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wordword/word时态一、根本概念英语语法中的时态〔tense〕是一种动词形式,不同的时态用以表示不同的时间与方式。是表示行为、动作、状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式,在英语中有16种时态,初中阶段需要学习8种,重点掌握6种。二、根本分类将来过去现在将来过去现在一般一般进展进展完成⑴完成红色笑脸代表6种必须熟练掌握的时态;红色笑脸代表6种必须熟练掌握的时态;黄色笑脸代表2种只要求理解其构成和用法的时态。完成进展⑵111pastpresentfuture一般过去时一般现在时一般将来时过去进展时现在进展时过去完成时现在完成时过去将来三、动词的五种根本形式形式变化规如此例词动词原形不带to的动词不定式形式be,do,learn,have第三人称单数在动词原形后直接加-srun-runslike-likes以ch,sh,s,o,x结尾的动词,在词尾加-esteach-teacheswash-washespass-passesgo-goesdo-doesfix-fixes辅音字母y结尾的动词:将y变为i再加-esstudy-studiestry-tries以元音字母加y结尾的动词:在词尾加+sstay-staysplay-plays特殊变化的动词have-hasbe-is现在分词一般变化:动词原形后直接加+ingwork-workingstudy-studying以不发音的e结尾的动词:去e再加+inglive-livingwrite-writing以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词:双写末尾字母再加+ingstop-stoppingrefer-referringsit-sittingbegin-beginning少数以ie结尾的动词:去ie变为y再加+ingdie-dyinglie-lyingtie-tying过去式和过去分词

〔规如此变化〕一般变化:在动词原形后加-edwork-worked以e结尾的动词:直接加-dlive-lived以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词:双写最后字母再+edstop-stoppedprefer-preferredplan-planned以辅音字母加y结尾的动词:去y变为i再加+edcarry-carriedstudy-studiedcry-cried不规如此动词的过去式和过去分词:版本一:将初中常见的93个不规如此动词的变化规律归纳如下:1.A—A—A型,即原形、过去式和过去分词三者都一样。〔共9个〕cost—cost—costcut—cut—cuthit—hit—hithurt—hurt—hurtlet—let—letput—put—putread—read—readset—set—setshut—shut—shut2.A—B—B型,即过去式、过去分词一样。〔共41个〕〔1〕过去式和过去分词都含有-ought。〔3个〕bring—brought—broughtbuy—bought—boughtthink—thought—thought〔2〕词尾有-ild,-end时,只需把d变为t。〔4个〕build—built—builtlend—lent—lentsend—sent—sentspend—spent—spent〔3〕过去式、过去分词都含有-aught。〔2个〕catch—caught—caughtteach—taught—taught〔4〕把-eep变为-ept。〔3个〕keep—kept—keptsleep—slept—sleptsweep—swept—swept〔5〕把-ell变为-old。〔2个〕tell—told—toldsell—sold—sold〔6〕过去式、过去分词都含有-elt或-ilt。〔4个〕smell—smelt—smeltspell—spelt—speltfeel—felt—feltspill—spilt—spilt〔7〕过去式、过去分词都在原形词尾加t。〔3个〕learn—learnt—learntmean—meant—meantspoil—spoilt—spoilt〔8〕过去式、过去分词词尾是d。〔4个〕say—said—saidpay—paid—paidlay—laid—laidhear—heard—heard〔9〕改变元音字母。〔11个〕meet—met—metget—got—gotsit—sat—satfind—found—foundspit—spat—spatshine—shone—shonewin—won—wonhang—hung—hungdig—dug—duglose—lost—losthold—held—held〔10〕改变辅音字母。〔1个〕make—made—made〔11〕改变元、辅音字母。〔4个〕leave—left—leftstand—stood—stoodhave(has)—hadunderstand—understood—understood3.A—B—C型,即原形、过去式、过去分词都不一样。〔共35个〕〔1〕i—a—u变化。〔6个〕begin—began—begundrink—drank—drunksing—sang—sungring—rang—rungswim—swam—swumsink—sank—sunk〔2〕词尾为-ow,-aw时,过去式将其变为-ew,过去分词在其原形后加n。〔5个〕blow—blew—blowndraw—drew—drawngrow—grew—grownknow—knew—knownthrow—threw—thrown〔show除外〕〔3〕词尾为“i+辅〔1个〕+e〞,过去式将i变为o,过去分词多在原形后加n,假设那个辅音字母为d或t,须双写d或t后加n。〔4个〕〔give,hide除外〕drive—drove—drivenwrite—wrote—writtenride—rode—riddenrise—rose—risen〔4〕过去分词在过去式后加〔e〕n。〔5个〕break—broke—brokenchoose—chose—chosenfreeze—froze—frozenspeak—spoke—spokenwake—woke—woken〔5〕过去分词由过去式加-ten构成。〔1个〕forget—forgot—forgotten〔6〕过去分词由原形加〔e〕n构成。