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非谓语动词笔记

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1、非谓语动词1.非谓语动词的形式以动词do为例动词不定式动词的-ing形式动词过去分词一般式to dodoingdone一般被动式to be donebeing done完成式to have donehaving done完成被动式to have been donehaving been done进行式to be doing完成进行式to have been doing2.非谓语动词在句子中的作用主语宾语表语定语状语补语动词不定式 动词的-ing形式 动词过去分词 动词不定式1用作主语(1)常用it作形式主语 e.g. To learn a foreign language well is no。

2、t easy. It(形式主语)is not easy to learn a foreign language well.(真正主语)(2)不定式的逻辑主语有两种情况用for sb.或of sb.It is adj. for sb. to do(强调to do 的动作)It is adj. of sb. to do(强调sb.的品质特征)e.g. It is kind of you to help me in time. It is hard for you to help me in time. 2用作宾语(1)接不定式作宾语的动词常用的有afford, agree, ask, at。

3、tempt, beg, care, choose, dare, decide, desire, determine, expect, hope, manage, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish等e.g. He managed to send his son to study abroad, although he was not rich.(2)常用it作形式宾语 e.g. Do you think it necessary to go there3用作表语(1)一般说来,不定式做表语,相当于名词,说明主语的内容e.g. My。

4、 job is to drive the car. All she would do was to go home.(2)不定式作表语,要求保持句子的平衡,即主语为不定式,表语也必须用不定式e.g. To see is to believe.4用作宾补e.g. I warned the boy not to be late again. (1)感官动词hearsee noticeobserve sb do(省略to的不定式)表示经常地、习惯的动作或全过程watchlisten tolook at(2)使役动词havemake sb./ sth. do 省略to的不定式let e.g. I。

5、 noticed her enter the office. We heard him sing every day.注意在被动语态中to必须还原。 5 用作定语(1)不定式作定语时,表示即将发生的动作e.g. I have nothing to write (2)序数词、形容词最高级或被only, last, next等词修饰的名词可以用不定式作定语。e.g. He is always the first person to come and the last one to leave.The next person to attend the meeting is Dr. Baker.3 。

6、下列名词经常带不定式作定语。如person, man, thing, something, anything, nothing, time, way, reason, chance, courage, opportunity等。e.g. We students should have the courage to face any difficulty.He had no reason to leave his friends and live alone on the island.(4)不定式动词是不及物动词,则须加适当的介词。如e.g. I need a pen to write wit。

7、h. They have a large house to live in. There is nothing for you to worry about.(5)不定式只能作后置定语,而且当名词有其他定语修饰时,不定式放在其他定语之后。 e.g. That is the way he thought of to solve the problem.6 用作状语 1 目的状语相当于in order to; so as to e.g. He stopped to talk to an old man.目的(2)原因状语用于表示情感方面的形容词作表语之后,即 be adj. to do,而且这。

8、种结构不定式多为主动语态。 e.g. He was happy to hear the news.原因The fish is delicious to eat. The chair is comfortable to sit on. 3 结果状语只表示出乎意料的结果,常和only连用e.g. I bought an expensive computer home yesterday only to find it used. 结果7 用在疑问词后面,即wh- to do,构成不定式复合结构,相当于名词,作主语、宾语和表语。e.g. The question is where to get a 。

9、computer.表语 I really dont know what to do.宾语 How to get rid of the pollution is still a problem.主语8不定式的时态 to do(一般现在时)to be doing(进行时)to have done(完成时/过去式)e.g. He pretended to be listening attentivelyHe pretended not to have seen me.He is said to have gone abroad.9 不定式的语态当不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的发出者时,。

10、不定式一般要用主动形式,反之用被动形式e.g. He asked to be sent to the front.I have much work to do. 10. 高中阶段常见的不定式短语be able to do, be about to do, used to do, be glad to do, would like to do, be likely to do, go all out to do something(全力以赴),be supposed to do(应该)等。11. 含不定式的悬垂结构,也可以称它们为插入语。如to tell you the truth 说实话 to。

11、 be frank 坦率地说 to begin with 首先 to be brief 简言之 to make a long story short 长话短说 to be exact 精确地说 to say nothing of 姑且不说 to conclude 总而言之 to be sure 诚然、固然 to do him justice 说句对他公道的话 so to speak 可以这么说、打个譬喻说 e.g. To tell you the truth, I hate him. To be frank, I dont agree with what you said. 动词的-ing形式。

