceoftool,thenthewearoftoolisef2fectivelyinhibitedandthemachinabilityofsteelisim2proved.Inaddition,thefreemachinabilityeffectofsulphidephasecanbeimprovedbyadditionofcalciumandbismuthbecauseofchangingsulphidesshapeandincreasingthestickstrength.Theductilityandisotro2pyofsteeldecreasedbecauseofthedeformationofsoftphasesulphide,butthemodifiedeffectofcalciumonMnScandecreasethedisadvantage.Withthecom2prehensiveassessmentofmechanicalpropertiesandmachinability,thecomplexadditionofS2Ca2Biwithsmallcontentisaaccessibleprojectformanufacturingfreemachiabilityprehardenedmoldsteelforplastic.References\1\GanYong,ChenZai2zhi,ZhaoXiao2cun.StatusofdiesteeldevelopmentinChinaandcountermeasureforthecomingnewcentury\A\,ProceedingofanInternationalConferenceonToolsSteelforDiesandMolds\C\.Shanghai,1998,4249.\2\GehrickeB,SchruffI.Trendsinplasticmouldsteelap2plications\A\.Proceedingsofthe5thInternationalCon2ferenceonTooling\C\.Austria,1999,8390.\3\AnderssonJ2O,HelanderT,H¨oglundL,etal.Thermo2CalcDICTRA,computationaltoolsformaterialsscience\J\.CALPHAD,2002,262273312.\4\SubramanianSV,GekondeHO,ZhangX,etal.Inclu2sionengineeringofsteelsforhighspeedmachining\J\.CIMBulletin,1998,4107114.\5\YaguchiH.EffectofMnSinclusionsizeonmachinabilityoflow2carbonleaded,resulfurizedfree2machiningsteel\J\.J.AppliedMetalworking,1986,43214225.\6\SundmanB,JanssonB,AnderssonJ2O.TheThermo2Calcdatabasesystem\J\.CALPHAD,1985,9153190.\7\GayeH,GatellierC.Slagsandinclusionscontrolinsec2ondarysteelmaking\A\,ProceedingsoftheThirdInter2nationalConferenceonCleanSteelOrganizedbytheIn2stituteofMetalsandtheHungarianMiningandMetal2lurgicalSociety,Hungary,1986,6137147.\8\BorgenstamA,Engstr¨om,H¨oglundL,etal.DICTRA,atoolforsimulationofdiffusionaltransformationinalloys\J\.J.PhaseEquilibria,2000,213269280.\9\LiuZi2kui,H¨oglundL,J¨ossonB,etal.AnexperimentalandtheoreticalofcementitedissolutioninanFe2Cr2Cal2loy\J\.MetallurgicalTransactionsA,1991,22A17451752.\10\Bj¨arboA,H¨attestrandM.Complexcarbidegrowth,dis2solution,andcoarseninginamodified12pctchromiumsteelanexperimentalandtheoreticalstudy\J\.Metallur2gicalandMaterialsTransactionsA,2001,32A1927.\11\SekerU,CiftciI,HasirciH.Theeffectofalloyingele2mentsonsurfaceroughnessandcuttingforcesduringma2chiningofductileiron\J\.MaterialsandDesign,2003,244751.\12\BlaisC,L′espéranceG,LehuyH.Developmentofanin2gratedmethodforfullycharacterizingmultiphaseinclu2sionsanditsapplicationtocalcium2treatedsteels\J\.MaterialsCharacterization,1997,382537.EditorYAOYue2yuan754Vol.9No.5Oct.2005HEYLComputerAidedAlloyDesignofHighPerformancePrehardenedMold...
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