〔6个〕be—was〔were〕—beeneat—ate—eatenfall—fell—fallengive—gave—givensee—saw—seenhide—hid—hidden〔hid〕〔7〕词尾为-ake时,过去式将其变为-ook,过去分词在原形词后加-n。〔2个〕take—took—takenmistake—mistook—mistaken〔8〕原形、过去式和过去分词都不一样。〔6个〕do—did—donefly—flew—flowngo—went—gonelie—lay—lainshow—showed—shownwear—wore—worn4.A—A—B型,即过去式和原形一样。〔1个〕beat—beat—beaten5.A—B—A型,即过去分词和原形一样。〔3个〕e—came—ebee—became—beerun—ran—run6.情态动词型,只有原形和过去式,没有过去分词。〔4个〕can—couldmay—mightwill—wouldshall—should版本二:分组记忆〔1〕 〔2〕〔3〕 〔4〕〔5〕 〔6〕〔7〕 〔8〕〔9〕〔10〕〔11〕 〔12〕〔14〕〔15〕 〔16〕四、用法详解1、一般现在时1〕用法:〔1〕表示现在经常、习惯或反复发生的动作,或表示现在的状态,常和often,always,usually,sometimes,everyday等表示频率的时间状语连用。例:Hegoestoschooleveryday.Heisveryhappy.〔2〕表示客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例:Columbusprovedthattheearthisround.Theearthmovesaroundthesun.〔3〕用于格言或警句中。例:Pridegoesbeforeafall.骄者必败。〔4〕表示现存的性质、特征或状态。例:Thesituationisencouraging.〔5〕表示主语的能力、性格、个性、兴趣。例:AnnwritesgoodEnglishbutdoesnotspeakwell.Sheisawarm-heartedgirl.〔6〕在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。例:①IwilltellyouwhenLiMinges.②I’llyouassoonasIgettoBeijing.2〕构成:be(am,is,are)do(do,does)频度副词:always频度副词:always–usually–often–sometimes–hardly-neverevery…(everyday,everyweek/month/year)once/twice/threetimesaday/week/yearonweekdays/weekends/Mondays,inthemorning/afternoon/evening3〕时间状语:2、一般过去时1〕用法:〔1〕用于表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday,lastweek,threeyearsago,in1987,atthetime,inJuly。Wheredidyougojustnow?〔2〕表示在过去一段时间,经常性或习惯性的动作。WhenIwasachild,Ioftenplayedfootballinthestreet.WherevertheBrownswentduringtheirvisit,theyweregivenawarmwele.2〕构成:be(was,were)do(did)3〕时间状语:yesterday…(yesterdaymorning)…ago(threedaysago)yesterday…(yesterdaymorning)…ago(threedaysago)last…(lastmonth、year)in+过去的时间点〔in2010〕thedaybeforeyesterday(前天)justnow(刚刚)…whenhewas8…and/but/solikeditverymuch.3、一般将来时1〕用法:〔1〕will/shall+动词原形表示未来的动作或状态。〔shall用于第一人称,will+动词原形,在述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。〕常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如tomorrow,nextweek等。WhichparagraphshallIread?WewillhaveaclassmeetingnextFriday.Therewillbealectureintheauditoriumthisafternoon.Willyoubeathomeatseventhisevening?〔2〕begoingto+动词原形,表示将来。a.主语的意图,即将做某事。Whatareyougoingtodotomorrow?b.计划,安排要发生的事。Theplayisgoingtobeproducednextmonth.c.有迹象要发生的事Lookatthedarkclouds,thereisgoingtobeastorm.〔3〕用现在进展时表示将来:意为:“意图〞、“打算〞、“安排〞,常用于人。常用词为e,go,start,arrive,leave,stay等。I’mleavingtomorrow.Areyoustayingheretillnextweek?〔4〕一般现在时表将来:如下动词:e,go,arrive,leave,start,begin,return的一般现在时表将来。主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。如:Thetrainleavesatsixtomorrowmorning.Whendoesthebusstart?Itstartsintenminutes.在时间或条件句中如:WhenBilles(不是wille),askhimtowaitforme.I’llwritetoyouassoonasIarrivethere.be+不定式表将来:按计划、安排即将发生的动作;表吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性。如:WearetodiscussthereportnextSaturday.〔6〕beabout〔副词〕+不定式,意为马上做某事,强调紧迫性。HeisabouttoleaveforBeijing.