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编号:201311171715477737    大小:73.11KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
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LegalRegulationofAdministrativeMonopolyAsViewedfromChineseAntimonopolyLawLingWangLawschoolofShandongUniversityofTechnologyZibo255049,Shandong,ChinaAbstractTheadministrativemonopolybreakstheprincipleofjustice,andhaslargeharmtothesociety.ThespecialchapterinChineseAntimonopolyLawregulatesthecontentsandcorrespondinglegalresponsibilitiesofadministrativemonopoly,butthelawstillhassomedeficiencies.TheChineseAntimonopolyLawshouldbeperfectedfromincreasingtheoperationproperty,confirmingthecomprehensivelegalresponsibilities,confirmingthelawenforcementagencyofanti-administrativemonopoly,expandingtherangeoflegalregulationandestablishingthejudicialreviewsystem.Keywords:ChineseAntimonopolyLaw,Administrativemonopoly,RegulationInchina,theadministrativemonopolymainlymeansthebehaviorsthatadministrativesubjectsharmthemarketcompetitionanddestroysocialismmarketeconomyorderbytheadministrativepower.Theadministrativemonopolyinitiallybelongstoeconomicmonopoly,anditsharmismorethaneconomicmonopoly,anditdestroystheprincipleofjustice,andinducestheoccurrenceofunfaircompetitionandmonopolyinspecialmarket,anditharmsthebenefitsofmostmarketsubjects,andlargelywasteseffectiveresources,andblockstheestablishmentandperfectionofthesocialismmarketcompetitionmechanism.Therefore,itshouldseeksolutionandregulationmethodsfromvariousapproachesfortheadministrativemonopoly.Onlyinthisway,theobstacleofChineseeconomicsystemreformandthedevelopmentofmarketeconomycanberemoved,whichcanpromotethequickdevelopmentofeconomy,enhancethelivinglevelofpeople,improvethetotalsurvivalenvironment,andrealizetheharmonyandstabilityofthesociety.1.RegulationofadministrativemonopolyinChineseAntimonopolyLawFortheregulationofadministrativemonopoly,therearemanyresearchesanddiscussionsamongChinesescholars,andthesystemreformviewandthelegalregulationviewarerepresentativeviews.Thesystemreformviewthinksthattheadministrativemonopolyistheproductofsystem,anditcanbecompletelysolvedbydeepeningtheeconomicsystemreformandthepoliticalsystemreform,andthelegalmeasureishardtosolvetheproblemofadministrativemonopoly.Thecentralcontentofthelegalregulationviewisthattheadministrativemonopolyisveryharmful,anditmustbeforbiddenmainlybythelaws.Thelegalregulationviewisalsocanbedividedintotwofactions,andoneistomainlyusetheadministrativelawtoregulatetheadministrativemonopoly,andtheotherthinksthatChineseAntimonopolyLawisthemainpowertoregulatetheadministrativemonopoly.BecauseChineseeconomicandpoliticalsystemreformisagradualprocesswhichneedsquitelong-termendeavors,andthistransferneedslargepatientandwillpower,sotheadministrativemonopolyhasbeenaveryhotpotatoatpresent,andithasseriouslyblockedtheeconomicdevelopmentofChinawithlargesocialharms,anditevenblockstheeconomicandpoliticalsystemreformswhichisbeinginChina,soitmustbeforbiddenassoonaspossible,orelse,thelargedestroyingfunctiononthedevelopmentofChineseeconomywillbehardtoimage.Therefore,itistooidealtoonlydependonthesystemreformtoregulatetheadministrativemonopoly,andtheeffectisnotobvious.Inthepresentnationalsituation,lawisthefeasiblemeasuretoregulatetheadministrativemonopoly.Becausetheadministrativemonopolyrootsineconomicmonopolyandhasmanycharactersandharmsofeconomicmonopoly,moreandmorelegalscholarswanttoutilizeChineseAntimonopolyLawtoregulatetheadministrativemonopoly.