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COMPUTERAIDEDCIVILANDINFRASTRUCTUREENGINEERING232008448–464INDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONDYNAMICRESPONSEOFAROLLOVERPROTECTIVESTRUCTUREDAVIDPTHAMBIRATNAM∗BRIANJCLARKSCHOOLOFURBANDEVELOPMENT,FACULTYOFBUILTENVIRONMENTENGINEERING,QUEENSLANDUNIVERSITYOFTECHNOLOGY,BRISBANE,AUSTRALIANIMALJPERERASCHOOLOFURBANDEVELOPMENT,FACULTYOFBUILTENVIRONMENTENGINEERING,QUEENSLANDUNIVERSITYOFTECHNOLOGY,BRISBANE,AUSTRALIAROBERTBIRDGROUP,BRISBANE,AUSTRALIAABSTRACTROLLOVERPROTECTIVESTRUCTURESROPSARESAFETYDEVICESFITTEDTOHEAVYVEHICLESTOPROVIDEPROTECTIONTOTHEOPERATORDURINGANACCIDENTALROLLOVERATPRESENT,ROPSDESIGNSTANDARDSREQUIREFULLSCALEDESTRUCTIVETESTINGTHATCANBEEXPENSIVE,TIMECONSUMING,ANDUNSUITABLEFORSMALLCOMPANIESMOREECONOMICALANALYTICALMETHODSARENOTPERMITTEDDUETOALACKOFUNDERSTANDINGOFPOSTYIELDBEHAVIORANDTHEENERGYABSORPTIONCAPACITYOFROPSTOADDRESSTHIS,ACOMPREHENSIVERESEARCHPROJECTWASUNDERTAKENTOINVESTIGATEROPSBEHAVIORUSINGANALYTICALTECHNIQUESSUPPORTEDBYEXPERIMENTSTHISARTICLEPRESENTSTHEDYNAMICIMPACTANALYSISOFABULLDOZERROPSUSINGCALIBRATEDFINITEELEMENTMODELSRESULTSINDICATETHAT1ROPSPOSTSHAVESIGNIFICANTINFLUENCEONTHEENERGYABSORBINGCAPACITY,2DYNAMICAMPLIFICATIONSINENERGYCOULDBEUPTO25,3STIFFERROPSCAUSEHIGHPEAKDECELERATIONSTHATMAYBEDETRIMENTALTOTHEOPERATOR,AND4ANALYTICALTECHNIQUESMAYBEUSEDFOREVALUATINGROPSPERFORMANCE1INTRODUCTIONHEAVYVEHICLESTHATAREUSEDINTHERURAL,MINING,ANDCONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRIESARESUSCEPTIBLETOROLLOVERSAS∗TOWHOMCORRESPONDENCESHOULDBEADDRESSEDEMAILDTHAMBIRATNAMQUTEDUAUTHEYHAVEAHIGHCENTEROFGRAVITYANDCOMMONLYOPERATEONSLOPINGANDUNEVENTERRAINASTEELMOMENTRESISTINGFRAMEWITHEITHERTWOORFOURPOSTSISUSUALLYATTACHEDTOTHESEVEHICLESABOVETHEOPERATOR’SCABINFORPROTECTIONDURINGROLLOVERSTHISSAFETYDEVICEISCALLEDAROLLOVERPROTECTIVESTRUCTUREROPSANDITSROLEISTOABSORBSOMEOFTHEKINETICENERGYKEOFTHEROLLOVER,WHILEMAINTAININGASURVIVALZONEFORTHEOPERATORTHEDESIGNANDANALYSISOFROPSISCOMPLEXANDREQUIRESDUALCRITERIAOFADEQUATEFLEXIBILITYTOABSORBENERGYANDADEQUATESTIFFNESSTOMAINTAINASURVIVALZONEAROUNDTHEOPERATOREVALUATIONTECHNIQUESUSEDINTHECURRENTAUSTRALIANSTANDARDFOREARTHMOVINGMACHINERYPROTECTIVESTRUCTURESAS2294–1997ARESIMPLIFIEDANDINVOLVEFULLSCALEDESTRUCTIVETESTINGOFROPSSUBJECTEDTOSTATICLOADSALONGTHEIRLATERAL,VERTICAL,ANDLONGITUDINALAXESTHESTANDARDISPERFORMANCEBASED,WITHCERTAINFORCEANDENERGYABSORPTIONCRITERIATHATAREDERIVEDFROMEMPIRICALFORMULAERELATEDTOTHETYPEOFMACHINEANDOPERATINGMASSDEFLECTIONRESTRICTIONSAREALSOEMPLOYEDTOENABLEASURVIVALSPACEKNOWNASTHEDYNAMICLIMITINGVOLUMEDLVTOBEMAINTAINEDFORTHEVEHICLEOPERATORTHESESIMPLIFIEDPROVISIONSPROVIDEDESIGNGUIDELINESTHATWILLSUBSTANTIALLYIMPROVETHEOPERATOR’SCHANCESOFSURVIVALDURINGANACCIDENTALROLLOVERTHISFORMOFCERTIFICATIONCANBETIMECONSUMINGANDEXTREMELYEXPENSIVEC2008COMPUTERAIDEDCIVILANDINFRASTRUCTUREENGINEERINGPUBLISHEDBYBLACKWELLPUBLISHING,350MAINSTREET,MALDEN,MA02148,USA,AND9600GARSINGTONROAD,OXFORDOX42DQ,UKDYNAMICRESPONSEOFAROLLOVERPROTECTIVESTRUCTURE449ASESTABLISHINGTHEFORCEANDENERGYCRITERIACANINVOLVELARGELOADSTHATMAYTHEREFOREREQUIRETHEUSEOFASPECIALIZEDTESTINGFACILITYCERTIFICATIONOFROPSBYMOREECONOMICALANALYTICALMODELINGTECHNIQUESISCURRENTLYNOTPERMITTEDBYROPSSTANDARDSFOREARTHMOVINGMACHINERYBOTHINAUSTRALIAANDINTERNATIONALLYREASONSFORTHEEXCLUSIONAREATTRIBUTEDTOALACKOFKNOWLEDGEANDRESEARCHINFORMATIONONTHEBEHAVIOROFTHESESTRUCTURESINTHEPOSTYIELDREGIONANDTHEIRENERGYABSORPTIONCAPACITYPRELIMINARYRESEARCHHASSHOWNPROMISEFORTHEUSEOFANALYTICALTECHNIQUESTOMODELTHENONLINEARRESPONSEOFROPSTHESEANALYTICALMETHODSWEREVERYSIMPLIFIEDANDINVOLVEDTHEUSEOFELASTOPLASTICBEAMELEMENTSTOSIMULATETHEBEHAVIOROFROPSSUBJECTEDTOASTATICLATERALLOADINRECENTYEARS,SUBSTANTIALADVANCESHAVEBEENMADEINBOTHCOMPUTATIONALPOWERANDTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFADVANCEDELEMENTTYPESINFINITEELEMENTFETECHNIQUESTHATCANACCURATELYMODELANDPREDICTTHENONLINEARRESPONSEOFSTRUCTURES,PARTICULARLYINTHEPOSTYIELDREGIONRESEARCHCARRIEDOUTONROPSBEHAVIORUSINGANALYTICALANDEXPERIMENTALTECHNIQUESINCLUDETHOSEOFCLARKETAL2006A,B,KIMANDREID2001,TOMASETAL1997,SWAN1988,ANDHUCKLERETAL1985ACOMPREHENSIVERESEARCHPROJECTWASUNDERTAKENATTHEQUEENSLANDUNIVERSITYOFTECHNOLOGYTOINVESTIGATEROPSBEHAVIORUSINGCOMPUTERSIMULATIONSSUPPORTEDBYEXPERIMENTSTO1ENHANCEOURUNDERSTANDINGOFROPSBEHAVIOR,2IMPROVEENERGYABSORPTIONANDSAFETY,AND3GENERATERESEARCHINFORMATIONTOFACILITATETHEDEVELOPMENTOFANALYTICALTECHNIQUESFORDESIGNANDEVALUATIONTHATMAYLESSENTHENEEDFORDESTRUCTIVEFULLSCALETESTINGCLARK,2006ATHISARTICLETREATSTHEDYNAMICRESPONSEOFTHEROPSMODELFORAK275BULLDOZER,USINGCALIBRATEDFEMODELSTHEEXPERIMENTALTESTINGANDCALIBRATIONOFTHECOMPUTEMODELOFTHISPARTICULARROPSMODELAREREPORTEDELSEWHERECLARK,2006A,BTHEDYNAMICIMPACTLOADSARECHARACTERISTICOFTHOSETHATAREEXPERIENCEDDURINGTHESIDEWARDSROLLOVEROFAVEHICLEONAFIRMSLOPEASIMPLIFIEDMETHODBASEDONACONSERVATIONOFANGULARMOMENTUMAPPROACHREPORTEDBYWATSON1967ISUSEDTOESTIMATETHEDYNAMICIMPACTPARAMETERSFORTHEROPSDURINGASIDEWARDSOVERTURNTHEEXPLICITFECODELSDYNAV970WASUSEDTOCONDUCTTHENECESSARYDYNAMICIMPACTMODELINGFORROLLOVERIMPACTSONFIRMSLOPESWITHINCLINATIONSOF15◦,30◦,AND45◦THEINFLUENCEOFCONTROLLINGVARIABLESSUCHASROPSSTIFFNESS,IMPACT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