注意:beaboutto不能与tomorrow,nextweek等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。2〕构成:will/shall+动词原形〔do/be〕begoingto+动词原形〔do/be〕其他时态或结构表一般将来时tomorrow…(tomorrowmorning)next…(nextmonth)in+将来的时间段tomorrow…(tomorrowmorning)next…(nextmonth)in+将来的时间段(intwohours两小时后〕thedayaftertomorrow(后天)infuture…〔今后,将来〕主将从现:if(如果)assoonas(一….就….)等4、现在进展时1〕用法:〔1〕表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。如:Wearewaitingforyou.〔2〕习惯进展:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进展。如:Mr.Greeniswritinganothernovel(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)〔3〕表示渐变的动词有:get,grow,bee,turn,run,go,begin等。如:Theleavesareturningred.It’sgettingwarmerandwarmer.〔4〕与always,constantly,forever等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。如:Youarealwayschangingyourmind.2〕构成:be〔am/is/are〕+doingnow,atthemoment〔此刻〕,look!,listen!atpresentnow,atthemoment〔此刻〕,look!,listen!atpresent〔目前〕,thesedays,语境5、过去进展时1〕用法:〔1〕表示过去某时正在进展的状态或动作。HewasmakingalongdistancephonecalltohisfriendinAustraliafrom10to11lastnight.〔2〕过去进展时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。(由when和while引导的时间状语从句中)如:WhenIgottothetopofthemountain,thesunwasshining.Mybrotherfellwhilehewasridinghisbicycleandhurthimself.2〕构成:be〔was/were〕+doingthismorning,thewholemorning,alldayyesterday,fromninetotenlastevening,then,atthattime,thistimeyesterday,attenyesterdaywhen,whilethismorning,thewholemorning,alldayyesterday,fromninetotenlastevening,then,atthattime,thistimeyesterday,attenyesterdaywhen,while引导的时间状语从句中atpresent〔目前〕,thesedays,语境6、现在完成时1〕用法:〔1〕现在完成时的第一种用法表示已发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。常和以下时间状语连用:already〔已经〕,yet〔还〕,just〔刚刚〕,before〔以前〕,ever〔曾经〕,never〔从来没有〕,recently等。如:Ihaveseenthefilmalready.我已经看过那部电影了。 —Haveyoufoundyourlostpenyet?你已经找到你丢失的钢笔了吗? —No.Ihaven’tfoundityet.没。我还没有找到。〔2〕现在完成时的第二种用法表示过去开始的动作延续到现在,并有可能继续下去。常和以下时间状语连用:since+时间点〔自从〕,for+时间段,sofar,inthelast/pastfewyears,uptonow等。如:Shehasbeenadancerfortenyears.她已当了十年的舞蹈演员了。We’veplantedthousandsoftreesinthepastfewyears.过去几年我们种了成千上万棵树。2〕构成:have(has)+过去分词donealready〔已经,用于肯定句〕,yet〔还,用于否认句和疑问句〕just〔刚刚〕,before〔以前〕,ever〔曾经〕,never〔从来没有〕recently〔最近〕,since+时间点〔自从。。。〕,for+时间段,sofar〔到目前为止〕,inthelast/pastfewyearsalready〔已经,用于肯定句〕,yet〔还,用于否认句和疑问句〕just〔刚刚〕,before〔以前〕,ever〔曾经〕,never〔从来没有〕recently〔最近〕,since+时间点〔自从。。。〕,for+时间段,sofar〔到目前为止〕,inthelast/pastfewyears〔在过去的几年里〕,uptonow〔直到现在〕等。4〕与一般过去时的区别:〔1〕时间状语:一般过去时与具体时间状语连用;现在完成时与模糊时间状语连用或无时间状语。〔2〕用法区别:一般过去时单纯描述过去,强调动作本身;现在完成时强调动作对现在造成的影响。Isawthisfilmyesterday.〔强调看的动作发生过了,单纯描述过去,与现在无关。〕Ihaveseenthisfilm.〔强调对现在的影响,电影的容已经知道了。〕5〕havebeento,havegoneto和havebeenin/athavebeento去过某地,表示某人的一种经历,和once,twice,already,ever,never等时间状语连用。 e.g.ShehasbeentoShanghaitwice.〔表示目前她人在这里〕havegoneto去某地了,说话时某人已离开此地,在去某地的途中或已在某地。 e.g.ShehasgonetoShanghai.〔表示现在她人不在这里〕havebeenin/at逗留在某地〔已经一段时间〕,常和fortendays,sinceIcamehere等连用。 e.g.ShehasbeeninShanghaisinceshemovedthere.6〕暂短性动词〔终止性动词/点动词/非延续性动词〕和延续性动词的转化如:I’veleftShanghaiforthreedays.