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257EndEffectsKinematicSynthesisofIndustrialRobotHand/GripperACreativeDesignApproachJayLeeUnitedStatesPostalService,OfficeofAdvancedTechnology,475LEnfantPlazaS.W.,Rm2140,WashingtonDC202608120,U.S.A.Thepurposeofthisresearchistosynthesizeindustrialrobothandmechanisms.InvestigationsonDOFF,complexityandthestructureGraphwillbepresented.Therefore,akinematicstructuretableofrobothandmechanismscanbegenerated.TheadvantagesofusingthisreferencetableareasfollowsIdentificationofthekinematicstructureofrobothandmechanismsforrobothandstandardization.Theatlasofgraphstructurecanbeusedtoenumeratenewrobothandmechanisms.Leadstocreationorinventionofnewrobothandmechanismsaccordingtotheseparationofstructureandfunction.Thispaperwillpresentacreativedesignapproachindesigningindustrialrobothand/grippermechanisms.ThisresearchworkwasconductedwhiletheauthorwasatColumbiaUniversity.KeywordsKinematics,Grippers,Handmechanisms.1.IntroductionRobotichand/gripperistheintegralpartinmostoftheroboticapplications.Marketstudypredictedthattherewillbeover60roboticapplicationsinassemblyandmaterialhandling\1\.Designoftheroboticgrippingmechanismalwaysbecomesthekeyelementfortheentitledproject.Often,verylittletimeisspentinoptimalkinematicstructuretopologydesignintheearlystagesofadesignprocess.Timepressuressometimesforceengineerstorepeattopologiesthathaveworkedinsimilarapplicationsinthepast,ratherthantrytocreatebetterdesigns\2\.Chen\3\presentedacompletesurveyofmechanismsusedforgrippersforindustrialrobots.Erdmanetal.\2\suggestedtechniquesoftypesynthesisbasedongraphtheoryandexpertsystems.Someextensiveworkincreatingdatabaseforrobotichandgrippersmechanismhasbeendonebytheauthor\8\.ThispaperwillpresentacreativedesignapMr.JayLeeisprogramdirectorinmaterialhandlingresearchfortheOfficeofAdvancedTechnologyofUnitedStatesPostalService.HereceivedhisB.S.fromTaiwanandholdsanM.S.degreeinMechanicalEngineeringfromtheUniversityofWisconsinMadisonandanM.S.inIndustrialManagementfromStateUniversityofNewYorkatStonyBrook.HeiscurrentlyadoctoralcandidateinMechanicalEngineeringatUniversityofMaryland.HehasservedasaparttimelecturerfortheStateUniversityofNewYorkatStonyBrook,forthePolytechnicsUniversityandasadjunctassistantprofessorfortheNewYorkInstituteofTechnology.HeformerlyservedasaprogrammanagerindevelopinghighprecisionandhighspeedrobotictechnologiesforAnoradCorp.Hauppauge,NY.BeforeAnorad,hewasaNorthHollandseniormechanicalengineerandgroupleaderindevelopingvisionguidedrobotictechnologiesforRoboticVisionSystems,Robotics41988257263Inc.alsoinHauppauge,NewYork.09218830/88/3.50©1988,ElsevierSciencePublishersB.V.NorthHolland258J.Lee/KinematicSynthesisofIndustrialRobotHandGripperproachindesigningindustrialrobothand/grippermechanism.Thedevelopmentofthekinematicstructureofrobothand/grippermechanismswillalsobepresented.2.OverviewoflnduslrialRobotHandGripperMechanism1312Vacuumandmagnetictypethisclassincludesthreefittedwithsuctioncuporelectromagnets.3Specialhandandgripperthisclassconsistsofinflatablefinger,paperpickinggripper.Inthispaper,wewillinvestigatemechanicalfingertypebecausemostindustrialrobothand/grippermechanismsfallintothiscategory.Ingeneral,gripperscanbeclassifiedaccordingtothefollowing1MechanicalfingertypeAccordingtothenumberoffingersinagripper