12、 动词的-ing形式相当于名词、形容词、副词等,也保留了动词的某些特征。1作主语(1)-ing作主语,谓语动词用单数形式e.g. Talking is easier than doing.Saying is easier than doing.(2)可以用it作形式主语e.g. It is no use crying over spilt milk. Its a waste of time arguing about it.3 ing 逻辑主语的形式有两种形容词性物主代词和s属格e.g. His being late again made the teacher angry.Toms fail。

13、ing in the exam made himself upset. (4)There is no ing 结构e.g. There is no joking about such matters. There is no holding back the wheel of history. 2. 作表语e.g. Seeing is believing.(平衡结构) The story is moving.3作宾语1-ing逻辑主语的形式有四种,即形容词性物主代词,s属格,代词宾格和名词普通格。e.g. I cant imagine his/him/Jack/Jacks being so 。

14、rude to a lady.(2)只接动名词作宾语的常用动词 mind, suggest , enjoy, admit , appreciate, avoid, delay, dislike, escape, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, miss, practice, resist, risk , deny, cant help, admit, feel like, mention, put off, cant stand,等e.g. Would you mind my closing the window They dont feel like walk。

15、ing that much.3接-ing作宾语的短语如look forward to 渴望,盼望 be proud of 以自豪 be responsible for 对负责 insist on 坚持 think of 考虑,想到 dream of 梦想 object to 反对,抗议 hear of 听说 preventfrom 防止,阻止 keepfrom 防止,阻止 stopfrom 防止,阻止 be engaged in 从事于 depend on 依靠,依赖 thankfor 因而道谢 excusefor 因而道歉 aim at 目的在于 devoteto 献身于 set about。

16、 着手做 be/get used to 习惯于 be fond of 喜欢 be afraid of 害怕 be tired of 对厌烦 succeed in 成功地做 be ashamed of 对感到羞愧 contribute to 捐助、贡献 get down to( 着手做 give way to 让位于 keep to 坚持、遵守 lead to 导致 turn to 求助于 stick to 忠于、坚持 point to 指向、表明 see to 注意、处理 be equal to 等于 (4)下列动词接to do和-ing的区别 stop/ go on doing(同一件事)。

17、 to do(另一件事)consider doing(考虑) to do(认为)mean doing(意味着) to do(打算做)try doing尝试(新事物/新方法) to do试着去做(不一定成功)advise / allow / permit / forbid doing sb. to doremember / forget / allow doing(做过的事) to do (将要做的事)cant help doing忍不住 to do(无法帮助)(5)-ing主动形式表示被动意义的结构be worth doing / n.(值得)need / re。

18、quire / want doing (需要被) need / require / want to be donee.g. The flowers need watering.The flowers need to be watered.4作宾补1-ing作使役动词的补语 have sb /sth do get sb to do doing keep sb / sth doing done 让做/ 让被做e.g. They had the fire burning all the night.He had his hair cut yesterday.2-ing作感官动词的补。

19、语 seehearnotice sb / sth doing 强调动作正在进行watch sb do(省略to的不定式)表示经常地、习惯的动作或强调全过程look at sb / sth done (表示被动关系)listen to observee.g. I saw them coming across the road.(3)-ing在leave, keep, set, catch, find等动词后面和一个名词或代词构成一个复合宾语,表示主动关系e.g. Last night the shopkeeper caught a child stealing some food in 。

20、the shop.注意在主动语态中,补语形式和宾语保持一致 在被动语态中,补语形式和主语保持一致e.g. Lily was never heard singing that song again.We were kept waiting for quite a long time.5作定语(1)单个的ing分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面,可以表示所修饰名词的特征与用途,也可以表示所修饰名词是-ing动作的发出者。如reading room swimming pool a waiting car a sleeping child the exciting news a boring speec。

21、h (2)ing分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面,也相当于一个定语从句。如e.g. Who is the comrade standing by the door that are standing by the doore.g. They lived in a house facing south . which faces south.3 不定式作定语时,表示即将发生的动作-ing分词作定语时,表示正在发生的动作动词的过去分词作定语时,表示已经完成的动作。如e.g. The question to be discussed this afternoon is very important。