〔×〕I’vebeenawayfromShanghaiforthreedays.〔√〕.IleftShanghaithreedaysago.〔√〕常考常见的暂短性动词和延续性动词的转化:常考常见的暂短性动词和延续性动词的转化:open—beopen die—bedead close—beclosed bee—be borrow—keep begin/start—beon puton—wear leave—beaway(from) buy—have sleep/fallasleep—beasleep end/finish—beover catchacold—haveacold eback—beback getup—beup e/go/arrive/get/reach/move—bein/atjoin—bein/beamemberof7、过去完成时1〕用法:过去完成时指的是到过去某个时间已经完成的动作或状态。也就是“过去的过去〞。—-|——-|—--|—->过去的过去过去现在Bythetimeshegottoclass,theteacherhadalreadystartedteaching.Whenshegottoschool,sherealizedshehadleftherbackpackathome.2〕构成:had+过去分词〔done〕byyesterday,bytheendoflastweek,bythetimehewasten,beforeIcamebefore,by,until,when,after,once,assoonas3〕byyesterday,bytheendoflastweek,bythetimehewasten,beforeIcamebefore,by,until,when,after,once,assoonas8、过去将来时1〕用法:过去将来时表示从过去某一时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。这一时态多用在宾语从句中,表示从句动作发生在主句动作之后。Theyweresurethattheywouldsucceed.2〕构成:would+动词原形was/weregoingto+动词原形【小试牛刀】1.—WherewereyoulastSaturday?—I____intheCapitalMuseum.A.am B.willbe C.was D.havebeen2.—MayIspeaktotheheadmaster?—He____ameetingnow.CanItakeamessage?A.ishaving B.had C.has D.willhave3.I____Mr.SmithsincehemovedtoShanghai.A.didn’thearfrom B.don’thearfromC.won’thearfrom D.haven’theardfrom4.PaulandI________tennisyesterday.HedidmuchbetterthanI. A.play B.willplay C.played D.areplaying5.Where’sTom?Hismother_________himnow. A.islookingfor B.willlookfor C.haslookedfor D.looksfor6.IwillsendyouanassoonasI_________inCanada. A.arrive B.arrived C.amarriving D.willarrive7.Myauntisawriter.She________morethantenbookssince1980. A.writes B.wrote C.haswritten D.willwrite8.–Whatwereyoudoingthistimeyesterday?–I______onthegrassanddrawingapicture. A.A.sit B.sat C.amsitting D.wassitting9.—What’syourfatherdoingnow?—He_______________theroom. A.cleaned B.cleans C.hascleaned D.iscleaning10.Tomwillcallmeassoonashe_________________home. A.gets B.hasgot C.got D.willget答案:1-5CADCA6-10ACDDA1.—Let'sdiscusstheplan,shallwe?—Notnow.I_____toaninterview.A.go B.went C.amgoing D.wasgoing2.—WherewereyoulastSaturday?—I____intheCapitalMuseum.A.am B.willbe C.was D.havebeen3.—MayIspeaktotheheadmaster?—He____ameetingnow.CanItakeamessage?A.ishaving B.had C.has D.willhave4.I____Mr.SmithsincehemovedtoShanghai.A.didn’thearfrom B.don’thearfromC.won’thearfrom D.haven’theardfrom5.Jenny inthekitchenwhenyoucalledherat5o'clockthisafternoon.A.iscookingB.wascookingC.cooks D.Cooked6.Ifourgovernment_______attentiontocontrollingfoodsafetynow,ourhealth_____indanger.A.won'tpay;isB.doesn'tpay;isC.won'tpay;willbeD.doesn'tpay;willbe7.—Ican’tfindTedforthreedays.Whereishe?—He_______Beijingforameeting.A.hasbeentoB.hasgonetoC.havebeentoD.havegoneto8.Lucy______astudentlastyear,butnowshe______ateacher.A.is;is B.was;isC.was;willbeD.is;was9.—Wereyouathomeat9:00lastnight?Icalledyoubutnobodyanswered.