,wehavei2fingertypeii3fingertypeiiimultifingertype.Accordingtothenumberofhandsmountedonthewristoftherobotarmwehaveisinglegripperiidualgripperiiimultiplegripperindextype.Accordingtothepartconfiguration,wehaveilinearmotiongripperparalleriiangularmotiongripper.Accordingtothekinematicstructure,wehaveilinkagetypeiigearandracktypeiiicamtypeivscrewtypevropeandpulleytypeMIT/UXAnhand,Hitachihand.2.1.KinematicSynthesisofRobotHandGripperMechanismMechanismcreationbasedontheseparationofstructurefromfunctionwasproposedbyFreudenstein\47\.Kinematicstructurecanbeenumeratedinanessentiallysystematic,unbiasedfashionasafunctionofthedegreeoffreedomofthemechanism,thenaturalofthedesiredmotionandaparameterrepresentinganindicationofthecomplexityofthemechanism.Eachstructureobtainedinthiswaycanthenbesketchedandevaluatedwithrespecttothefunctionalrequirementsofthemechanism.Potentiallyacceptablemechanismscanthenbeevaluatedindepthuntilafinaldesignisachieved.MostmechanismsobeythefollowinggeneraldegreeoffreedomequationFLj1EL1whereFdegreeoffreedomofmechanismDegreeofKinematicFreedomfElementCommentsHelicalPairH12GearPairG1__TurningPairRISlidingPairP4BallinCylinderFig.1.Commonusedkinematicelementsinrobothand/grippermechanism.J.Lee/KinematicSynthesisofIndustrialRobotHand/GripperTable1Correspondencebetweengraphandmechanism259MechanismLinks£JointsjJoinedLinksDifferentJointsGroundedElementSameMechanismsDifferentMechanismsIndependentLoopsGraphVerticesvEdgeseEdgeconnectedverticesLabeledEdgesRPinJointPSlidingJointGGearJointHHelicalJointFixedLinkIsomorphicGraphsNoniscmorphicGraphsIndependentLoopsSymbolRpGH®LINDhmobilitynumberdegreeoffreedominwhichmechanismoperates,3forplaneandsphericalmotionsh6forgeneralthreedimensionalmotions,Lnumberoflinks,jnumberofjoints,andf,degreeoffreedomofrelativemotionatithjoint.Intermsofthegraphofthemechanism,Equation1maybewrittenasrx0e12wherevnumberofverticesofgraphvLandenumberofedgesofgraphej.LINDjL13LINDNumberofindependentloopsinthemechanismcombining1and3El/rLIND4Forgeartrainsitcanbeshown\7\thattheseequationsspecializetothefollowingLF1LINDjF2LINDJcLINDJRFLINDwhereJc,JRdenotethenumberofgearpairsandpinjoints.Mostrobothandsgrippersareopenloopmechanismswhosestructuresaregenerallysimplerthanthoseofcloseloopmechanisms.The\166RRRI4pR,R3R4bcFig.2,Typicalrobothandmechanismandgraph.260J.Lee/KinematicSynthesisofIndustrialRobotHand/GripperNOVe1R./I5P2P3IR4245oGcx,G23345R231456KINEMATICROBOTHANDSTRUCTUREMECHANISMRR3R41.iC2i14NOVe556667767KINEMATICSTRUCTURERRR.R413R4R34ROBOTHAND,MECHANISM4Fig.3.Kinematicstructureofrobothandmechanisms.mostcommonjointsinrobothandsgrippersmechanismsaretheturningpairsorpinjointsR,theslidingpairP,gearpairsG,helicalpairsorscrewandnutHseeFig.1.Table1showsthecorrespondencebetweengraphsandmechanisms.ThegraphrepresentationofatypicalrobothandmechanismisshowninFig.2.ThedegreeoffreedomFandcomplexityLINDcanbeillustratedbyuseofexamplefromFig.2.NumberoflinksL6Numberofjointsj7EfRReRRRR7X3planemechanismThereforeF3Lj1EL367171ThenumberofclosedloopsinthismechanismisaLINDjL17612Thisshouldbeequaltotheresultfromthegraphb.FromTable1weknowthatthenumberofedgeseinthegraphisequaltothenumberoflinksinthemechanism.Thenumberofverticesointhegraphisequaltothenumberofjointsjinthemechanism.
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