“ItisthecharacteristicofChineseAntimonopolyLawtotaketheadministrativemonopolyasthecontrolobjectofantimonopoly,anditseemsanecessaryselectionaccordingtothenationalsituation,becausetheadministrativemonopolyformingintraditionalplannedeconomysystemisimpossibletoberemovedbyadministrativemeasure,anditcanonlybesolvedbythelegalmeasure,i.e.theAntimonopolyLaw(Zhang,1993,P.357)”.AtAugust1of2008,ChineseAntimonopolyLawbecameeffectiveinpeople’sexpectations,andthefifthchapterspeciallyregulatesthecontentofadministrativemonopoly,andthearticlesfrom32to37respectivelygeneralizetheeliminationofadministrativepowerabuseandthebehaviorsofcompetitionlimitation,andcompletelyregulatetheconcreterepresentformofadministrativemonopoly,andarticle51regulatescorrespondinglegalresponsibilities.Thus,theregulationofadministrativemonopolyisfirstregulatedinlaw,andthelegalapproachisthemainmeasuretogoverntheadministrativemonopoly,whichindicatedthatthelegalregulationviewhadbeenadoptedfinally.ThecontentsofadministrativemonopolyintheAntimonopolyLawembodiestheadvancementofChineselegaltheorystudyandlegislationtechnology,anditshowedthedecisionofChineselegislatorstostandardizetheenforcementofadministrativepowerandstoptheabuseofadministrativepower.Ofcourse,lawisonlyonemostimportantmeasuretoregulatetheadministrativemonopoly,andthereasonableandeffectivereformsinpolityandeconomyalsohaveveryimportantmeaningsfortheregulationofadministrativemonopolybehaviors.2.DeficienciesofadministrativemonopolyregulationinChineseAntimonopolyLawRelativeregulationsaboutadministrativemonopolyinChineseAntimonopolyLawareactiveandhelpfulexplorationtoregulateadministrativemonopolybehaviorsbylaw,andcorrespondinglegalregulationsaredeeplymeaningfulandinfluencingtoeliminatethebadinfluencesofadministrativemonopoly,promotethefaircompetition,establishnormalmarketorder,andguaranteetheordereddevelopmentofmarketeconomy.However,whetherrelativecorrespondingsystemsorthearticlesinthechapter5stillhavesomedeficiencies,andtheanti-administrativemonopolymuchstillremainstobedone.2.1RegulationsaretoofundamentaltooperateThearticlesinthechapter5ofChineseAntimonopolyLawaresomeprincipledarticleslackinginoperation,whichmakethejudiciaryandlawenforcementagenciesaredifficulttodistinguish.Andmanyabstractconceptssuchaswhatextentcanachieveadministrativemonopoly,andwhatisthattheabuseofadministrativepowertoblockthefreecirculationofcommoditiescannotbedefinedclearlyinonlyfivelegalarticles,sothecatchwordsofanti-administrativemonopolyappearincapable.AtAugust1of2008,thefirstdaywhenChineseAntimonopolyLawwasimplemented,ChineseStateAdministrationofQualitySupervision,InspectionandQuarantineencounteredthefirstcaseaboutChineseAntimonopolyLaw.However,intheexpectationoftenthousandsofpeople,thiscasecametoanuntimelyend,andthoughthecourtadoptedthearticlethatthelimitationofactionswasovertoevadethiscase,butitcanbesupposedthatifthecourtcannotevadeitbyrelativereasons,whatistheresult?WasthebehaviorthatChineseStateAdministrationofQualitySupervisionforcedtopushtheelectricsupervisioncodebusinessofCiticGuoanInformationTechnologyCo.,Ltdwithitsownsharesin69kindsofproductanadministrativemonopolybehavior?Theresultmightreachthesamegoalbydifferentroutes.Andrelativeregulationsaboutthecurrentantimonopolylawendowlaw-officerstoomuchdiscretiontomakethemto“goafterprofitsandavoiddisadvantages”.2.2TheregulationsaboutthelegalresponsibilityofadministrativemonopolyaredeficientChineseAntimonopolyLawregulatesthecivil,administrativeandcriminalresponsibilitiesassumedbymanagerswhoimplementmonopolybehaviorsindetail,butforthelegalresponsibilityofthebehaviorsofadministrativemonopoly,onlythearticle51ofChineseAntimonopolyLawregulatesthat“Ifadministrativepowerbygovernmentandorganizationstowhichlawsandregulationsgrantrightstoadministerpublicissuesabuseadministrativepower,toeliminateorrestrictcompetition,shallbeorderedbysuperiorauthoritiestocorrectthemselves;peopleindirectchargeandpeopledirectlyinvolvedshallbeimposedadministrativepunishment.Theantimonopolyexecutionauthoritiesshallsupplysuggestiontorelatedsuperiorauthoritiestohandleaccordingtolaw.”Manyadministrativeresponsibilitiessuchas“shallbeorderedbysuperiorauthoritiestocorrectthemselves;peopleindirectchargeandpeopledirectlyinvolvedshallbeimposedadministrativepunishment”formdifferentlegalresultsofdifferentsubjectstoimplementmonopolybehaviors,sopeoplebegintosuspectthejusticeoflaws,whichvirtuallyhelpstheadministrativesubjectstoimplementadministrativemonopoly,andthedeterrentforcewillbereducedlargely.Atthesametime,thoughtheresponsibilityofChineseAntimonopolyLawistoolighterandbecomesamereformality,andthelawisnotobeyedandstrictlyenforced,sotheadministrativemonopolyremainsincessantafterrepeatedprohibition.2.3ThejurisdictionofantimonopolylawenforcementinstitutionislimitedThedefinitionabouttheanti-administrativemonopolylawenforcementagencyinthefiftyfirstarticleofChineseAntimonopolyLawisstillblurry,andontheonehand,thesupervisionproceduresshouldbeindependentlyestablishedtorestrainlawsbythislaw,andontheotherhand,thelawregulatesthattheadministrativemonopolyshouldbedominatedbysuperiorauthorities,andthearticlethat“Ifadministrativepowerbygovernmentandorganizationstowhichlawsandregulationsgrantrightstoadministerpublicissuesabuseadministrativepower,toeliminateorrestrictcompetitionwillbehandledbyanotherregulation,shallbeappliedtoanotherregulation”hasleftlargespacefortherightsofrelativedepartmentsandsupervisioninstitutions,whichhaseliminatedthejurisdictionofanti-administrativemonopolylawenforcementagenttotheadministrativemonopoly.Atthesametime,itisnotreasonabletohandlethebehaviorsofadministrativemonopolybythesuperiorauthorityoflawbreakerforthelegalresponsibilities.Thesuperiorauthorityisnotaspecificauthority,becausetheauthoritiesimplementingadministrativemonopolyaredifferent,andthelawenforcementhasbedecomposedtovariousfunctionalauthorities,whichwilleasilyinducerepeatlawenforcementsorblanklawenforcement.Furthermore,thesuperiorauthorityisnottheauthoritytospeciallydominateadministrativemonopoly,orthespecialjudicialauthority,anditjustiscommonlawenforcementauthority(Wang,2007).Staffsinsuperiorauthoritymaynothavestrongantimonopolyconsciousness,andboththecognitionandtreatmentresultalllackinauthorities,andtheyalsolackintheabilitytoteatthecasesaboutadministrativemonopoly.2.4TherangeofadministrativemonopolyregulationistoonarrowThearticle33ofChineseAntimonopolyLawlimitstheobjectofadministrativemonopolyinthedomainofgoodstrade.“Administrativepowerbygovernmentandorganizationstowhichlawsandregulationsgrantrightstoadministerpublicissuesshallnotabuseadministrativepowertocarryoutfollowingconducts,tohinderthefreeflowofthecommoditiesbetweenregions”.Infact,thecharacterofthetransferofmoderneconomicindustrystructureisthattheproportionoftheserviceindustryisenhancedincreasingly,andiftheobjectoftheanti-administrativemonopolyisonlylimitedinthedomainofgoodstrade,thedomainwhichisbiggerandoccupiesmoreproportionwillbeabandonedoutofthesupervisionofChineseAntimonopolyLaw.Thoughthearticle34forbidsandexcludesthatexteriormanagersparticipateinlocalbidinvitationandbiddingactivities,andthearticle35forbidsandexcludesthatexteriormanagersinvestorestablishbranchesincludingthedomainofservicetradeinlocalregion,buttherearemanyitemsintheserviceindustryoutofthesetworanges,andthelegalregulationaboutadministrativemonopolybehaviorsinthedomainofserviceindustryisstillblankinChineseAntimonopolyLaw.
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