—Sorry,I______atthattime.A.takeashower B.tookashowerC.wastakingashowerD.amtakingashower10.—Mum, Ican'tfindmyshoes.—Hurryup!Yourfather______forus.A.iswaiting B.waited C.waits D.willwait11.—Iwasatthecinemaatnineo’clockyesterdayevening.Whataboutyou?—I________TVathome.A.amwatchingB.waswatchingC.willwatch D.watched12.MrWangisn’there,Ithinkhe___________Guiyang.A.hasgonetoB.hasbeentoC.goes D.went13.—Icalledyoulastnight,butyoudidn’tanswerit.—I’mterriblysorry.I______ameetingatthattime.A.had B.washaving C.amhaving14.Benisaforeignteacher.Sofar,he___________inShiyanforfiveyears.A.wasteaching B.hastaught C.willteach D.taught15.-What’shisbrother?-Heisateacher.Hemathsataschool.A.taughtB.hastaughtC.teachesD.willteach16.-WhereisMrBlack?Ihavesomethingimportanttotellhim.-Youcan’tfindhim.HeHongKong.A.willgotoB.wouldgotoC.hasgonetoD.hasbeento17.-Iwonderifthepsychologistwilletoourschoolthisweekend.-Ifhe,wewillbeveryexcited.A.eB.esC.willeD.came18.—DoyouknowthemovingstoryofJackandRose?—Ofcourse.IthefilmTitanicseveraltimes.A.see B.saw C.haveseen D.hadseen19.—Wouldyouliketowatchthethree-DfilmTitanicwithme?—Certainly.Idon’tmindseeingitagainalthoughIittwice.A.sawB.wasseenC.haveseenD.hadseen20.—IsawMrSmithintheofficeattenyesterdaymorning.—That’simportant.HeanEnglishpartywithusthen.A.hasB.hadC.washavingD.hashad21.一Whatwouldyoudoifit______tomorrow?一Wehavetocarryiton,sincewe’vegoteverythingready.A.israining B.rainsC.willrain D.rain22.Iftherobotwrong,youcangetanewoneforfreeorgetallyourmoneyback.A.went B.goes C.wouldgo D.willgo23.—MayIspeaktoMrWang?—Sorry.Heaspeechnow.Pleasecalllater.A.givesB.gaveC.willgiveD.isgiving24.IknowalittleaboutThailand,asItherethreeyearsago.A.havebeenB.havegoneC.willgoD.went25.ThereportersaidthattheUFOeasttowestwhenhesawit.A.travels B.traveled C.wastravelingD.hastraveled26.—HaveyoueverbeentoSingapore?—Yes.Itherelastyearwithmyparents.A.go B.went C.havebeen D.wasgoing27.—Whyareyouinsuchahurry,John?—ThereabasketballmatchbetweenClassThreeandourclassintenminutes.A.isgoingtobe B.isgoingtohave C.willhave D.willhold28.—YouwerenotinwhenIwenttoyouyesterday.—Oh,I_____forafriendfromEnglandattheairportatthatmoment.A.hadwaitedB.waswaitingC.amwaitingD.havewaited29.AliceinWonderland_____for15daysandmanyofuslikethefilmverymuch.A.beginsB.hasbegunC.beganD.hasbeenon30.—Hello,Mary!ThisisJohn.YoumustknowwhyI______you.—Oh,hello,John!I’vewaitedforthiscallsincelastmonth.A.calledB.amcallingC.wascallingD.havecalled31.—Hello,mum.AreyoustillonLushanMountain?—Oh,no.wearebackhome.We________areallygoodjourney.A.haveB.hadC.arehavingD.willhave32.—Haven’tItoldyouthatyoushouldbehomeearlier?—Yes,butIhomeearlierthanIusuallydo.A.wasingB.willeC.cameD.hade33.—I’mafraidtheclasshasbegun.—Don’tworry.It_____untilthebell______.A.doesn’tbegin;ringsB.won’tbegin;willringC.won’tbegin;ringsD.doesn’tbegin;willring

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