22、. The question discussed last night is very important. The question being discussed now is very important.4 使-ing分词作定语时,表示事物的性质或特征;使动词的过去分词作定语时,表示人的心理状态。如an exciting event 扣人心弦的事件 an excited speech 激动的话语an interesting story 有趣的故事 an interested boy 感兴趣的男孩a surprising gift 意想不到的礼物 a surprised cry 感到吃惊。

23、的叫声a moving deed 一件感人的事迹 a moved group很受感动的人群a frightening dog 令人害怕的狗 a frightened boy 感到害怕的男孩an exhausting job令人疲倦的工作 an exhausted expression 疲惫的表情an embarrassing situation 令人尴尬的处境 an embarrassed behavior 不自在的行为注意区分-ing与-ed,主要看所修饰名词和定语动作的关系,主动关系用-ing,被动关系用-ed.6 作状语1 ing分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随。

24、情况等,所以可以和when, while, although, unless, if 等连词连用。e.g. Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood.(时间) Not knowing his address, I cant send this book to him.(原因)His father died, leaving him a lot of money. (结果)They stood there for half an hour,watching the stars in the sky.(伴随)A person stand。

25、ing at the foot of a high mountain will find himself very small.(条件)Although knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 让步(2)-ing作状语,它和句子句子主语之间必须是主动关系,反之要用-ed, e.g. Seen from the top of the hill, the city looked like a big garden.Deeply moved by the story, the excited people stopped quarrell。

26、ing with each other(3)-ing作状语时,若状语动作和句子谓语动作同时发生,或不强调先后顺序,状语用一般式,即doing;若状语动作发生在谓语动作之前,存在时间差,状语要用完成式,即having donee.g. Having saved enough money, the boy was able to buy his mother a gift.Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy.(4)-ing的被动形式为being done和having been donee.g. Having been told many。

27、 times, he still made the same mistake. 5否定式在其前面加not e.g. Not knowing what to do, he turned to his teacher for help.独立主格1.分词作状语时,状语动作和句子主语之间必须存在逻辑关系,而独立主格的状语动作和句子主语无关,它有自己的逻辑主语,所以独立主格的状语形式取决于它自己的逻辑主语,而且它和主句之间不能使用任何连词e.g. Weather permitting, well have a sports meet next week.He was listening attentiv。

28、ely in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. There being no buses, we had to walk home.Many trees, flowers, and grass to be planted, our newly-built school will look more beautiful.2. with引导的独立主格结构with sb./ sth doing done to doe.g. The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit.。

29、 With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy.They slept, with the lights burning.悬垂结构分词短语在句子中作状语时,其逻辑主语既不是整个句子的主语,也没有自己的逻辑主语,就被认为是一个语言失误,这种结构被叫作悬垂结构,常在句中做插入语。如 generally speaking(一般来说) judging from(根据来判断) considering/ allowing for(考虑到)talking of(谈到,提到) supposing/ supposed(假如)e.g. Judging。

30、 from his accent, he must come from Canada. Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.过去分词ed分词动词的-ed分词即过去分词,是由动词的过去分词构成,一般只有一种形式。1过去分词作表语,主要表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态。如Dont touch the glass because it is broken. He is quite pleased with the design of the dress. 2过去分词做定语(1)单个。

31、的过去分词作定语一般放在名词的前面,相当于一个定语从句。如e.g. The excited people rushed into the building. We need more qualified teachers.(2)过去分词短语作定语通常放在被修饰的词后面,相当于一个定语从句。如e.g. Is there anything planned for tomorrow The suggestion made by the foreign expert was adopted by the manager.The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular。

32、 with many Chinese people.The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success.3 过去分词做状语过去分词和-ing分词作状语一样,也可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。e.g. Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party.Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up th。

33、e struggle.Given another chance, he will do better. If heated, water can be turned into steam.Laughed at by many people, he continued his study.The old man went into the room, supported by his wife.Seated at the table, my father and I were talking about my job.4 过去分词作补足语e.g. When will you go to the hospital and have your tooth examined When you are making a speech, you should speak louder to make yourself heard.One of the glasses was found broken. 。

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